304 results match your criteria Biology Of Sex Differences[Journal]


Sex differences in stress and immune responses during confinement in Antarctica.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Apr 16;10(1):20. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Laboratory of Translational Research "Stress and Immunity", Marchioninistraße 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Background: Antarctica challenges human explorers by its extreme environment. The effects of these unique conditions on the human physiology need to be understood to best mitigate health problems in Antarctic expedition crews. Moreover, Antarctica is an adequate Earth-bound analogue for long-term space missions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0231-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Correction to: National trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension among Iranian adolescents across urban and rural areas (2007-2011).

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Apr 15;10(1):18. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0234-xDOI Listing

Siah2 modulates sex-dependent metabolic and inflammatory responses in adipose tissue to a high-fat diet challenge.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Apr 15;10(1):19. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70808, USA.

Background: The obesity-related risk of developing metabolic syndrome is higher in males than in females of reproductive age, likely due to estrogen-mediated reduced adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis with hypertrophied adipocytes. Depletion of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 reduced white adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose metabolism in obese male mice. Siah2 is a transcriptional target of estrogen, but data is lacking about the effect of Siah2 on adipose tissue of females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0233-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Perspective and strategy interactively modulate sex differences in a 3D navigation task.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Apr 6;10(1):17. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology and Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstraße 34, A-5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Sex differences in navigation performance have been attributed to sex differences in information processing during navigation. Perspective refers to the viewpoint of the navigator, with previous work suggesting that men tend to use an allocentric perspective, while women tend to use an egocentric perspective during navigation. Furthermore, different navigation strategies may be used when moving from point A to B, with previous work suggesting that men tend to use a Euclidian strategy, while women tend to use a landmark-based strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0232-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451294PMC

Inflammatory responses to dietary and surgical weight loss in male and female mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Apr 3;10(1):16. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Weight loss by surgery or lifestyle changes is strongly recommended for obese individuals to improve metabolic health, but the underlying impairments that persist from a history of obesity remain unclear. Recent investigations demonstrate a persistent inflammatory state with weight loss and bariatric surgery, but the mechanism and impact are not fully understood. Additionally, these studies have not been performed in females although women are the majority of individuals undergoing weight loss interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0229-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446331PMC

National trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension among Iranian adolescents across urban and rural areas (2007-2011).

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Mar 29;10(1):15. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The current nationwide study, for the first time, aimed to assess and compare the trend of pre-hypertension and hypertension among urban and rural adolescents in Iran.

Methods: This study has been conducted in the framework of the National Surveys of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases. To estimate pre-hypertension and hypertension prevalence among 9715 adolescents, aged 15-19 years, data collected in four repeated cross-sectional surveys (2007-2011) has been used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0230-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439987PMC

Sex and genetic differences in postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a longitudinal cohort analysis.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Mar 29;10(1):14. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common postoperative complication experienced by patients aged 65 years and older, and these older adults comprise more than one third of the surgical patients in the USA. Because not everyone with a history of exposure to surgery and anesthesia develops POCD, there are likely major biological risk factors involved. There are important gaps in our knowledge regarding whether genetic makeup, biological sex, or other Alzheimer's disease risk factors predispose older adults to developing POCD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0228-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440164PMC
March 2019
1 Read

X-chromosome association study reveals genetic susceptibility loci of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Mar 25;10(1):13. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

Background: The male predominance in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) suggests the contribution of the X chromosome to the susceptibility of NPC. However, no X-linked susceptibility loci have been examined by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for NPC by far.

Methods: To understand the contribution of the X chromosome in NPC susceptibility, we conducted an X chromosome-wide association analysis on 1615 NPC patients and 1025 healthy controls of Guangdong Chinese, followed by two validation analyses in Taiwan Chinese (n = 562) and Malaysian Chinese (n = 716). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0227-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434801PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Hormonal regulation of circuit function: sex, systems and depression.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 02 28;10(1):12. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph (ON), 50 Stone Rd. E, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating chronic illness that is two times more prevalent in women than in men. The mechanisms associated with the increased female susceptibility to depression remain poorly characterized. Aberrant neuronal oscillatory activity within the putative depression network is an emerging mechanism underlying MDD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0226-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394099PMC
February 2019

Sex-specific lipid molecular signatures in obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions revealed by lipidomic characterization in ob/ob mouse.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Feb 26;10(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Center for Innovative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

The response to overfeeding is sex dependent, and metabolic syndrome is more likely associated to obesity in men or postmenopausal women than in young fertile women. We hypothesized that obesity-induced metabolic syndrome is sex dependent due to a sex-specific regulation of the fatty acid (FA) synthesis pathways in liver and white adipose depots. We aimed to identify distinctive molecular signatures between sexes using a lipidomics approach to characterize lipid species in liver, perigonadal adipose tissue, and inguinal adipose tissue and correlate them to the physiopathological responses observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0225-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390380PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Correction to: Female-biased sexual dimorphism of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 02 19;10(1):10. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Information Biology, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai City, Japan.

Following publication of the original article [1], we noticed a number of errors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0224-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381707PMC
February 2019

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ modulates energy homeostasis through inhibition of neurotransmission at VMN SF-1/ARC POMC synapses in a sex- and diet-dependent manner.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 02 12;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Background: Orphanin FQ (aka nociceptin; N/OFQ) binds to its nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor expressed in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC), a critical anorexigenic component of the hypothalamic energy balance circuitry. It inhibits POMC neurons by modifying neuronal excitability both pre- and postsynaptically. We tested the hypothesis that N/OFQ inhibits neurotransmission at synapses involving steroidogenic factor (SF)-1 neurons in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and ARC POMC neurons in a sex- and diet-dependent fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0220-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373052PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Sex-specific regulation of cardiac microRNAs targeting mitochondrial proteins in pressure overload.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 02 6;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Gender in Medicine and Center for Cardiovascular Research, and DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, Germany.

Background: Maladaptive remodeling in pressure overload (PO)-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) may lead to heart failure. Major sex differences have been reported in this process. The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol, along with its receptors ERα and ERβ, is thought to be crucial for sex differences and is expected to be protective, but this may not hold true for males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0222-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366038PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Sex-specific influence on cardiac structural remodeling and therapy in cardiovascular disease.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 02 4;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Physiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 50, 3584CM, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) culminating into heart failure (HF) are major causes of death in men and women. Prevalence and manifestation, however, differ between sexes, since men mainly present with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and post-menopausal women predominantly present with hypertension. These discrepancies are probably influenced by underlying genetic and molecular differences in structural remodeling pathways involved in hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0223-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360698PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Female-biased sexual dimorphism of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 01 28;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Information Biology, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai City, Japan.

Background: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains the highest density of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-producing neurons in the brain. CRF-immunoreactive neurons show a female-biased sexual dimorphism in the dorsolateral BNST in the rat. Since CRF neurons cannot be immunostained clearly with available CRF antibodies in the mouse, we used a mouse line, in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was inserted to the CRF gene, and the Neo cassette was removed, to examine the morphological characteristics of CRF neurons in the dorsolateral BNST. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0221-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350317PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Sex- and age-related changes in GABA signaling components in the human cortex.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 01 14;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Centre for Brain Research, Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Previous studies have shown fluctuations in expression levels of GABA signaling components-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GABA receptor (GABAR) subunit, and GABA transporter (GAT)-with increasing age and between sexes; however, this limited knowledge is highly based on animal models that produce inconsistent findings. This study is the first analysis of the age- and sex-specific changes of the GAD, GABAR subunits, and GAT expression in the human primary sensory and motor cortices; superior (STG), middle (MTG), and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG); and cerebellum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0214-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332906PMC
January 2019

Estrogen receptor profiles across tissues from male and female Rattus norvegicus.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 01 11;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Background: Estrogen is formed by the enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1) and signals via three identified receptors ERα (ESR1), ERß (ESR2), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Understanding the relative contribution of each receptor to estrogenic signaling may elucidate the disparate effects of this sex hormone across tissues, and recent developments in PCR technology allow absolute quantification and direct comparison of multiple targets. We hypothesized that this approach would reveal tissue- and sex-specific differences in estrogen receptor mRNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0219-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329134PMC
January 2019
11 Reads

The federal plan for health science and technology's response to the opioid crisis: understanding sex and gender differences as part of the solution is overlooked.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 01 7;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Women's Health Research at Yale, Yale University School of Medicine, 135 College Street, Suite, New Haven, CT, 220, USA.

The Fast-Track Action Committee on (the) Health Science and Technology Response to the Opioid Crisis recently released their draft report for public comment. This report provides the "roadmap" for a coordinated federal research and development response to the opioid crisis. Other than noting the important concerns regarding maternal and neonatal exposure to opioids, the report overlooks the laboratory, clinical, and epidemiological data that inform the need for further research on sex and gender differences in opioid addiction that have critical gender-based treatment and prevention implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0215-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322277PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Sex-related DNA methylation differences in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 01 7;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Background: Men are at higher risk of developing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) than women. DNA methylation has been shown to play important roles in a number of cancers. There are differences in the DNA methylation pattern between men and women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0213-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322323PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Afferent arteriole responsiveness to endothelin receptor activation: does sex matter?

Biol Sex Differ 2019 01 3;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Section of Cardio-Renal Physiology and Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 20th St S, 35233, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: The pathogenesis of hypertension is distinct between men and women. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potential contributor to sex differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension. ET-1 participates in blood pressure regulation through activation of endothelin A (ET) and endothelin B (ET) receptors including those in the vasculature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0218-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318859PMC
January 2019

Proteomics and multivariate modelling reveal sex-specific alterations in distinct regions of human carotid atheroma.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 12 29;9(1):54. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background: Atherosclerotic lesions are comprised of distinct regions with different proteomic profiles. Men and women develop differences in lesion phenotype, with lesions from women generally being more stable and less prone to rupture. We aimed to investigate the differences in proteomic profiles between sexes, including distinct lesion regions, to identify altered proteins that contribute to these differences observed clinically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0217-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311011PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Reproducibility in animal models of hypertension: a difficult problem.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 12 22;9(1):53. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Physiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 39216-4505, USA.

In 2016, the National Institutes of Health mandated that all grant proposals enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. In the past few years, physiological outcomes in established animal models of hypertension, in particular in regard to sex differences, have varied from study to study or laboratory to laboratory. The aim of this commentary is to increase investigator awareness of caveats related to animal models that may be sensitive to vendor-, barrier-, or diet-specific changes that result in an inability to sustain the genotype and/or phenotype of well-established experimental models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0216-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303982PMC
December 2018

The relationship between epicardial adipose tissue and coronary artery stenosis by sex and menopausal status in patients with suspected angina.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 12 14;9(1):52. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Cardiology, Korea University Medical Center, Anam hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is closely related to coronary artery stenosis (CAS). However, sexual dimorphism may be present in adipose tissue, and its influence on CAS between men and women is controversial. We assessed the relationship between EAT and CAS by sex and menopausal status in patients with suspected angina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0212-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295015PMC
December 2018

Sex-related differences in the association between plasma fibrinogen and non-calcified or mixed coronary atherosclerotic plaques.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 12 5;9(1):51. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishi Street, Xi-Cheng District, Beijing, 100037, China.

Background: Plasma fibrinogen (FIB) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with non-calcified plaque (NCP) or mix plaque (MP) have a higher risk of poor outcomes. However, the association between FIB and the presence of NCP or MP (NCP/MP) remains unclear, and if present, whether sex has any impact on this association remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0210-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282270PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Sex differences in distribution of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), S100A6 and CacyBP/SIP in human ageing hearts.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 11 27;9(1):50. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Histology and Cytophysiology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.

Background: Women live about 4 years longer due to lower prevalence of cardiovascular complication with ageing. However, the mechanisms involved in the preservation of heart functionality in women have not been fully elucidated. The endocannabinoid system fulfils a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular system functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0209-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258148PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Sexually dimorphic metabolic responses mediated by CRF receptor during nutritional stress in mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 11 6;9(1):49. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for reproductive Sciences, and the Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave., HSE1645, Box 0556, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0556, USA.

Background: Chronic stress is a major contributor in the development of metabolic syndrome and associated diseases, such as diabetes. High-fat diet (HFD) and sex are known modifiers of metabolic parameters. Peptide hormones corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortins (UCN) mediate stress responses via activation and feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0208-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218963PMC
November 2018
19 Reads

Estrogen rescues heart failure through estrogen receptor Beta activation.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 10 30;9(1):48. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Molecular Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: Recently, we showed that exogenous treatment with estrogen (E2) rescues pre-existing advanced heart failure (HF) in mice. Since most of the biological actions of E2 are mediated through the classical estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and/or beta (ERβ), and both these receptors are present in the heart, we examined the role of ERα and ERβ in the rescue action of E2 against HF.

Methods: Severe HF was induced in male mice by transverse aortic constriction-induced pressure overload. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0206-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208048PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

Tissue-specific pathways and networks underlying sexual dimorphism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 10 22;9(1):46. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses benign steatosis and more severe conditions such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. This chronic liver disease has a poorly understood etiology and demonstrates sexual dimorphisms. We aim to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphisms in NAFLD pathogenesis through a comprehensive multi-omics study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0205-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196429PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Sex differences in lower urinary tract biology and physiology.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 10 22;9(1):45. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Females and males differ significantly in gross anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract, and these differences are commonly discussed in the medical and scientific literature. However, less attention is dedicated to investigating the varied development, function, and biology between females and males on a cellular level. Recognizing that cell biology is not uniform, especially in the lower urinary tract of females and males, is crucial for providing context and relevance for diverse fields of biomedical investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0204-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196569PMC
October 2018
14 Reads

Differences in discontinuation of statin treatment in women and men with advanced cancer disease.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 10 20;9(1):47. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Blickagången 16, Neo floor 7, SE-141 83, Huddinge, Sweden.

Background: Statins are often discontinued in patients with advanced cancer since the net effect of treatment is considered negative. However, guidelines concerning discontinuation of statin treatment are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate any differences in time of discontinuation of statin treatment between men and women with advanced cancer disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0207-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196002PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Sex influences the association between haemostasis and the extent of lung lesions in tuberculosis.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 10 10;9(1):44. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tuberculosis, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 507 Zhengmin Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: Worldwide tuberculosis (TB) reports show a male bias in morbidity; however, the differences in pathogenesis between men and women with TB, as well as the mechanisms associated with such differences, are poorly investigated. We hypothesized that comparison of the degree of lung injury and clinical indices of well-matched men and women with newly diagnosed TB, and statistical analysis of the correlation between these indices and the extent of lung lesions, can provide insights into the mechanism of gender bias in TB.

Methods: We evaluated the acid-fast bacilli grading of sputum samples and compiled computed tomography (CT) data of the age-matched, newly diagnosed male and female TB patients without history of smoking or comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0203-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180492PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Sex differences in ischemic heart disease and heart failure biomarkers.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 09 17;9(1):43. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Smidt Heart Institute, 127 S. San Vicente Blvd, Suite A3206, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Since 1984, each year, more women than men die of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF), yet more men are diagnosed. Because biomarker assessment is often the first diagnostic employed in such patients, understanding biomarker differences in men vs. women may improve female morbidity and mortality rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0201-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142320PMC
September 2018
9 Reads

Lean mass mediates the relation between temporal summation of pain and sex in young healthy adults.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 09 15;9(1):42. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Clinical and Translational Rehabilitation Health Sciences Program, Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Previous studies have shown that women experience greater temporal summation (TS) of pain than men using a repetitive thermal stimulus. These studies, however, did not individualize the thermal stimulus to each subject's thermal pain sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in TS using an individualized protocol and potential mediators that have been shown to influence TS including physical activity and body composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0200-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139152PMC
September 2018

Potential adverse effects of botanical supplementation in high-fat-fed female mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 09 12;9(1):41. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, 70808, USA.

Background: Insulin resistance underlies metabolic syndrome and is associated with excess adiposity and visceral fat accumulation, which is more frequently observed in males than females. However, in young females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising, mainly driven by accumulation of abdominal visceral fat. The degree to which sex-related differences could influence the development of insulin resistance remains unclear, and studies of potential therapeutic strategies to combat metabolic syndrome using rodent models have focused predominantly on males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0199-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134698PMC
September 2018
18 Reads

Sex-specific differences in hepatic steatosis in obese spontaneously hypertensive (SHROB) rats.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 09 10;9(1):40. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1030 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38104, USA.

Background: Patients with metabolic syndrome, who are characterized by co-existence of insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, are also prone to develop non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the prevalence and severity of NAFLD is significantly greater in men than women, the mechanisms by which gender modulates the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis are poorly defined. The obese spontaneously hypertensive (SHROB) rats represent an attractive model of metabolic syndrome without overt type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0202-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131947PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Effectiveness of online learning on health researcher capacity to appropriately integrate sex, gender, or both in grant proposals.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 08 29;9(1):39. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Institute of Gender and Health, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 4545 Queen Mary Road, Montreal, Quebec, H3W 1W5, Canada.

Background: To describe the effectiveness of online learning to augment academic capacity to consider sex and gender in the conduct of basic science, clinical research, and population health studies.

Method: The analysis compares pre- and post-test scores from 1441 individuals who completed the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Gender and Health's interactive e-learning modules between February 2016 and May 2017. The tests measured knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-reported intent to change behavior for three competencies: (1) the ability to appropriately define and distinguish between sex-related versus gender-related variables, (2) the application of methods for integrating sex and gender, and (3) the critical appraisal of sex and gender integration in the design, methods, and analysis plan of research proposals and publications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0197-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114804PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

Clinical and preclinical evidence of sex-related differences in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 08 29;9(1):38. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, 308 Harvard St S.E, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Anthracyclines are very effective chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used to treat pediatric and adult cancer patients. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of anthracyclines is limited by cardiotoxicity. There are several established risk factors for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC), including total cumulative dose, very young and very old age, concomitant use of other cardiotoxic agents, and concurrent mediastinal radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0198-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114275PMC
August 2018
24 Reads

Gonadectomy in Mito-Ob mice revealed a sex-dimorphic relationship between prohibitin and sex steroids in adipose tissue biology and glucose homeostasis.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 08 29;9(1):37. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Rm. 843 JBRC/715 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 3P4, Canada.

Background: Recently, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse model by overexpressing prohibitin (PHB) in adipocytes, which developed obesity due to upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes, hence named "Mito-Ob." Interestingly, only male Mito-Ob mice developed obesity-related impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, whereas female Mito-Ob mice did not. The observed sex differences in metabolic dysregulation suggest a potential involvement of sex steroids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0196-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114179PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Pro-angiogenic therapeutics for preeclampsia.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 08 25;9(1):36. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, 2500 N State St, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder resulting from abnormal placentation, which causes factors such as sFlt-1 to be released into the maternal circulation. Though anti-hypertensive drugs and magnesium sulfate can be given in an effort to moderate symptoms, the syndrome is not well controlled. A hallmark characteristic of preeclampsia, especially early-onset preeclampsia, is angiogenic imbalance resulting from an inappropriately upregulated sFlt-1 acting as a decoy receptor binding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), reducing their bioavailability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0195-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109337PMC
August 2018
15 Reads

Sex differences in outcomes and associated factors among stroke patients with small artery occlusion in China.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 08 2;9(1):35. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, 6 Jizhao Road, Jinnan District, Tianjin, 300350, China.

Background: Sex differences in outcomes after small artery occlusion (SAO) stroke have not been well described, particularly in a Chinese population. We aimed to assess sex differences in outcomes and related risk factors among patients with SAO.

Methods: All consecutive patients with SAO were recruited between May 2005 and September 2014. Read More

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https://bsd.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13293-018-01
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0194-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090906PMC
August 2018
20 Reads

Sex-associated differences in mitochondrial function in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and brain.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 07 25;9(1):34. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Nutrition in Prevention and Therapy, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Giessen, Wilhelmstr. 20, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and it affects more women than men. Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) plays a key role in AD, and it is detectable at an early stage of the degenerative process in peripheral tissues, such as peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). However, whether these changes are also reflected in cerebral energy metabolism and whether sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function occur are not clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0193-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060503PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Sex gap in aging and longevity: can sex chromosomes play a role?

Biol Sex Differ 2018 07 17;9(1):33. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Laboratoire "Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive"- UMR 5558, CNRS / Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

It is well known that women live longer than men. This gap is observed in most human populations and can even reach 10-15 years. In addition, most of the known super centenarians (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0181-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6050741PMC
July 2018
12 Reads

Production of amphiregulin and recovery from influenza is greater in males than females.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 07 17;9(1):24. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Amphiregulin (AREG) is an epidermal growth factor that is a significant mediator of tissue repair at mucosal sites, including in the lungs during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Previous research illustrates that males of reproductive ages experience less severe disease and recover faster than females following infection with IAV.

Methods: Whether males and females differentially produce and utilize AREG for pulmonary repair after IAV infection was investigated using murine models on a C57BL/6 background and primary mouse and human epithelial cell culture systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0184-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048771PMC
July 2018
31 Reads

Sex differences in the traumatic stress response: the role of adult gonadal hormones.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 07 13;9(1):32. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 108 Giltner Hall, 293 Farm Lane, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Background: Our previous study revealed that adult female rats respond differently to trauma than adult males, recapitulating sex differences in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibited by women and men. Here, we asked two questions: does the female phenotype depend on (1) social housing condition and/or (2) circulating gonadal hormones?

Methods: For the first study, the effects of single prolonged stress (SPS) were compared for females singly or pair-housed. For the second study, adult male and female rats were gonadectomized or sham-gonadectomized 2 weeks prior to exposure to SPS, with half the gonadectomized rats given testosterone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0192-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6043950PMC
July 2018
21 Reads

Sex differences in the traumatic stress response: PTSD symptoms in women recapitulated in female rats.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 07 5;9(1):31. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 108 Giltner Hall, 293 Farm Lane, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects men and women differently. Not only are women twice as likely as men to develop PTSD, they experience different symptoms and comorbidities associated with PTSD. Yet the dearth of preclinical research on females leaves a notable gap in understanding the underlying neuropathology of this sex difference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0191-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034295PMC

Human osteoblasts exhibit sexual dimorphism in their response to estrogen on microstructured titanium surfaces.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 07 3;9(1):30. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601 West Main Street, Richmond, VA, 23284-3068, USA.

Background: Osseointegration is dependent on the implant surface, surrounding bone quality, and the systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. Titanium (Ti) implants with microstructured surfaces exhibit greater pullout strength when compared to smooth-surfaced implants and exhibit enhanced osteogenic cellular responses in vitro. Previous studies showed that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)D] has a greater effect on rat osteoblast differentiation on microstructured Ti compared to smooth Ti surfaces and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0190-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029108PMC

Is the cross-over effect of a unilateral high-intensity leg extension influenced by the sex of the participants?

Biol Sex Differ 2018 06 28;9(1):29. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: While performing a unilateral muscle contraction, electrical muscle activity also arises in the contralateral homologous muscle, muscle group, or limb. When the muscle contraction induces muscle fatigue, females show not only a greater resistance than males but also a reduced contralateral muscle activation. The study aimed at investigating whether, during a high-intensity 30-s unilateral maximal effort isometric leg extension exercise, the contralateral non-exercising limb (NEL) knee extensor muscle activation would differ between females and males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0188-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022493PMC

Sex differences in body composition and association with cardiometabolic risk.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 06 27;9(1):28. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Yawkey 6E, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Body composition differs between men and women, with women having proportionally more fat mass and men more muscle mass. Although men and women are both susceptible to obesity, health consequences differ between the sexes. The purpose of our study was to assess sex differences in body composition using anatomic and functional imaging techniques, and its relationship to cardiometabolic risk markers in subjects with overweight/obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0189-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022328PMC
June 2018
28 Reads

Sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 06 20;9(1):27. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Av. Universidad 3000, Coyoacán, 04510, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Background: Sex differences are important epidemiological factors that impact in the frequency and severity of infectious diseases. A clear sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections has been reported in both humans and animal models. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in this gender bias are just starting to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0187-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011518PMC
June 2018
21 Reads

Sex and strain dependent differences in mucosal immunology and microbiota composition in mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2018 06 18;9(1):26. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Division of Medical Biology, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre Groningen, 9713, GZ, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0186-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006852PMC
June 2018
7 Reads