381 results match your criteria Biology Of Sex Differences[Journal]


Androgens' effects on cerebrovascular function in health and disease.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 30;11(1):35. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neuroscience & Experimental Therapeutics, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, MC-136, Albany, NY, 12208, USA.

Androgens affect the cerebral vasculature and may contribute to sex differences in cerebrovascular diseases. Men are at a greater risk for stroke and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) compared to women throughout much of the lifespan. The cerebral vasculature is a target for direct androgen actions, as it expresses several sex steroid receptors and metabolizing enzymes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00309-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328272PMC

Unfractionated heparin displaces sFlt-1 from the placental extracellular matrix.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 29;11(1):34. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N State St, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic protein which is secreted by numerous cell types and acts as a decoy receptor for the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Despite its physiologic importance in maintaining angiogenic balance, excess sFlt-1 levels are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases, especially those with angiogenic imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension. Although sFlt-1 is a soluble protein, it contains a binding site for the extracellular matrix component heparan sulfate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00311-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325113PMC

Sex differences in Alzheimer's-related Tau biomarkers and a mediating effect of testosterone.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 19;11(1):33. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Women show greater pathological Tau biomarkers than men along the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum, particularly among apolipoprotein ε-E4 (APOE4) carriers; however, the reason for this sex difference in unknown. Sex differences often indicate an underlying role of sex hormones. We examined whether testosterone levels might influence this sex difference and the modifying role of APOE4 status. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00310-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304096PMC

Sex differences in pharmacokinetics predict adverse drug reactions in women.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 5;11(1):32. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Psychology and Committee on Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Background: Women experience adverse drug reactions, ADRs, nearly twice as often as men, yet the role of sex as a biological factor in the generation of ADRs is poorly understood. Most drugs currently in use were approved based on clinical trials conducted on men, so women may be overmedicated. We determined whether sex differences in drug pharmacokinetics, PKs, predict sex differences in ADRs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00308-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275616PMC

Estrogen-related mechanisms in sex differences of hypertension and target organ damage.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 1;11(1):31. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Hypertension (HTN) is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events, target organ damage (TOD), premature death and disability worldwide. The pathophysiology of HTN is complex and influenced by many factors including biological sex. Studies show that the prevalence of HTN is higher among adults aged 60 and over, highlighting the increase of HTN after menopause in women. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00306-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268741PMC

Androgens and the developing hippocampus.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 1;11(1):30. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

The hippocampus is central to spatial learning and stress responsiveness, both of which differ in form and function in males versus females, yet precisely how the hippocampus contributes to these sex differences is largely unknown. In reproductively mature individuals, sex differences in the steroid hormone milieu undergirds many sex differences in hippocampal-related endpoints. However, there is also evidence for developmental programming of adult hippocampal function, with a central role for androgens as well as their aromatized byproduct, estrogens. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00307-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268439PMC

Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 05 25;11(1):29. Epub 2020 May 25.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Emerging evidence from China suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is deadlier for infected men than women with a 2.8% fatality rate being reported in Chinese men versus 1.7% in women. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00304-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247289PMC

Transcriptional analysis of the multiple Sry genes and developmental program at the onset of testis differentiation in the rat.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 May 12;11(1):28. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, 610 Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: The commonly used laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, is unique in having multiple Sry gene copies found on the Y chromosome, with different copies encoding amino acid variations that influence the resulting protein function. It is not clear which Sry genes are expressed at the onset of testis differentiation or how their expression correlates with that of other genes in testis-determination pathways.

Methods: Here, two independent E11-E14 developmental RNAseq datasets show that multiple Sry genes are expressed at E12-E13. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00305-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216353PMC

Fetal sex and maternal pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 May 11;11(1):26. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Since the placenta also has a sex, fetal sex-specific differences in the occurrence of placenta-mediated complications could exist.

Objective: To determine the association of fetal sex with multiple maternal pregnancy complications.

Search Strategy: Six electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, Web-of-Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify eligible studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00299-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216628PMC

Sex differences in traumatic stress reactivity in rats with and without a history of alcohol drinking.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 May 11;11(1):27. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Alcohol misuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and treatment outcomes are worse in individuals with both conditions. Although more men report experiencing traumatic events than women, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD is twice as high in females. Despite these data trends in humans, preclinical studies of traumatic stress reactivity have been performed almost exclusively in male animals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00303-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216391PMC

Sex- and growth-specific characteristics of small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 May 5;11(1):25. Epub 2020 May 5.

The Robinson Research Institute and Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Asymmetric fetal growth and male sex are both associated with adverse neonatal outcome. However, less is known about the influence of asymmetric growth and fetal sex within SGA neonates, a group of infants already at increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into variance in risk factors for SGA in a fetal sex- and growth symmetry-specific way. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00300-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201715PMC

The impact of sex and gender on immunotherapy outcomes.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 May 4;11(1):24. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Immunotherapies are often used for the treatment, remission, and possible cure of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. Empirical evidence illustrates that females and males differ in outcomes following the use of biologics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00301-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197158PMC

Sex-related differences in markers of immune activation in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 May 1;11(1):23. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: Gender-specific studies remain a neglected area of biomedical research. Recent reports have emphasized that sex-related biological factors may affect disease progression during HIV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sex on the levels of immune activation in the gut and in peripheral blood of individuals with HIV treated with fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00302-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195770PMC

Alterations of neural network organization during REM sleep in women: implication for sex differences in vulnerability to mood disorders.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 25;11(1):22. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Erasme Hospital, Department of Psychiatry and Sleep Laboratory, Université libre de Bruxelles, ULB, Route de Lennik, 808, 1070 Anderlecht, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Sleep plays an important role in vulnerability to mood disorders. However, despite the existence of sex differences in vulnerability to mood disorders, no study has yet investigated the sex effect on sleep network organization and its potential involvement in vulnerability to mood disorders. The aim of our study was to empirically investigate the sex effect on network organization during REM and slow-wave sleep using the effective connectivity measured by Granger causality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00297-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183628PMC

Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and cancer risk: a longitudinal study in Iran.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 25;11(1):21. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Yemen Street, Shahid Chamran Highway, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cancer is a major cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. A large number of studies have shown that some of the metabolic risk factors (MRFs) tend to cluster in individuals. We examined the synergistic effects of multiple MRFs and cancer risk among Iranian adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00296-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183600PMC

Social functioning outcomes in men and women receiving medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 23;11(1):20. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Social functioning (SF), the ability to engage with life and fulfill roles may be a salient "patient important outcome" in addiction treatment. It is not known if medication-assisted treatment (MAT) impacts SF in opioid use disorder (OUD). There is a growing evidence to suggest that men and women are impacted differently by OUD. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00298-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181574PMC

Age-period-cohort effects in pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases amongst primiparous women.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 19;11(1):19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, 1403 29 St NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 2T9, Canada.

Background: The average age at first birth is steadily increasing in developed countries; however, demographic shifts in maternal age at childbearing have not occurred in isolation. While temporal increases in adverse pregnancy outcomes are typically attributed to increases in maternal age, little is known about how maternal health status has changed across maternal age, period of delivery, and birth cohort.

Methods: Natality files were used to identify primiparous women delivering liveborn, singleton infants in the USA in 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014 (n = 6,857,185). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00293-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168828PMC

Sex differences in vascular aging in response to testosterone.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 15;11(1):18. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Bldg. L15 Rm 8111, 12631 East 17th Ave., PO Box 6511, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Large elastic arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction are phenotypic characteristics of vascular aging, a major risk factor for age-associated cardiovascular diseases. Compared to men, vascular aging in women appears to be slowed until menopause, whereafter vascular aging accelerates to match that seen in men. These sex differences in vascular aging have been attributed to changes in sex hormones that occur with aging. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00294-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161199PMC

Sex differences in cancer mechanisms.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 15;11(1):17. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

We now know that cancer is many different diseases, with great variation even within a single histological subtype. With the current emphasis on developing personalized approaches to cancer treatment, it is astonishing that we have not yet systematically incorporated the biology of sex differences into our paradigms for laboratory and clinical cancer research. While some sex differences in cancer arise through the actions of circulating sex hormones, other sex differences are independent of estrogen, testosterone, or progesterone levels. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00291-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161126PMC

Calorie intake is associated with weight gain during transition phase of nutrition in female extremely low birth weight infants.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 15;11(1):16. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA.

We sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, defined as a preterm infant with a birth weight of < 1000 g, is progressing from parenteral to enteral feeds. A retrospective review of ELBW infants born from 2014 to 2016 was performed at a tertiary NICU. Infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome, or chromosomal anomalies were excluded. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00295-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160909PMC

Ovarian status modulates cardiovascular autonomic control and oxidative stress in target organs.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 7;11(1):15. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Physiology Exercise Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Studies have presented conflicting findings regarding the association between both fluctuation and deprivation of ovarian hormones and cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress and their potential impact on resting arterial pressure (AP) and cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to assess cardiovascular autonomic modulation, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and oxidative stress in male rats (M) and in female rats during ovulatory (FOV) and non-ovulatory phases (FNOV) of the estrous cycle and after deprivation of ovarian hormones (FO). Direct AP was recorded, and BRS was assessed by using increasing doses of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00290-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140311PMC

Pregnancy-associated cardiac dysfunction and the regulatory role of microRNAs.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Apr 6;11(1):14. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, BH-550 CHS, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-7115, USA.

Many crucial cardiovascular adaptations occur in the body during pregnancy to ensure successful gestation. Maladaptation of the cardiovascular system during pregnancy can lead to complications that promote cardiac dysfunction and may lead to heart failure (HF). About 12% of pregnancy-related deaths in the USA have been attributed to HF and the detrimental effects of cardiovascular complications on the heart can be long-lasting, pre-disposing the mother to HF later in life. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00292-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137306PMC

Sex-specific and shared expression profiles of vulnerability and resilience to trauma in brain and blood.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Mar 30;11(1):13. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Genomics Program, Center for Global Health and Infectious Disease Research, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Blvd., Ste. 304, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Background: While post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined by behavioral/cognitive symptoms most directly relevant to brain function, it can be considered a systemic disorder characterized by a distinct inability to reinstate homeostasis after trauma.

Methods: In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of gene expression profiles in key PTSD-relevant tissues, namely blood, amygdala, and hippocampus, from a rat model of PTSD, to identify sex-specific and shared processes associated with individual differences in response to recent trauma exposure.

Results: Our findings suggest both shared and sex-specific mechanisms underlying individual differences associated with vulnerability and resilience to trauma in hippocampus, amygdala, and blood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00288-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106761PMC

Neuroprotective and neurotoxic outcomes of androgens and estrogens in an oxidative stress environment.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Mar 29;11(1):12. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology and Anatomy, Institute for Healthy Aging, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.

Background: The role of sex hormones on cellular function is unclear. Studies show androgens and estrogens are protective in the CNS, whereas other studies found no effects or damaging effects. Furthermore, sex differences have been observed in multiple oxidative stress-associated CNS disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-0283-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104511PMC

Early progression of pulmonary hypertension in the monocrotaline model in males is associated with increased lung permeability.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 03 18;11(1):11. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA.

Background: The mechanisms involved in pulmonary hypertension (PH) development in patients and pre-clinical models are poorly understood. PH has a well-established sex dimorphism in patients with increased frequency of PH in females, and more severe disease with poor survival prognosis in males. Previously, we found that heme signaling plays an essential role in the development phase of the Sugen/Hypoxia (SU/Hx) model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00289-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079376PMC

Obesity: sex and sympathetics.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 03 11;11(1):10. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, L-334, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in men, but not women. Here, we review current evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic sympathoexcitatory responses to leptin and insulin may contribute. More specifically, while insulin increases SNA similarly in lean males and females, this response is markedly amplified in obese males, but is abolished in obese females. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00286-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065372PMC

Effects of fasting on the expression pattern of FGFs in different skeletal muscle fibre types and sexes in mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 03 10;11(1). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines and Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target and Screening Research, Institute of Materia Medica of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) belong to a large family comprising 22 FGF polypeptides that are widely expressed in tissues. Most of the FGFs can be secreted and involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle function and structure. However, the role of fasting on FGF expression pattern in skeletal muscles remains unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00287-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063800PMC

Sex difference in dopamine D1-D2 receptor complex expression and signaling affects depression- and anxiety-like behaviors.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 02 22;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Depression and anxiety are more common among females than males and represent a leading cause of disease-related disability in women. Since the dopamine D1-D2 heteromer is involved in depression- and anxiety-like behavior, the possibility that the receptor complex may have a role in mediating sex differences in such behaviors and related biochemical signaling was explored.In non-human primate caudate nucleus and in rat striatum, females expressed higher density of D1-D2 heteromer complexes and a greater number of D1-D2 expressing neurons compared to males. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00285-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7035642PMC
February 2020

Long-term exercise results in morphological and biomechanical changes in coronary resistance arterioles in male and female rats.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 02 12;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, Üllői u. 78/a, Budapest, 1082, Hungary.

Background: Biomechanical remodeling of coronary resistance arteries in physiological left ventricular hypertrophy has not yet been analyzed, and the possible sex differences are unknown.

Methods: Wistar rats were divided into four groups: male and female sedentary controls (MSe and FSe) and male and female animals undergoing a 12-week intensive swim training program (MEx and FEx). On the last day, the in vitro contractility, endothelium-dependent dilatation, and biomechanical properties of the intramural coronary resistance arteries were investigated by pressure microarteriography. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-0284-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7017613PMC
February 2020

Sex differences in muscle activity and motor variability in response to a non-fatiguing repetitive screwing task.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 01 28;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine and Health Services Research, University Hospital Tübingen, University of Tübingen, Wilhelmstraße 27, DE-72074, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are more prevalent among women than among men, which may be explained by aspects of motor control, including neuromuscular requirements and motor variability. Using an exploratory approach, this study aimed to evaluate sex differences in neuromuscular responses and motor variability during a repetitive task performed on 3 days.

Methods: Thirty women and 27 men performed the non-fatiguing, repetitive, 1-h screwing task. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-0282-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988371PMC
January 2020

Sex-specific association between the gut microbiome and high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 01 20;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yong Waizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. However, the sex-specific characteristics of the gut microbiota and its association with a sexually dimorphic response to a HFD remain unclear.

Methods: Male and female mice were randomly assigned to receive a chow diet (CD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-0281-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971877PMC
January 2020

6β-Hydroxytestosterone, a metabolite of testosterone generated by CYP1B1, contributes to vascular changes in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in male mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 01 16;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 71 S. Manassas TSRB, Memphis, TN, 38103, USA.

Background: Previously, we showed that 6β-hydroxytestosterone (6β-OHT), a cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)-derived metabolite of testosterone, contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in male mice. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that 6β-OHT contributes to increased vascular reactivity, endothelial dysfunction, vascular hypertrophy, and reactive oxygen species production associated with Ang II-induced hypertension.

Methods: Eight- to 10-week-old intact or castrated C57BL/6 J (Cyp1b1 and Cyp1b1) mice were anesthetized for implantation of a micro-osmotic pump which delivered Ang II (700 ng/kg/day) or saline for 14 days. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0280-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966856PMC
January 2020

SeXY chromosomes and the immune system: reflections after a comparative study.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 01 14;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Ciencias Básicas, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Monterrey, Av. Ignacio Morones Prieto 4500 Pte., 66238, San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León, México.

Background: Sex bias in immune function has been contributed in part to a preponderance of immune system-related genes (ISRG) on the X-chromosome. We verified whether ISRG are more abundant on the X chromosome as compared to autosomal chromosomes and reflected on the impact of our findings.

Methods: Consulting freely accessible databases, we performed a comparative study consisting of three complementary strategies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0278-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958619PMC
January 2020

Estrogen modulation of pain perception with a novel 17β-estradiol pretreatment regime in ovariectomized rats.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 01 9;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Anesthesia, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Xueshi Road 1, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Estrogen plays substantial roles in pain modulation; however, studies concerning sex hormones and nociception often yield confusing results. The discrepancy could be a result of lack of consensus to regard estrogen as a variable when working with animal models; thus, the influence of hormones' fluctuations on nociception has continually been neglected. In the present study, we designed a novel hormone substitution model to aid us to evaluate the effects of estrogen's long-term alterations on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and the expression of estrogen receptors(ERs). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0271-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953313PMC
January 2020

Sex differences in the risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 01 3;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Diabetes is a strong risk factor for vascular disease. There is compelling evidence that the relative risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes is substantially higher in women than men. The mechanisms that explain the sex difference have not been identified. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0277-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942348PMC
January 2020

Novel human sex-typing strategies based on the autism candidate gene NLGN4X and its male-specific gametologue NLGN4Y.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 18;10(1):62. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

Background: Since the early days of PCR techniques, sex identification, "sex-typing," of genomic DNA samples has been a fundamental part of human forensic analysis but also in animal genetics aiming at strategic livestock breeding. Most analyses are employing the AMELX/AMELY gene loci on the X and Y chromosomes present in most mammals. We hypothesize that sex-typing in humans is also possible based on the genes NLGN4X and NLGN4Y, which represent X and Y chromosome-specific copies of a common ancestral neuroligin-4 orthologue. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0279-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6921425PMC
December 2019

Sex differences in the ability of corticostriatal oscillations to predict rodent alcohol consumption.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 18;10(1):61. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA.

Background: Although male and female rats differ in their patterns of alcohol use, little is known regarding the neural circuit activity that underlies these differences in behavior. The current study used a machine learning approach to characterize sex differences in local field potential (LFP) oscillations that may relate to sex differences in alcohol-drinking behavior.

Methods: LFP oscillations were recorded from the nucleus accumbens shell and the rodent medial prefrontal cortex of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0276-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6918672PMC
December 2019

Sex differences in clinical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 16;10(1):60. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women, but previous studies suggest that men with SLE present a more severe disease phenotype. In this study, we investigated a large and well-characterized patient group with the aim of identifying sex differences in disease manifestations, with a special focus on renal involvement.

Methods: We studied a Swedish multi-center SLE cohort including 1226 patients (1060 women and 166 men) with a mean follow-up time of 15. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0274-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915972PMC
December 2019

Cardiac hypertrophy with obesity is augmented after pregnancy in C57BL/6 mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 16;10(1):59. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

University of Kentucky, Department of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, 203 Funkhouser Bldg, Lexington, KY, 40506-0054, USA.

Background: Over a third of reproductive-age women in the USA are obese, and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising in premenopausal women. Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of CVD. In contrast to pregnancy, where transiently increased left ventricular (LV) mass is not associated with cardiac damage, obesity-mediated cardiac hypertrophy is pathological. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0269-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916003PMC
December 2019

The angiotensin II type I receptor contributes to impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation caused by placental ischemia in pregnant rats.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 11;10(1):58. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Background: Placental ischemia and hypertension, characteristic features of preeclampsia, are associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and cerebral edema. However, the factors that contribute to these cerebral abnormalities are not clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that angiotensin II can impact cerebrovascular function; however, the role of the renin angiotensin system in cerebrovascular function during placental ischemia has not been examined. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0275-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907203PMC
December 2019

Statistical methods for testing X chromosome variant associations: application to sex-specific characteristics of bipolar disorder.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 9;10(1):57. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) affects both sexes, but important sex differences exist with respect to its symptoms and comorbidities. For example, rapid cycling (RC) is more prevalent in females, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is more prevalent in males. We hypothesize that X chromosome variants may be associated with sex-specific characteristics of BD. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0272-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902568PMC
December 2019

Age-related sex differences in the expression of important disease-linked mitochondrial proteins in mice.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 5;10(1):56. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

The prevalence and progression of many illnesses, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and cancer, vary between women and men, often in an age-dependent manner. A joint hallmark of these diseases is some type of mitochondrial dysfunction. While several mitochondrial proteins are known to be regulated by sex hormones, the levels of those proteins have not been systematically analyzed with regard to sex and age, and studies that consider sex and/or age differences in the protein expression are very rare. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0267-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896328PMC
December 2019

Fetal growth outcomes following peri-implantation exposure of Long-Evans rats to noise and ozone differ by sex.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 2;10(1):54. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Cardiopulmonary Immunotoxicology Branch, Public Health & Integrated Toxicology Division, Center for Public Health & Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: Exposure to air pollution and high levels of noise have both been independently associated with the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight. However, exposure to such environmental stressors rarely occurs in isolation and is often co-localized, especially in large urban areas.

Methods: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of combined exposure to noise (N) or ozone (O), compared to either exposure alone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0270-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889602PMC
December 2019

Sex-specific association between the cortisol awakening response and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in healthy individuals.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 12 2;10(1):55. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Previous studies have shown associations between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (HPA). We aimed to investigate the association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and HPA axis functionality in a non-clinical sample and to explore whether there are sex differences in this relationship.

Methods: One hundred eighty-three healthy individuals without any psychiatric diagnosis (80 men, 103 women; mean age 41. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0273-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889548PMC
December 2019

Comparison of uterine fibroids' growth pattern during pregnancy according to fetal sex: an observational study.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 11 27;10(1):53. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Obstetrics and Gynecologic Section, Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via F. Corridoni, 11-60123, Ancona, Italy.

Background: To investigate the effect of fetal sex on fibroids' growth during pregnancy according to the hCG serum levels METHODS: Observational study conducted from January 2007 to December 2016 on women with ultrasound identification of uterine fibroids who had a pregnancy within 1 year from diagnosis. The fibroids diameter was determined during the pre-pregnancy ultrasound, early first trimester (5-7 weeks), late first trimester (11-13 weeks), second trimester (19-21 weeks), and third trimester (31-33 weeks). The diameter growth was calculated in each interval between two ultrasounds. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0266-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880545PMC
November 2019

The influence of biological sex and sex hormones on bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 11 27;10(1):52. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA.

Obesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strategies that aim to reduce serum cholesterol through modulation of liver enzymes have been successful in decreasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and reducing mortality. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, are considered among the most successful compounds developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0265-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880483PMC
November 2019

Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 11 21;10(1):51. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Diabetes Research Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Galectin-3 binding protein (Gal3BP), sCD163, galectin-3, and depression have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. In patients with type 1 diabetes, female sex has also been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aim was to explore whether female sex, sCD163, galectin-3, and depression were associated with Gal3BP in patients with type 1 diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0268-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868807PMC
November 2019

Neurochemical sex differences in adult ADHD patients: an MRS study.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 10 29;10(1):50. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. Relevant sex differences in symptomatology are discussed. This study compared brain neurometabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left cerebellar hemisphere in age- and IQ-matched adult male (mADHD) and female (fADHD) ADHD patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0264-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821019PMC
October 2019

Targeting senescence improves angiogenic potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with preeclampsia.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 09 14;10(1):49. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder characterized by impaired angiogenesis. We postulate that senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), multipotent cells with pro-angiogenic activities, is one of the mechanisms by which systemic inflammation exerts inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in preeclampsia.

Methods: MSC were isolated from abdominal fat tissue explants removed during medically indicated C-sections from women with preeclampsia (PE-MSC, n = 10) and those with normotensive pregnancies (NP-MSC, n = 12). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0263-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744626PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Sex differences in fetal growth and immediate birth outcomes in a low-risk Caucasian population.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 09 9;10(1):48. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

KU Leuven Department of Development and Regeneration: Pregnancy, Fetus and Neonate, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: According to the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group recommendations, boys and girls have different growth trajectories after birth. Our aim was to develop gender-specific fetal growth curves in a low-risk population and to compare immediate birth outcomes.

Methods: First, second, and third trimester fetal ultrasound examinations were conducted between 2002 and 2012. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0261-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734449PMC
September 2019