1,631,767 results match your criteria Biology Direct [Journal]
Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
C photosynthesis is a complex trait that boosts productivity in warm environments. Paradoxically, it evolved independently in numerous plant lineages, despite requiring specialised leaf anatomy. The anatomical modifications underlying C evolution have previously been evaluated through interspecific comparisons, which capture numerous changes besides those needed for C functionality. Read More
J Food Sci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Chungnam Natl. Univ., 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.
In this study, the phenolic components, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, of the ripe and unripe fruit of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) extracted using five different solvents (distilled water, 95% methanol, 80% methanol, 95% ethanol, and 80% ethanol) were analyzed. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were the highest in the 95% ethanol (149. Read More
Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Department of General Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
Many aging-associated physiological changes are known to occur in short- and long-lived species with different trajectories. Emerging evidence suggests that numerous life history trait differences between species are based on interspecies variations in gene expression. Little information is available, however, about differences in transcriptome changes during aging between mammals with diverging lifespans. Read More
Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 11;135:194-205. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Vileikos St. 8-223, LT-44404, Kaunas, Lithuania.
The initial aim of this study was to evaluate an effect of elevated CO concentration and air temperature (future climate) and O pollution on mono- and mixed-culture grown summer rape (Brassica napus L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Read More
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Dec 11;211:272-279. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China. Electronic address:
The aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens are now showing strong potential in mimicking the energy donor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system. Herein, one highly efficient FRET system 1-NiR is successfully fabricated in aqueous solution based on an AIE active compound 1 and fluorescence dyes (Nile red (NiR)). 1 acts as the energy donor and NiR acts as the acceptor in the FRET system with the optimum concentrations ratio /[NiR] = 100. Read More
Cell Calcium 2018 Dec 11;77:68-76. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Institute of Biology and Molecular Genetics (IBGM), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid and CSIC, Ramón y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid, Spain. Electronic address:
The 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a nutrient-sensitive kinase that plays a key role in the control of cellular energy metabolism. We have explored here the relationship between AMPK and Ca signaling by looking at the effect of an AMPK activator (A769662) and an AMPK inhibitor (dorsomorphin) on histamine-induced Ca-release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HeLa cells. Our data show that incubation with A769662 (EC = 29 μM) inhibited histamine-induced Ca-release from the ER in intact cells, as well as inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP)-induced Ca release in permeabilized cells. Read More
Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Dec 7;126:792-799. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad 500032, Telangana, India. Electronic address:
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which isa worldwide public health issue, is commonly associated with cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A smart nanosensor was developed for the detection of HIV and its related diseases (CVDs and RA) using graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, amine-functionalized graphene (afG) was conjugated with antibodies [anti-p24 for HIV, anti-cardiac troponin 1 (anti-cTn1) for CVDs, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) for RA] to detect various biomarkers. Read More
Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 4;163:583-596. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
Sulfated hyaluronic acid (sHA) is chemically synthetic mimetic of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) presenting promising biological functions. Specific sulfation pattern, termed as sulfation code plays critical roles in regulating the binding mode between GAG and proteins. As a structural analogue of chondroitin sulfate (CS), sHA bears much higher molecular weight and is nearly free of other proteoglycan contaminants. Read More
Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 8;274:525-532. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Hunan Provincial, Changsha 410082, PR China.
This study explored the cooperative effects of hydrothermal or activators pretreatment and pyrolysis process on the chemical composition of bean dreg (BD)-derived carbon materials and its adsorption characteristics for methylene blue (MB) further. The results showed that hydrothermal assisted pyrolysis carbon with or without activator (HBK and HB) possess higher BET surface area than no hydrothermal assisted carbon (BKs and B, respectively). But surface area alone was not a critical factor contributing to MB adsorption, it also depends on strong electrostatic interaction and the hydrogen bonding interaction between N in MB combines with OH and COO group of adsorbent surface by pH-dependent adsorption and pseudo-second-order model. Read More
Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 7;246:237-248. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address:
Over the past decades, there has been growing scientific attention and public concern towards perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), due to their widespread presence in the environment and associations with adverse effects on various organisms. Bird eggs have often been used as less-invasive biomonitoring tools for toxicological risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, including some PFAAs. Hereby, it is typically assumed that one random egg is representative for the PFAA concentrations of the whole clutch. Read More
J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Nov 22;191:13-17. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of pharmacy, Fujian Provincial Hospital& Fujian Medical University, People's Republic of China; Molecular Biology Laboratory of Chinese Traditional Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
Multifunctional nanocarriers are in immediate need to develop anticancer activity for the treatment of cancers. In the present research, the graphene oxide was reduced via an efficient method which reduced to RGO by using Euphorbia milii leaves extract. Thus obtained RGO nanocomposites were subsequently characterized by means UV-Vis absorption technique. Read More
iScience 2018 Dec 5;10:234-244. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK; MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. Electronic address:
Directed transport of transmembrane proteins is generally believed to occur via intracellular transport vesicles. However, using single-particle tracking in rat hippocampal neurons with a pH-sensitive quantum dot probe that specifically reports surface movement of receptors, we have identified a subpopulation of neuronal EphB2 receptors that exhibit directed motion between synapses within the plasma membrane itself. This receptor movement occurs independently of the cytoskeleton but is dependent on cholesterol and is regulated by neuronal activity. Read More
Aquat Toxicol 2018 Dec 11;207:101-109. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, China. Electronic address:
Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is thought to be a rapid and specific response to metal exposure in marine phytoplankton, but its potential as a predictor of metal toxicity is far from conclusive. Thus this research examines the bioaccumulation, PC induction, and toxicity of Cadmium (Cd) in Thalassiosira weissflogii, a coastal diatom under varying nutrient conditions. Nitrogen limitation strongly inhibited Cd uptake and PC induction at the same [Cd] level, and increased metal sensitivity. Read More
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 14;170:521-529. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, USA. Electronic address:
Fish embryos are increasingly being utilized in aquatic toxicity testing, as evidenced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's approval of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test. However, the FET test only allows for the estimation of acute toxicity, whereas other test methods such as the larval growth and survival (LGS) test allow for the estimation of both acute and chronic toxicity. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the FET test is less sensitive than other test methods for some neurotoxic compounds. Read More
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510-3221, USA; INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris, France.
The lymphatic system of the gut plays important roles in the transport of dietary lipids, as well as in immunosurveillance and removal of interstitial fluid. Historically, despite its crucial functions in intestinal homeostasis, the lymphatic system has been poorly studied. In the last two decades, identification of specific molecular mediators of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) growth together with novel genetic approaches and intravital imaging techniques, have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms regulating intestinal lymphatic physiology in health and disease. Read More
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Functional Genomics, Interfaculty Institute of Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 8, 17489 Greifswald, Germany.
Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'‑O‑methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Read More
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Centre for Cancer Research & Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AE, United Kingdom.
Introduction: Despite the effectiveness of RaCl for treating patients with symptomatic bone metastatic disease, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Even established dosimetric approaches differ considerably in their conclusions. In silico tumour models bring a new perspective to this as they can quantitatively simulate the interaction of α-particles with the target(s). Read More
Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, UC Biotech Building, Biocant Park, 3060-197, Cantanhede, Portugal. Electronic address:
Dose-dependent and cumulative cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) is the main limitation of anticancer therapy. Pediatric cancer survivors are particularly vulnerable, and no effective prevention measures are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the persistent effects of nanomolar DOX concentrations and determine whether a pretreatment would induce mitochondrial adaptations in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Read More
J Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China; HKBU Institute of Research and Continuing Education, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:
Most gastropods deposit their eggs either on land or underwater, but the family Ampullariidae includes members that exhibit both underwater and aerial oviposition, making it an ideal model for understanding mechanisms underlying the evolutionary transition from water to land. We applied SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS to analyse the proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) of Marisa cornuarietis - an aquatic ovipositing ampullariid. Comparison with the reported PVF proteomes of two aerial ovipositing ampullariids (Pomacea canaliculata and P. Read More
J Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Center for Advanced Proteomics Research and Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Rutgers University - New Jersey Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. Electronic address:
Disulfide bonds (SS) are post-translational modifications important for the proper folding and stabilization of many cellular proteins with therapeutic uses, including antibodies and other biologics. With budding advances of biologics and biosimilars, there is a mounting need for a robust method for accurate identification of SS. Even though several mass spectrometry methods have emerged for this task, their practical use rests on the broad effectiveness of both sample preparation methods and bioinformatics tools. Read More
J Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC), University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
Proteasome dysfunction is emerging as a novel pathomechanism for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major leading cause of death in the world. Cigarette smoke, one of the main risk factors for COPD, impairs proteasome function in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we dissected the molecular changes induced by cigarette smoke on the proteasome in lung epithelial cells and mouse lungs. Read More
Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70210, Finland. Electronic address:
No single-omic approach completely elucidates the multitude of alterations taking place in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we coupled transcriptomic and phosphoproteomic approaches to determine the temporal sequence of changes in mRNA, protein, and phosphopeptide expression levels from human temporal cortical samples, with varying degree of AD-related pathology. This approach highlighted fluctuation in synaptic and mitochondrial function as the earliest pathological events in brain samples with AD-related pathology. Read More
Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals, NIBM, 11700 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia; School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia; Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:
P(3HB-co-4HB) with a high 4HB monomer composition was previously successfully produced using the transformant Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 containing an additional copy of the PHA synthase gene. In this study, high PHA density fed-batch cultivation strategies were developed for such 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB). The pulse, constant and mixed feeding strategies resulted in high PHA accumulation, with a PHA content of 74-92 wt% and 4HB monomer composition of 92-99 mol%. Read More
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Laboratory for Cancer Biology, Department of Medical Oncology and Clinical Research, Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India. Electronic address:
Induced pluripotent stem cells are derived from adult somatic cells by ectopic expression of stem cell factors OCT4, SOX2, MYC and KLF4. These cells have characteristic features similar to embryonic stem cells. Although there exists in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, recapitulating the earliest events in the pathogenesis remain challenging. Read More
Fungal Genet Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 USA. Electronic address:
A survey of genomes reported here for 10 isolates of Monosporascus species and an additional 25 genomes from other members of the Xylariales (representing 15 genera) available in public databases indicated that genes typically associated with MAT1-1 (mat A) or MAT1-2 (mat a) mating types are absent or have diverged greatly relative to counterparts in other Pezizomycotina. This was particularly surprising for isolates known to be homothallic, given that homothallic members of the Pezizomycotina typically possess a MAT1-1-1 (mat A-1) gene and one or both of two other closely-linked mating-type genes, MAT1-1-2 (mat A-2) and MAT1-1-3 (mat A-3), in addition to MAT1-2-1 (mat a-1). We failed to detect candidate genes for either MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-1-2 in any member of the Xylariales. Read More
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biology, PO Box 5000, Shepherd University, Shepherdstown, WV. USA. 25443.
Determination of how carotenoid-based color patches change with pigmentary access is important to understanding color patch function in animals. We performed a carotenoid addition experiment on male painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) to determine if an increase in dietary carotenoids led to location-specific changes in painted turtle spot and stripe color. Turtles fed large quantities of carotenoids had increased yellow chroma in chin stripes and increased red chroma in the neck and carapace stripes, as well as reduced ultraviolet (UV) chroma in the neck (orange to the human eye) and fore -limb (red to the human eye) stripes. Read More
Protein Expr Purif 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fermentation and Enzyme Engineering, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:
Nuclease P1 has been used for the industrial production of 5'-monouncleotides from yeast RNA due to it's single-strand specific nucleases activity. The high demand for 5'-nucleotides in the manufacture of food and drugs requires the commercial scale production of nuclease P1, but the fermentation level of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum still remains low. In this study, the Penicillium citrinum nuclease P1 gene (nuc P1) was heterologously expressed in A. Read More
Cell Signal 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Pathology, Shantou Central Hospital, Affiliated Shantou Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shantou 515041, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Genes Regulation, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China. Electronic address:
High level expression of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) usually indicates poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and many other cancers. Our previous study showed LCN2 promotes migration and invasion of ESCC cells through a novel positive feedback loop. However, the key transcription activation protein (KTAP) in the loop had not yet been identified. Read More
Biochimie 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic, Instituto de Pesquisas São Leopoldo Mandic, Área de Imunologia, Campinas, Brazil. Electronic address:
Inflammation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissues are the most common cause of pain conditions associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). After a tissue and/or neural damage, the inflammatory response is characterized by plasma extravasation and leukocytes infiltration in the TMJ tissues, which in turn, release inflammatory cytokines cascades responsible for inflammatory pain. Lectins are glycoproteins widely distributed in nature that may exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. Read More
Virus Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:
We have isolated 4 naturally-occurring strains of CPV in mainland China and have identified them as CPV-2, 2a, 2b and 2c genotypes according to their VP2 sequences which also revealed substitutions within their right terminal regions. To determine if these substitutions affected the growth characteristics of the 4 strains, we constructed plasmids based on their genomic sequences minus their right terminal sequences, with the latter replaced by a single right terminal region. Analysis of rescued recombinants showed that the substitutions within their natural right termini had no significant effect on their growth characteristics. Read More
Exp Eye Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of A Coruña, Spain. Electronic address:
The aim off the present study was to evaluate the effect and the mechanism of action of the conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESC) on corneal wound healing in a rabbit dry eye model. To do this, dry eye and corneal epithelial injuries were induced in rabbits by topical administration of atropine sulfate and NaOH. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and Ki-67 immunostaining were carried out to evaluate corneal damage and cell proliferation, and real-time PCR was used to evaluate proinflammatory cytokines in the cornea. Read More
Exp Eye Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Institute of Eye Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan; Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Reproducible skills are essential for successful induction of a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). We established an in vivo validation index by measuring the natural course of optic nerve head (ONH) width and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the rAION model using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The rAION model was induced by photodynamic operations. Read More
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Botânica,Campus Universitário, S/N, C.P. 345 Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
It is not unanimous among scientists if there is beauty in science. Some deny it. Mental clarity of conclusions when captured in simple looking equations is mathematical beauty. Read More
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Center for Biotechnology and Department of Botany, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), P.O. Box 15005, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-970, Brazil. Electronic address:
Species of Eucalyptus are some of the most planted trees in the world, providing fiber, cellulose, energy, and wood for construction and furniture in renewable fashion, with the added advantage of fixing large amounts of atmospheric carbon. The efficiency of eucalypts in forestry relies mostly on the clonal propagation of selected genotypes both as pure species and interspecific hybrids. The formation of new roots from cambium tissues at the base of cuttings, referred to as adventitious rooting (AR), is essential for accomplishing clonal propagation successfully. Read More
Mol Plant Pathol 2019 Jan;20(1):3-7
Institute for Biology I, Unit of Plant Molecular Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, 52056, Germany.
Proteomics 2018 Dec 17:e1800176. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Dysbiosis of gut microbiome can contribute to inflammation, and subsequently initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Throughout these stages, various proteins and metabolites are secreted to the external environment by microorganisms or the hosts themselves. Studying these proteins may help enhance our understanding of the host-microorganism relationship or they may even serve as useful biomarkers for CRC. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1007502. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Laboratoire de Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité (MFP), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS UMR-5234, Bordeaux, France.
In the glucose-free environment that is the midgut of the tsetse fly vector, the procyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei primarily uses proline to feed its central carbon and energy metabolism. In these conditions, the parasite needs to produce glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) through gluconeogenesis from metabolism of non-glycolytic carbon source(s). We showed here that two phosphoenolpyruvate-producing enzymes, PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) have a redundant function for the essential gluconeogenesis from proline. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209150. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Service d'Etude des Prions et Infections Atypiques (SEPIA), Institut François Jacob, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.
Human mini-brains (MB) are cerebral organoids that recapitulate in part the complexity of the human brain in a unique three-dimensional in vitro model, yielding discrete brain regions reminiscent of the cerebral cortex. Specific proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders are physiologically expressed in MBs, such as APP-derived amyloids (Aβ), whose physiological and pathological roles and interactions with other proteins are not well established in humans. Here, we demonstrate that neuroectodermal organoids can be used to study the Aβ accumulation implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208756. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Biochemical, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.
Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) is silenced in many cancers and is differentially expressed in metabolism associated diseases, such as hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Here we report a novel function of RARRES1 in metabolic reprogramming of epithelial cells. Using non-targeted LC-MS, we discovered that RARRES1 depletion in epithelial cells caused a global increase in lipid synthesis. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209096. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Laboratory of Clinical Genome Sequencing, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified greater than 30 variants associated with ovarian cancer, but most of these variants were investigated in European populations. Here, we integrated GWAS and subsequent functional analyses to identify the genetic variants with potential regulatory effects. We conducted GWAS for ovarian cancer using 681 Japanese cases and 17,492 controls and found that rs137672 on 22q13. Read More
PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1006641. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Biochemistry and Structural Biology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
Many proteins consist of folded domains connected by regions with higher flexibility. The details of the resulting conformational ensemble play a central role in controlling interactions between domains and with binding partners. Small-Angle Scattering (SAS) is well-suited to study the conformational states adopted by proteins in solution. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208516. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
We previously performed genetic analysis in six unrelated families with infantile limb pain episodes, characterized by cold-induced deterioration and mitigation in adolescence, and reported two new mutations p.R222H/S in SCN11A responsible for these episodes. As no term described this syndrome (familial episodic pain: FEP) in Japanese, we named it as". Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0200227. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.
Memory T and B lymphocyte numbers are thought to be regulated by recent and cumulative microbial exposures. We report here that memory-phenotype lymphocyte frequencies in B, CD4 and CD8 T-cells in 3-monthly serial bleeds from healthy young adult humans were relatively stable over a 1-year period, while Plasmablast frequencies were not, suggesting that recent environmental exposures affected steady state levels of recently activated but not of memory lymphocyte subsets. Frequencies of memory B and CD4 T cells were not correlated, suggesting that variation in them was unlikely to be determined by cumulative antigenic exposures. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208732. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key gasotransmitter in agriculture and has been reported to increase the growth of plants in the first two weeks and to mitigate the effects of environmental stressors. GYY-4137 is widely used in these studies because it slowly releases H2S, but there is disagreement as to whether it requires enzymes to release H2S. In this article we describe the release of H2S in water without enzymes and that it releases H2S faster in organic solvents than in water or when mixed in topsoil. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209342. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Institute for Digestive Research, Academy of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are >200 nucleotides long non-coding RNAs, which have been shown to be implicated in carcinogenic processes by interacting with cancer associated genes or other non-coding RNAs. However, their role in development of rare gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is barely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define lincRNAs deregulated in GIST and find new GIST-lincRNA associations. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0006979. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Parasitology School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.
Background: In previous studies, we suggested that Acanthamoeba is a new aero-allergen and that patients who showed positive results for the skin-prick test response to Acanthamoeba cross-reacted with several pollen allergens. Additionally, patients with common antibodies reacted to the 13-15 kDa Acanthamoeba unknown allergen.
Objective: We examined whether profilin of Acanthamoeba is a human airway allergic agent because of its molecular weight. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209296. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Tumor Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-cho, Shiwa-gun, Iwate, Japan.
Cultured cells easily develop resistance to kinesin-5 inhibitors (K5Is) often by overexpressing a related motor protein, kinesin-12/KIF15, or by acquiring mutations in the N-terminal motor domain of kinesin-5/KIF11 itself. We aimed to identify novel mechanisms responsible for resistance to S-trityl L-cysteine (STLC), one of the K5Is, using human osteosarcoma cell lines. Among six lines examined, U-2OS and HOS survived chronic STLC treatment and gave rise to resistant cells with IC50s at least 10-fold higher than those of the respective parental lines. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208310. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
With the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Africa still rising, a prophylactic vaccine against the region's most prolific subtype (subtype C) would be a significant step forward. In this paper we report on the effect of 2 different adjuvants, AddaVax and AlhydroGel, formulated with HIV-1 subtype C gp140, on the development of binding and neutralising antibody titres in rabbits. AddaVax is a squalene-based oil-in-water nano-emulsion (similar to MF59) which can enhance both cellular and humoral immune responses, whilst AlhydroGel (aluminium hydroxide gel) mainly drives a Th2 response. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17;12(12):e0006975. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Institute for Immunology and Informatics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.
Background: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209281. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain.
Tall wheatgrass [Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus (Podp.) Melderis] is a perennial forage grass cultivated in dry, saline or alkaline environments. Read More