3,113 results match your criteria Biology letters[Journal]


Associations between neurochemical receptor genes, 2D:4D, impulsivity and relationship quality.

Biol Lett 2018 Dec 5;14(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Social and Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Anna Watts Building, Radcliffe Observatory, Woodstock Road, Quarter, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK.

The ratio between the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been widely used as a proxy for fetal exposure to androgens and has been linked to a number of sociosexual traits in humans. However, the role of genes in this equation remains unknown. Here ( = 474), we test, firstly, for associations between 2D:4D and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine neurochemical receptor genes (), and secondly, whether digit ratios mediate the relationship between genetic variation and sociosexuality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303519PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Sex mosaics in the honeybee: how haplodiploidy makes possible the evolution of novel forms of reproduction in social Hymenoptera.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Behaviour and Genetics of Social Insects Laboratory, Ecology and Evolution, University of Sydney, Macleay Building A12, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

Hymenoptera are haplodiploid: females arise from fertilized, diploid eggs, while males arise from unfertilized, haploid eggs. The cytogenetic mechanisms underlying haplodiploidy enable remarkable phenomena including female cloning, male cloning and gynandromorphy (sex mosaics). We collected 11 newly emerged putative gynandromorph honeybees from a single colony, assessed the sex of various tissues morphologically and determined the genetic origin (maternal or paternal) of each tissue by genotyping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283916PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Flight feather moult drives minimum daily heart rate in wild geese.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK.

Waterfowl undergo an annual simultaneous flight-feather moult that renders them flightless for the duration of the regrowth of the flight feathers. In the wild, this period of flightlessness could restrict the capacity of moulting birds to forage and escape predation. Selection might therefore favour a short moult, but feather growth is constrained and presumably energetically demanding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283923PMC
November 2018
1 Read

More partners, more ranges: generalist legumes spread more easily around the globe.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S3B2.

How does mutualism affect range expansion? On the one hand, mutualists might thrive in new habitats thanks to the resources, stress tolerance or defence provided by their partners. On the other, specialized mutualists might fail to find compatible partners beyond their range margins, limiting further spread. A recent global analysis of legume ranges found that non-symbiotic legumes have been successfully introduced to more ranges than legumes that form symbioses with rhizobia, but there is still abundant unexplained variation in introduction success within symbiotic legumes. Read More

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http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283934PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Differential response to heat stress among evolutionary lineages of an aquatic invertebrate species complex.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Unit of Ecology and Ecosystem Modelling, University of Potsdam, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany.

Under global warming scenarios, rising temperatures can constitute heat stress to which species may respond differentially. Within a described species, knowledge on cryptic diversity is of further relevance, as different lineages/cryptic species may respond differentially to environmental change. The species complex (Rotifera), which was recently described using integrative taxonomy, is an essential component of aquatic ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283924PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Microplastic leachates impair behavioural vigilance and predator avoidance in a temperate intertidal gastropod.

Authors:
Laurent Seuront

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

CNRS, Univ. Lille, Univ. Littoral Côte d'Opale, UMR 8187, LOG, Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences, F 62930 Wimereux, France

Microplastics are a ubiquitous source of contaminations in marine ecosystems, and have major implications for marine life. Much effort has been devoted to assessing the various effects of microplastics on marine life. No evidence exists, however, on the effects of microplastic leachates on chemically mediated predator-prey interactions and the ability of prey to detect and avoid its predator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283917PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Robust quantification of fish early life CO sensitivities via serial experimentation.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Road, 06340 Groton, CT,, USA.

Despite the remarkable expansion of laboratory studies, robust estimates of single species CO sensitivities remain largely elusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of 20 CO exposure experiments conducted over 6 years on offspring of wild Atlantic silversides () to robustly constrain CO effects on early life survival and growth. We conclude that early stages of this species are generally tolerant to CO levels of approximately 2000 µatm, likely because they already experience these conditions on diel to seasonal timescales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283935PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Intrinsic pre-zygotic reproductive isolation of distantly related pea aphid host races.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Human activities may weaken or destroy reproductive isolation between young taxa, leading to their fusion with consequences for population and community ecology. Pea aphid host races are adapted to different legume taxa, providing a degree of pre-mating isolation mediated by habitat choice. Yet, all races can feed and reproduce on the broad bean (), a major crop which represents a 'universal host plant', which can promote hybridization between races. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283932PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

The thin(ning) green line? Investigating changes in Kenya's seagrass coverage.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 28;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.

Knowledge of seagrass distribution is limited to a few well-studied sites and poor where resources are scant (e.g. Africa), hence global estimates of seagrass carbon storage are inaccurate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283928PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

An exceptionally preserved association of complete dinosaur skeletons reveals the oldest long-necked sauropodomorphs.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 21;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Centro de Apoio à Pesquisa Paleontológica da Quarta Colônia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, São João do Polêsine, RS 598, 97230-000, Brazil.

The rise of sauropodomorphs is still poorly understood due to the scarcity of well-preserved fossils in early Norian rocks. Here, we present an association of complete and exceptionally well-preserved dinosaur skeletons that helps fill that gap. They represent a new species, which is recovered as a member of a clade solely composed of Gondwanan Triassic taxa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283919PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

The adaptive shaping of social behavioural phenotypes during adolescence.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 21;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Muenster, Badestrasse 13, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

Developmental behavioural plasticity is a process by which organisms can alter development of their behavioural phenotype to be better adapted to the environment encountered later in life. This 'shaping' process depends on the presence of reliable cues by which predictions can be made. It is now established that cues detected by the mother can be used (primarily via hormones prenatally and maternal behaviour in the early postnatal stage) to shape the behavioural phenotype of her offspring. Read More

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http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283921PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Independent origins of female penis and its coevolution with male vagina in cave insects (Psocodea: Prionoglarididae).

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 21;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Biology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8521, Japan.

The cave-dwelling psocid tribe Sensitibillini (, and ) is of special morphological and evolutionary interest because of its possession of reversed copulatory organs: i.e. females of and have a penis-like organ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283922PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Pollinivory and the diversification dynamics of bees.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 14;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Pollinivory-the consumption of pollen rather than arthropod prey-is a defining feature of bees (Anthophila; the flower lovers). In virtually all bee species, larvae consume a diet composed of pollen mixed with nectar or floral oils. Bees arose from within a group of solitary, carnivorous, apoid wasps in the Early to Mid-Cretaceous, coincident with the rapid rise of flowering plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283915PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Negative biotic interactions drive predictions of distributions for species from a grassland community.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 14;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, University College London, London, UK.

Understanding the factors that determine species' geographical distributions is important for addressing a wide range of biological questions, including where species will be able to maintain populations following environmental change. New methods for modelling species distributions include the effects of biotic interactions alongside more commonly used abiotic variables such as temperature and precipitation; however, it is not clear which types of interspecific relationship contribute to shaping species distributions and should therefore be prioritized in models. Even if some interactions are known to be influential at local spatial scales, there is no guarantee they will have similar impacts at macroecological scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283927PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Aeroecology of a solar eclipse.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 14;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Light cues elicit strong responses from nearly all forms of life, perhaps most notably as circadian rhythms entrained by periods of daylight and darkness. Atypical periods of darkness, like solar eclipses, provide rare opportunities to study biological responses to light cues. By using a continental scale radar network, we investigated responses of flying animals to the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283920PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Soil inorganic carbon in mangroves of tropical China: patterns and implications.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 14;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520, People's Republic of China.

Soil inorganic carbon (IC) is neglected in most blue carbon studies despite the globally significant role of the calcium carbonate cycle in ocean C balance and climate change. We sampled soils to 1 m depth from seven mangrove reserves in Hainan Island, China. Only 45 out of 509 samples were rich in IC (greater than 10 mg cm). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283926PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

The structure of temperate phage-bacteria infection networks changes with the phylogenetic distance of the host bacteria.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 14;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

With their ability to integrate into the bacterial chromosome and thereby transfer virulence or drug-resistance genes across bacterial species, temperate phage play a key role in bacterial evolution. Thus, it is paramount to understand who infects whom to be able to predict the movement of DNA across the prokaryotic world and ultimately the emergence of novel (drug-resistant) pathogens. We empirically investigated lytic infection patterns among spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283929PMC
November 2018
18 Reads

A wood-warbler produced through both interspecific and intergeneric hybridization.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 7;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.

Hybridization between divergent taxa can provide insight into the breakdown of characters used in mate choice, as well as reproductive compatibility across deep evolutionary timescales. Hybridization can also occur more frequently in declining populations, as there is a smaller pool of conspecific mates from which to choose. Here, we report an unusual combination of factors that has resulted in a rare, three-species hybridization event among two genera of warblers, one of which is experiencing significant population declines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283930PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Reproductive resilience of an estuarine fish in the eye of a hurricane.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 7;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Marine Science, The University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas, TX 78373, USA

Spatial and temporal patterns of spawning activity are important measures of resilience in fishes that directly link environmental disturbances with reproductive success. We acoustically monitored spawning in spotted seatrout () from April through September 2017 at 15 sites near Port Aransas, Texas, which coincided with the landfall of a category 4 hurricane (Harvey) on 25 August. Spawning sounds were recorded every day of the study across all sites and were also confirmed during the hurricane at two sites located within the eye of the storm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283918PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Colour pattern predicts outcome of female contest competition in a sexually monomorphic fish.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 7;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Institute of Biology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

Selection arising from social competition over non-mating resources, i.e. resources that do not directly and immediately affect mating success, offers a powerful alternative to sexual selection to explain the evolution of conspicuous ornaments, particularly in females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283925PMC
November 2018
25 Reads

A well-preserved respiratory system in a Silurian ostracod.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 7;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP, UK.

Ostracod crustaceans are diverse and ubiquitous in aqueous environments today but relatively few known species have gills. Ostracods are the most abundant fossil arthropods but examples of soft-part preservation, especially of gills, are exceptionally rare. A new ostracod, (Myodocopa), from the marine Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte (430 Mya), UK, preserves appendages, lateral eyes and gills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283931PMC
November 2018
15 Reads

Walking crowds on a shaky surface: stable walkers discover Millennium Bridge oscillations with and without pedestrian synchrony.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 31;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Why did the London Millennium Bridge shake when there was a big enough crowd walking on it? What features of human walking dynamics when coupled to a shaky surface produce such shaking? Here, we use a simple biped model capable of walking stably in three dimensions to examine these questions. We simulate multiple such stable bipeds walking simultaneously on a bridge, showing that they naturally synchronize under certain conditions, but that synchronization is not required to shake the bridge. Under such shaking conditions, the simulated walkers increase their step widths and expend more metabolic energy than when the bridge does not shake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227871PMC
October 2018
1 Read

High mortality in aquatic predators of mosquito larvae caused by exposure to insect repellent.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 31;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA.

In the face of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, effective mosquito control is a primary goal for public health. Insect repellents, containing active compounds such as DEET and picaridin, are a first defence against biting insects. Owing to widespread use and incomplete sewage treatment, these compounds are frequently detected in surface waters, but their effects on aquatic taxa such as mosquito larvae or their naturally occurring aquatic predators are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227861PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Social cues can push amphibious fish to their thermal limits.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 31;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada

Social context can impact how animals respond to changes in their physical environment. We used an aggressive, amphibious fish, the mangrove rivulus () with environmentally determined sociality to test the hypothesis that social interactions would push fish to their thermal limits. We capitalized on the propensity of rivulus to emerge from warming water and demonstrated that social stimuli, produced by their reflection, increased emersion threshold without changing the critical thermal maximum, effectively diminishing thermal safety margins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227855PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Factors influencing organic carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 31;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales 2450, Australia.

There is growing interest in the capacity of mangrove ecosystems to sequester and store 'blue carbon'. Here, we provide a synthesis of 66 dated sediment cores with previously calculated carbon accumulation rates in mangrove ecosystems to assess the effects of environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Conserved sedimentary environments were found to be within the range of the current global average for sediment accretion (approx. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227860PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Resource dispersion influences dispersal evolution of highly insulated insect communities.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 31;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India

Communities in which species are obligately associated with a single host are ideal to test adaptive responses of community traits to host-imposed selection because such communities are often highly insulated. Fig species provide oviposition resources to co-evolved fig-wasp communities. Dispersing fig-wasp communities move from one host plant to another for oviposition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227868PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Dolphins simplify their vocal calls in response to increased ambient noise.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 24;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD, USA

Ocean noise varies spatially and temporally and is driven by natural and anthropogenic processes. Increased ambient noise levels can cause signal masking and communication impairment, affecting fitness and recruitment success. However, the effects of increasing ambient noise levels on marine species, such as marine mammals that primarily rely on sound for communication, are not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227850PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Mangrove blue carbon strategies for climate change mitigation are most effective at the national scale.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 24;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

Carbon fixed by vegetated coastal ecosystems (blue carbon) can mitigate anthropogenic CO emissions, though its effectiveness differs with the spatial scale of interest. A literature review compiling carbon sequestration rates within key ecosystems confirms that blue carbon ecosystems are the most efficient natural carbon sinks at the plot scale, though some overlooked biogeochemical processes may lead to overestimation. Moreover, the limited spatial extent of coastal habitats minimizes their potential at the global scale, only buffering 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227866PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Learning from others: an invasive lizard uses social information from both conspecifics and heterospecifics.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 17;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia.

Species that are able to solve novel problems through social learning from either a conspecific or a heterospecific may gain a significant advantage in new environments. We tested the ability of a highly successful invasive species, the Italian wall lizard , to solve a novel foraging task when social information was available from both a conspecific and an unfamiliar heterospecific (). We found that Italian wall lizards that had access to social information made fewer errors, regardless of whether the demonstrator was a conspecific or a heterospecific, compared to Italian wall lizards that individually learnt the same task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227858PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Rates of population differentiation and speciation are decoupled in sea snakes.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 17;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia

Comparative phylogeography can inform many macroevolutionary questions, such as whether species diversification is limited by rates of geographical population differentiation. We examined the link between population genetic structure and species diversification in the fully aquatic sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) by comparing mitochondrial phylogeography across northern Australia in 16 species from two closely related clades that show contrasting diversification dynamics. Contrary to expectations from theory and several empirical studies, our results show that, at the geographical scale studied here, rates of population differentiation and speciation are not positively linked in sea snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227852PMC
October 2018
1 Read

In that vein: inflated wing veins contribute to butterfly hearing.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 17;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Biology, Carleton University, Nesbitt Building, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6

Insects have evolved a diversity of hearing organs specialized to detect sounds critical for survival. We report on a unique structure on butterfly wings that enhances hearing. The Satyrini are a diverse group of butterflies occurring throughout the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227864PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Genetic trade-offs between male reproductive traits in .

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 17;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5.

In , males engage in both extensive pre- and post-copulatory competition for the opportunity to mate with females and subsequently sire offspring. The selection pressure for increased male reproductive success has resulted in the evolution of a wide diversity of sexual traits. However, despite strong selection, individuals often exhibit considerable phenotypic variation in the expression of these traits, and it is unclear if any of this variation is owing to underlying genetic trade-offs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227854PMC
October 2018
16 Reads

Water-repellent plant surface structure induced by gall-forming insects for waste management.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 17;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan

Many animals and plants have evolved elaborate water-repellent microstructures on their surface, which often play important roles in their ecological adaptation. Here, we report a unique type of water-repellent structure on a plant surface, which develops as an insect-induced plant morphology in a social context. Some social aphids form galls on their host plant, in which they produce large amounts of hydrophobic wax. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227865PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Dogs accompanied humans during the Neolithic expansion into Europe.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 17;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

CNRS/MNHN/SUs - UMR 7209 AASPE, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.

Near Eastern Neolithic farmers introduced several species of domestic plants and animals as they dispersed into Europe. Dogs were the only domestic species present in both Europe and the Near East prior to the Neolithic. Here, we assessed whether early Near Eastern dogs possessed a unique mitochondrial lineage that differentiated them from Mesolithic European populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227856PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

Experimental evidence for reduced male allocation under selfing in a simultaneously hermaphroditic animal.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 10;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Bielefeld University, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany

Self-fertilization is widespread among simultaneously hermaphroditic animals and plants, but is often only facultatively deployed under circumstances that constrain outcrossing. A central prediction of sex allocation (SA) theory is that because exclusive selfing reduces sperm or pollen competition to zero, this should favour extreme economy in resources channelled to the male sex function. We can therefore expect that organisms switching from outcrossing to selfing should reduce their male allocation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227870PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Inclusive fitness for in-laws.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 10;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Anthropology, University College London, 14 Taviton Street, London WC1H 0BW, UK.

Cooperation among kin is common across the natural world and can be explained in terms of inclusive fitness theory, which holds that individuals can derive indirect fitness benefits from aiding genetically related individuals. However, human kinship includes not only genetic kin but also kin by marriage: our affines (in-laws) and spouses. Can cooperation between these genetically unrelated kin be reconciled with inclusive fitness theory? Here, we argue that although affinal kin and spouses do not necessarily share genetic ancestry, they may have shared genetic interests in future reproduction and, as such, can derive indirect fitness benefits though cooperating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227869PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Environmental heterogeneity promotes spatial resilience of phototrophic biofilms in streambeds.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 10;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Stream Biofilm and Ecosystem Research Laboratory, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique F́edérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

The loss of environmental heterogeneity threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. It is therefore important to understand the relationship between environmental heterogeneity and spatial resilience as the capacity of ecological communities embedded in a landscape matrix to reorganize following disturbance. We experimented with phototrophic biofilms colonizing streambed landscapes differing in spatial heterogeneity and exposed to flow-induced disturbance. Read More

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http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227859PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Genetic data reveal mixed-stock aggregations of gray whales in the North Pacific Ocean.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 10;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905, USA.

Gray whales () in the Western Pacific are critically endangered, whereas in the Eastern Pacific, they are relatively common. Holocene environmental changes and commercial whaling reduced their numbers, but gray whales in the Eastern Pacific now outnumber their Western counterparts by more than 100-fold. Herein, we investigate the genetic diversity and population structure within the species using a panel of genic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227853PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Phylogenetic non-independence in rates of trait evolution.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 3;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 3.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6BX, UK

Statistical non-independence of species' biological traits is recognized in most traits under selection. Yet, whether or not the evolutionary rates of such biological traits are statistically non-independent remains to be tested. Here, we test the hypothesis that phenotypic evolutionary rates are non-independent, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227862PMC
October 2018
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Fish in habitats with higher motorboat disturbance show reduced sensitivity to motorboat noise.

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 3;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK.

Anthropogenic noise can negatively impact many taxa worldwide. It is possible that in noisy, high-disturbance environments, the range and severity of impacts could diminish over time, but the influence of previous disturbance remains untested in natural conditions. This study demonstrates the effects of motorboat noise on the physiology of an endemic cichlid fish in Lake Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227867PMC
October 2018
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Is callose required for silicification in plants?

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 3;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 3.

The Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK

The cell wall polymer callose catalyses the formation of silica and is heavily implicated in biological silicification in (horsetail) and (thale cress) Callose, a β-1,3-glucan, is an ideal partner for silicification, because its amorphous structure and ephemeral nature provide suitable microenvironments to support the condensation of silicic acid into silica. Herein, using scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence, we provide further evidence of the cooperative nature of callose and silica in biological silicification in rice, an important crop plant and known silica accumulator. These new data along with recently published research enable us to propose a model to describe the intracellular events that together determine callose-driven biological silicification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227863PMC
October 2018
14 Reads

Blue carbon: past, present and future, with emphasis on macroalgae.

Authors:
John Raven

Biol Lett 2018 Oct 3;14(10). Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Division of Plant Science, University of Dundee at the James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DQ, UK

Blue carbon did not originally include macroalgal ecosystems; however evidence is mounting that macroalgal ecosystems function in marine carbon sequestration. The great majority of present day marine macroalgal net primary productivity (NPP) involves haptophytic algae on eroding shores. For these organisms the long-term storage of particulate organic carbon involves export from the site of production of biomass that has evaded parasites and grazers, and that some of the exported biomass is sedimented and stored rather than being mineralized by detritivores (microbes and fauna). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227851PMC
October 2018
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Higher divorce risk when mates are plentiful? Evidence from Denmark.

Biol Lett 2018 Sep 26;14(9). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Sociology Department, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Work from social and biological sciences has shown that adult sex ratios are associated with relationship behaviours. When partners are abundant, opportunities for mate switching may increase and relationship stability decrease. To date, most of the human literature has used regional areas at various levels of aggregation to define partner markets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170753PMC
September 2018
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Comparing chimpanzees' preparatory responses to known and unknown future outcomes.

Biol Lett 2018 Sep 26;14(9). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

When humans plan for the future, we recognize not only that one particular event may occur, but that the future can have different, mutually exclusive possible outcomes. A recent study by Suddendorf (Suddendorf 2017 , 20170170 (doi:10.1098/rsbl. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170764PMC
September 2018
10 Reads

Optimal soil carbon sampling designs to achieve cost-effectiveness: a case study in blue carbon ecosystems.

Biol Lett 2018 Sep 26;14(9). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Researchers are increasingly studying carbon (C) storage by natural ecosystems for climate mitigation, including coastal 'blue carbon' ecosystems. Unfortunately, little guidance on how to achieve robust, cost-effective estimates of blue C stocks to inform inventories exists. We use existing data (492 cores) to develop recommendations on the sampling effort required to achieve robust estimates of blue C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170757PMC
September 2018
8 Reads

Diversification dynamics of mammalian clades during the K-Pg mass extinction.

Biol Lett 2018 Sep 26;14(9). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil.

The Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K-Pg) episode is an iconic mass extinction, in which the diversity of numerous clades abruptly declined. However, the responses of individual clades to mass extinctions may be more idiosyncratic than previously understood. Here, we examine the diversification dynamics of the three major mammalian clades in North America across the K-Pg. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170748PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Carotenoid-based skin ornaments reflect foraging propensity in a seabird, .

Biol Lett 2018 Sep 26;14(9). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

Carotenoid-based ornaments are common signalling features in animals. It has long been proposed that such ornaments communicate information about foraging abilities to potential mates. However, evidence linking foraging with ornamentation is largely missing from unmanipulated, free-ranging populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170756PMC
September 2018
13 Reads

Vision fine-tunes preparation for landing in the cane toad, .

Biol Lett 2018 Sep 26;14(9). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Mount Holyoke College, 50 College Street, South Hadley, MA 01075, USA.

In toad hopping, the hindlimbs generate the propulsive force for take-off while the forelimbs resist the impact forces associated with landing. Preparing to perform a safe landing, in which impact forces are managed appropriately, likely involves the integration of multiple types of sensory feedback. In toads, vestibular and/or proprioceptive feedback is critical for coordinated landing; however, the role of vision remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170760PMC
September 2018
1 Read