1,835,266 results match your criteria Biology Bulletin[Journal]


COVID-19 Pandemic and Role of Human Saliva as a Testing Biofluid in Point-of-Care Technology.

Eur J Dent 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has termed as a controllable pandemic, and the entire world has come to a standstill trying to mitigate the disease with health systems. Health care providers, around the globe, are fighting day and night. Currently, rapid testing is taking place with the help of nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, urine, and blood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713020DOI Listing

Circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells facilitate invasion of thyroid cancer cells by repressing miR-486-3p.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have become increasingly recognized as facilitators of tumor development. However, the role of MDSCs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression has not been clearly explored.

Objective:: We aimed to evaluate the levels as well as function of circulating MDSCs in PTC. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa344DOI Listing

Social subordination induced by early life adversity rewires inhibitory control of the prefrontal cortex via enhanced Npy1r signaling.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Social hierarchies are present in most mammalian species. In nature, hierarchies offer a tradeoff between reduction of in-group fighting between males, at the expense of an asymmetric sharing of resources. Early life experiences and stress are known to influence the rank an individual attains in adulthood, but the associated cellular and synaptic alterations are poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0727-7DOI Listing

P4-ATPases: how an old dog learnt new tricks - structure and mechanism of lipid flippases.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2020 May 31;63:65-73. Epub 2020 May 31.

Aarhus University, Dept. Molecular Biology and Genetics, Danish Research Institute of Translational Neuroscience - DANDRITE, Nordic EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine, Denmark. Electronic address:

Type 4 P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are lipid flippases that drive the active, inward directed translocation (flip) of lipids in eukaryotic membranes. The resulting lipid asymmetry potentiates the membrane and is essential for a wide range of cellular processes such as vesicle biogenesis and trafficking and membrane protein regulation, whereas dissipation of lipid asymmetry is required in blood coagulation and apoptosis. Through recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, several landmark structures of yeast and human lipid flippases have been reported, highlighting the similarities and differences they share with the cation transporting P-type ATPases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2020.04.001DOI Listing

Rising vegetation activity dominates growing water use efficiency in the Asian permafrost region from 1900 to 2100.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 21;736:139587. Epub 2020 May 21.

Biology Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA. Electronic address:

Permafrost play an important role in regulating global climate system. We analyzed the gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), and evapotranspiration (ET) derived from MODIS and three earth system models participated in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) in the Asian permafrost region. The water use efficiency (WUE) was further computed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139587DOI Listing

Non-canonical interaction of DNA repair proteins with intact and cleaved AP sites.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2020 May 5;90:102847. Epub 2020 May 5.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia; Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia. Electronic address:

Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are widespread lesions in genomic DNA, arising from a number of exogenous and endogenous sources. These DNA lesions are highly mutagenic and demand efficient repair. The review is devoted to data on searching for previously unrecognized proteins capable of interaction with intact or cleaved AP sites. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2020.102847DOI Listing

Biological applications of a turn-on bioluminescent probe for monitoring sulfite oxidase deficiency in vivo.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 May 23;200:112476. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (MOE), School of Pharmacy, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Sulfites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in food and drug. A non-invasive method for in vivo imaging of sulfite represents a powerful tool for estimating its potential effects in living organisms. Herein, we report the design, development, and application of sulfite bioluminescent probes (SBPs) for the analyte-specific detection of sulfite through sulfite-mediated intramolecular cleavage. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112476DOI Listing

Novel bioelectrochemical strategies for domesticating the electron flow in constructed wetlands.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 21;735:139522. Epub 2020 May 21.

Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain; IMDEA Agua, Parque Tecnológico de la Universidad de Alcalá, 28805, Alcalá de Henares, Spain; METfiler, Carrión de los Céspedes, Sevilla, Spain. Electronic address:

Constructed wetlands are an effective biofilter-based technology for treating wastewater in a sustainable way; however, their main disadvantage is a large area footprint. To cope with this limitation a new generation of constructed wetlands, the METlands®, have been recently reported. METlands® replace gravel with a granular electrically conductive material to enhance the oxidative metabolisms of electroactive bacteria by facilitating the flux of electron through the material and, consequently, increase bioremediation rates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139522DOI Listing

Racial/ethnic Disparities and Survival in Pediatrics with Gliomas Based on the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database in the United States.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, P.R.China. Electronic address:

Background: Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system tumor for both children and adults. But the influence of racial/ethnic disparities on the survival of children with gliomas has not been fully evaluated yet.

Methods: Baseline characteristics of patients, including gender, year of diagnosis, surgery, grade, radiation, histology and races, were collected. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.224DOI Listing

Aberrant hyperactivation of cytotoxic T-cell as a potential determinant of COVID-19 severity.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: We hypothesized that immune response may contribute to progression of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) at the second week of illness. Therefore, we compared cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses between severe and mild COVID-19 cases.

Methods: We examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients from their first and third weeks of illness. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.106DOI Listing

Synthetic biology for protein-based materials.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2020 May 31;65:197-204. Epub 2020 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Recombinant protein polymers that mimic the structures and functions of natural proteins and those tailor-designed with new properties provide a family of uniquely tunable and functional materials. However, the diversity of genetically engineered protein polymers is still limited. As a powerful engine for the creation of new biological devices and systems, synthetic biology is promising to tackle the challenges that exist in conventional studies on protein polymers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2020.04.004DOI Listing

FGFR4: A promising therapeutic target for breast cancer and other solid tumors.

Pharmacol Ther 2020 May 31:107590. Epub 2020 May 31.

Women's Cancer Research Center, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Magee-Women's Research Institute, Magee-Women's Research Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway has long been known to cancer researchers because of its role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of FGFR signaling is frequently reported in cancer studies, but most of these studies focus on FGFR1-3. However, there is growing evidence implicating an important and unique role of FGFR4 in oncogenesis, tumor progression, and resistance to anti-tumor therapy in multiple types of cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107590DOI Listing

Metabolic engineering for glycoglycerolipids production in E. coli: Tuning phosphatidic acid and UDP-glucose pathways.

Metab Eng 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Institut Químic de Sarrià, University Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 350, E-08017, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Glycolipids are target molecules in biotechnology and biomedicine as biosurfactants, biomaterials and bioactive molecules. An engineered E. coli strain for the production of glycoglycerolipids (GGL) used the MG517 glycolipid synthase from M. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Visualization of Live, Mammalian Neurons During Kainate-Infusion Using Magnetic Resonance Microscopy.

Neuroimage 2020 May 31:116997. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; Department of McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; Department of Center for Structural Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Since its first description and development in the late 20th century, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has proven useful in describing the microstructural details of biological tissues. Signal generated from the protons of water molecules undergoing Brownian motion produces contrast based on the varied diffusivity of tissue types. Images employing diffusion contrast were first used to describe the diffusion characteristics of tissues, later used to describe the fiber orientations of white matter through tractography, and most recently proposed as a functional contrast method capable of delineating neuronal firing in the active brain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116997DOI Listing

Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neuropeptides Modulate Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons and Feeding.

Physiol Behav 2020 May 31:112986. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Physiology; Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48114. Electronic address:

Understanding how the brain coordinates energy status with the motivation to eat is crucial to identify strategies to improve disordered body weight. The ventral tegmental area (VTA), known as the core of the mesolimbic system, is of particular interest in this regard because it controls the motivation to consume palatable, calorie-dense foods and to engage in volitional activity. The VTA is largely composed of dopamine (DA) neurons, but modulating these DA neurons has been alternately linked with promoting and suppressing feeding, suggesting heterogeneity in their function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112986DOI Listing

Designing neuroreparative strategies using aged regenerating animal models.

Ageing Res Rev 2020 May 31:101086. Epub 2020 May 31.

Laboratory of Neural Circuit Development and Regeneration, Animal Physiology and Neurobiology Section, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

In our ever-aging world population, the risk of age-related neuropathies has been increasing, representing both a social and economic burden to society. Since the ability to regenerate in the adult mammalian central nervous system is very limited, brain trauma and neurodegeneration are often permanent. As a consequence, novel scientific challenges have emerged and many research efforts currently focus on triggering repair in the damaged or diseased brain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2020.101086DOI Listing

Reduced methylation of PP2Ac promotes ethanol-induced lipid accumulation through FOXO1 phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo.

Toxicol Lett 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China.

Although disturbance of the methionine cycle and sequent decrease in hepatic methylation capacity are known to be important factors in the development of alcoholic liver injury, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the importance of the methylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We found that the severity of ethanol-induced liver injury and the extent of demethylation of PP2A catalytic C subunit (PP2Ac) were reduced after treatment with betaine, a methyl donor involved in the methionine-homocysteine cycle. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.05.035DOI Listing

Mucosal immune responses in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles after Tenacibaculum maritimum challenge: A comparative study between ocular and blind sides.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR), University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208, Porto, Portugal; Department of Cell Biology and Histology. Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Most pathogens start the process of infection at the mucosal surfaces and therefore the mucosal immune response plays an essential role in the course of the infection. Due to the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup) condition of flatfish, the present comparative study aimed to analyse several immune-related enzymes as well as the bactericidal activity in the skin mucus from ocular and blind sides. For this purpose, Senegalese sole juveniles were bath challenged with a sub-lethal dose of Tenacibaculum maritimum for 24 h and sampled at 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.05.080DOI Listing

Acute Myeloid Leukemia iPSCs Reveal a Role for RUNX1 in the Maintenance of Human Leukemia Stem Cells.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107688

Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are believed to have more distinct vulnerabilities than the bulk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, but their rarity and the lack of universal markers for their prospective isolation hamper their study. We report that genetically clonal induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from an AML patient and characterized by exceptionally high engraftment potential give rise, upon hematopoietic differentiation, to a phenotypic hierarchy. Through fate-tracking experiments, xenotransplantation, and single-cell transcriptomics, we identify a cell fraction (iLSC) that can be isolated prospectively by means of adherent in vitro growth that resides on the apex of this hierarchy and fulfills the hallmark features of LSCs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107688DOI Listing

The Number of Transcription Factors at an Enhancer Determines Switch-like Gene Expression.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107724

Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan; Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan. Electronic address:

NF-κB is a transcription factor that activates super enhancers (SEs) and typical enhancers (TEs) and triggers threshold and graded gene expression, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which NF-κB selectively participates in these enhancers remain unclear. Here we show using mouse primary B lymphocytes that SE activity simultaneously associates with chromatin opening and enriched NF-κB binding, resulting in a higher fold change and threshold expression upon B cell receptor (BCR) activation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107724DOI Listing

Cas12a Base Editors Induce Efficient and Specific Editing with Low DNA Damage Response.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107723

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China; Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

The advent of base editors (BEs) holds great potential for correcting pathogenic-related point mutations to treat relevant diseases. However, Cas9 nickase (nCas9)-derived BEs lead to DNA double-strand breaks, which can trigger unwanted DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that the original version of catalytically dead Cas12a (dCas12a)-conjugated BEs induce a basal level of DNA breaks and minimally activate DDR proteins, including H2AX, ATM, ATR, and p53. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107723DOI Listing

Inactivation of Rho GTPases by Burkholderia cenocepacia Induces a WASH-Mediated Actin Polymerization that Delays Phagosome Maturation.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107721

Program in Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada.

Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease patients. B. cenocepacia can survive inside infected macrophages within the B. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107721DOI Listing

Stage-Specific Requirement for Eomes in Mature NK Cell Homeostasis and Cytotoxicity.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107720

Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that mediate antiviral and antitumor responses and require the transcriptional regulator Eomesodermin (Eomes) for early development. However, the role of Eomes and its molecular program in mature NK cell biology is unclear. To address this, we develop a tamoxifen-inducible, type-1-ILC-specific (Ncr1-targeted) cre mouse and combine this with Eomes-floxed mice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107720DOI Listing

Functional Divergence of the Arabidopsis Florigen-Interacting bZIP Transcription Factors FD and FDP.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107717

Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linné-Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Flowering of many plant species depends on interactions between basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and systemically transported florigen proteins. Members of the genus Arabidopsis contain two of these bZIPs, FD and FDP, which we show have largely complementary expression patterns in shoot apices before and during flowering. CRISPR-Cas9-induced null mutants for FDP flower slightly earlier than wild-type, whereas fd mutants are late flowering. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107717DOI Listing

Analysis of Genetically Regulated Gene Expression Identifies a Prefrontal PTSD Gene, SNRNP35, Specific to Military Cohorts.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107716

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

To reveal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) genetic risk influences on tissue-specific gene expression, we use brain and non-brain transcriptomic imputation. We impute genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in 29,539 PTSD cases and 166,145 controls from 70 ancestry-specific cohorts and identify 18 significant GReX-PTSD associations corresponding to specific tissue-gene pairs. The results suggest substantial genetic heterogeneity based on ancestry, cohort type (military versus civilian), and sex. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107716DOI Listing

Assembly and Function of a Bioengineered Human Liver for Transplantation Generated Solely from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107711

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219-3110, USA; Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The availability of an autologous transplantable auxiliary liver would dramatically affect the treatment of liver disease. Assembly and function in vivo of a bioengineered human liver derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has not been previously described. By improving methods for liver decellularization, recellularization, and differentiation of different liver cellular lineages of human iPSCs in an organ-like environment, we generated functional engineered human mini livers and performed transplantation in a rat model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107711DOI Listing

A Dynamic Splicing Program Ensures Proper Synaptic Connections in the Developing Cerebellum.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107703

Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Department of Neuroscience, Section of Human Anatomy, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Tight coordination of gene expression in the developing cerebellum is crucial for establishment of neuronal circuits governing motor and cognitive function. However, transcriptional changes alone do not explain all of the switches underlying neuronal differentiation. Here we unveiled a widespread and highly dynamic splicing program that affects synaptic genes in cerebellar neurons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107703DOI Listing

Epigenetic Reprogramming of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Deregulates Glucose Metabolism and Facilitates Progression of Breast Cancer.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107701

Department of Cancer Biology, Metastasis Research Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77054, USA; Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

The mechanistic contributions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in breast cancer progression remain to be fully understood. While altered glucose metabolism in CAFs could fuel cancer cells, how such metabolic reprogramming emerges and is sustained needs further investigation. Studying fibroblasts isolated from patients with benign breast tissues and breast cancer, in conjunction with multiple animal models, we demonstrate that CAFs exhibit a metabolic shift toward lactate and pyruvate production and fuel biosynthetic pathways of cancer cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107701DOI Listing

CTTNBP2 Controls Synaptic Expression of Zinc-Related Autism-Associated Proteins and Regulates Synapse Formation and Autism-like Behaviors.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107700

Molecular and Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica and Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address:

Synaptic dysregulation is a critical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among various autism-associated genes, cortactin binding protein 2 (CTTNBP2) is a cytoskeleton regulator predominantly expressed in neurons and highly enriched at dendritic spines. Here, using Cttnbp2 knockout and ASD-linked mutant mice, we demonstrate that Cttnbp2 deficiency reduces zinc levels in the brain, alters synaptic protein targeting, impairs dendritic spine formation and ultrastructure of postsynaptic density, and influences neuronal activation and autism-like behaviors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107700DOI Listing

Chaperone-Mediated Protein Disaggregation Triggers Proteolytic Clearance of Intra-nuclear Protein Inclusions.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107680

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.

The formation of insoluble inclusions in the cytosol and nucleus is associated with impaired protein homeostasis and is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the absence of the autophagic machinery, nuclear protein aggregates require a solubilization step preceding degradation by the 26S proteasome. Using yeast, we identify a nuclear protein quality control pathway required for the clearance of protein aggregates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107680DOI Listing

On the Functional Annotation of Open-Channel Structures in the Glycine Receptor.

Structure 2020 Jun;28(6):690-693.e3

Institut de Chimie de Strasbourg, UMR 7177, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg Cedex 67083, France. Electronic address:

The glycine receptor (GlyR) is by far the best-characterized pentameric ligand-gated ion channel, with several high-resolution structures from X-ray crystallography, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), and modeling. Nonetheless, the significance of the currently available open-pore conformations is debated due to their diversity in the pore geometry. Here, we discuss the physiological significance of existing models of the GlyR active state based on conductance and selectivity measurements by computational electrophysiology. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.05.003DOI Listing

A Perfect Ten-Decoy Maps Uncover Polymerase Complexes within Reoviridae Virion.

Structure 2020 Jun;28(6):595-597

Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Structure, Kaelber et al. (2020) use cryo-EM and synthetic decoy maps to reveal the patterning of 10 polymerase complexes within FAKV, a Reoviridae family member containing 9 genome segments. Their findings support a model for FAKV assembly that has implications for the entire Reoviridae family. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.05.007DOI Listing

Proteomic and Metabolomic Characterization of COVID-19 Patient Sera.

Cell 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, 18 Shilongshan Road, Hangzhou 310024, Zhejiang Province, China; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Westlake Institute for Advanced Study, 18 Shilongshan Road, Hangzhou 310024, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Early detection and effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients remain major challenges. Here, we performed proteomic and metabolomic profiling of sera from 46 COVID-19 and 53 control individuals. We then trained a machine learning model using proteomic and metabolomic measurements from a training cohort of 18 non-severe and 13 severe patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.032DOI Listing

Illuminating Genetic Mysteries of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Cell 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Neurobiology, George Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel. Electronic address:

The discovery of the 2,000-year-old Dead Sea Scrolls had an incomparable impact on the historical understanding of Judaism and Christianity. "Piecing together" scroll fragments is like solving jigsaw puzzles with an unknown number of missing parts. We used the fact that most scrolls are made from animal skins to "fingerprint" pieces based on DNA sequences. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.046DOI Listing

The Major Pre- and Postmenopausal Estrogens Play Opposing Roles in Obesity-Driven Mammary Inflammation and Breast Cancer Development.

Cell Metab 2020 Jun;31(6):1154-1172.e9

Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL 33136, USA; Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Many inflammation-associated diseases, including cancers, increase in women after menopause and with obesity. In contrast to anti-inflammatory actions of 17β-estradiol, we find estrone, which dominates after menopause, is pro-inflammatory. In human mammary adipocytes, cytokine expression increases with obesity, menopause, and cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.05.008DOI Listing

Endothelial Lactate Controls Muscle Regeneration from Ischemia by Inducing M2-like Macrophage Polarization.

Cell Metab 2020 Jun;31(6):1136-1153.e7

Laboratory of Exercise and Health, Department Health Sciences and Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, 8603 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Endothelial cell (EC)-derived signals contribute to organ regeneration, but angiocrine metabolic communication is not described. We found that EC-specific loss of the glycolytic regulator pfkfb3 reduced ischemic hindlimb revascularization and impaired muscle regeneration. This was caused by the reduced ability of macrophages to adopt a proangiogenic and proregenerative M2-like phenotype. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Ketone Bodies Exert Ester-Ordinary Suppression of Bifidobacteria and Th17 Cells.

Cell Metab 2020 Jun;31(6):1049-1051

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

The ketogenic diet is used to treat neurological and metabolic symptoms of disease, but the extent of its influences across organ systems remains unclear. Ang et al., 2020 reveal that ketone bodies induced by the diet inhibit specific bacteria of the gut microbiota and suppress pro-inflammatory T cells in the intestine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Break on Through: Golgi-Derived Vesicles Aid in Mitochondrial Fission.

Cell Metab 2020 Jun;31(6):1047-1049

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; Vanderbilt Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial fission is sustained through contact with several organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and the actin cytoskeleton. Nagashima et al. (2020) now demonstrate that PI(4)P-containing Golgi-derived vesicles also modulate mitochondrial fission, driven by Arf1 and PI(4)KIIIβ activity, identifying a new organelle contact involved in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Interactions among interactions: The dynamical consequences of antagonism between mutualists.

J Theor Biol 2020 May 31:110334. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210088, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA; Eco-Evo-Math Team, Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France; International Research Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Global Environmental Studies (iGLOBES), University of Arizona, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris Sciences & Lettres University, 845 N Park Avenue, AZ 85721, USA.

Species often interact with multiple mutualistic partners that provide functionally different benefits and/or that interact with different life-history stages. These functionally different partners, however, may also interact directly with one another in other ways, indirectly altering net outcomes and persistence of the mutualistic system as a whole. We present a population dynamical model of a three-species system involving antagonism between species sharing a mutualist partner species with two explicit life stages. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110334DOI Listing

Protein Diffusion on Charged Biopolymers: DNA versus Microtubule.

Biophys J 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Electronic address:

Protein diffusion in lower-dimensional spaces is used for various cellular functions. For example, sliding on DNA is essential for proteins searching for their target sites, and protein diffusion on microtubules is important for proper cell division and neuronal development. On the one hand, these linear diffusion processes are mediated by long-range electrostatic interactions between positively charged proteins and negatively charged biopolymers and have similar characteristic diffusion coefficients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Multiple Sequence Variants in STAC3 Affect Interactions with Ca1.1 and Excitation-Contraction Coupling.

Structure 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada. Electronic address:

STAC3 is a soluble protein essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Through its tandem SH3 domains, it interacts with the cytosolic II-III loop of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel. STAC3 is the target for a mutation (W284S) that causes Native American myopathy, but multiple other sequence variants have been reported. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.05.005DOI Listing

Cell-Penetrating Anti-Protein Kinase C Theta Antibodies Act Intracellularly to Generate Stable, Highly Suppressive Regulatory T Cells.

Mol Ther 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA; Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Electronic address:

Regulatory T cells maintain immunological tolerance and dampen inflammatory responses. Administering regulatory T cells can prevent the immune-mediated tissue destruction of graft-versus-host disease, which frequently accompanies hematopoietic stem cell transfer. Neutralizing the T cell-specific kinase, protein kinase C theta, which promotes T cell effector functions and represses regulatory T cell differentiation, augments regulatory T cell immunosuppression and stability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.05.020DOI Listing

Combined approaches for evaluation of xenoestrogen neural toxicity and thyroid dysfunction: Screening of oxido-nitrosative markers, DNA fragmentation, and biogenic amine degradation.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Jun 3:e22521. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Giza, Egypt.

Anthropogenic chemicals such as parabens and triclosan are used in personal care products. Due to their ability to decrease or prevent bacterial contamination and act as preservatives, these chemicals are used in cosmetic manufacturing processes to increase the shelf life of products. In this study, we assessed the side effects of environmental estrogens (such as the xenoestrogen butylparaben and the antimicrobial agent and preservative triclosan) on thyroid function, brain monoamine levels, and DNA aberration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22521DOI Listing

Host distribution and pathogen infection of fleas (Siphonaptera) recovered from small mammals in Pennsylvania.

J Vector Ecol 2020 Jun;45(1):32-44

Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, U.S.A.

The number of recognized flea-borne pathogens has increased over the past decade. However, the true number of infections related to all flea-borne pathogens remains unknown. To better understand the enzootic cycle of flea-borne pathogens, fleas were sampled from small mammals trapped in central Pennsylvania. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12371DOI Listing

Horizontal distribution affects the vertical distribution of native and invasive container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes within an urban landscape.

J Vector Ecol 2020 Jun;45(1):16-24

Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, 27412, U.S.A.

The vertical dimension constitutes an important niche axis along which mosquitoes may adjust their distribution. Here, we evaluated whether the vertical distribution of container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes differs along a gradient of anthropogenic land-use intensity within an urban landscape. Using a pulley system, we hung oviposition cups at three heights (ground level, 4. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12369DOI Listing

Influence of light and kairomone baiting systems on trap collections of biting midges in southern Sweden.

J Vector Ecol 2020 Jun;45(1):45-56

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Protection Biology, Unit of Chemical Ecology, Box 102, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden.

Effective surveillance is essential for protecting livestock from Culicoides biting midges and the viruses they transmit. The objective of this study was to determine how the baiting system used in traps (UV, incandescent light, incandescent light with CO , and incandescent light with CO and 1-octen-3-ol) influences estimates of midge population abundance, parity, and diel activity. This was achieved through a standardized trapping protocol conducted in three habitats in Sweden. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12372DOI Listing
  • Page 1 of 36706