1,851,607 results match your criteria Biology & Philosophy[Journal]


MMP13 and TIMP1 are functional markers for two different potential modes of action by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells when treating osteoarthritis.

Stem Cells 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute of Lifecourse and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as a potential injectable therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, with some evidence of success in preliminary human trials. However, optimisation and scale-up of this therapeutic approach depends on the identification of functional markers that are linked to their mechanism of action. One possible mechanism is through their chondrogenic differentiation and direct role in neo-cartilage synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3255DOI Listing

LINC00160 mediated paclitaxel-And doxorubicin-resistance in breast cancer cells by regulating TFF3 via transcription factor C/EBPβ.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Center for Precision Medicine, Anhui No.2 Provincial People's Hospital, Hefei, China.

Chemoresistance represents a major challenge in breast cancer (BC) treatment. This study aimed to probe the roles of LINC00160 in paclitaxel- and doxorubicin-resistant BC cells. Three pairs of BC and adjacent normal tissue were used for lncRNA microarray analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15487DOI Listing

Genome-wide admixture mapping of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, criterion count, and the self-rating of the effects of ethanol in African American populations.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

African Americans (AA) have lower prevalence of alcohol dependence and higher subjective response to alcohol than European Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes/variants associated with alcohol dependence specifically in AA; however, the sample sizes are still not large enough to detect variants with small effects. Admixture mapping is an alternative way to identify alcohol dependence genes/variants that may be unique to AA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32805DOI Listing

Priming of microglia with IFN-γ impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis and leads to depression-like behaviors and cognitive defects.

Glia 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

School of Life Science and Technology, Center for Informational Biology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Neuroinflammation driven by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and microglial activation has been linked to neurological disease. However, the effects of IFN-γ-activated microglia on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior are unclear. In the present study, IFN-γ was administered to mice via intracerebroventricular injection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23878DOI Listing

Interventional low-dose azithromycin attenuates cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and lung inflammation in mice.

Physiol Rep 2020 Jul;8(13):e14419

Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema is an important contributor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have shown the efficacy of azithromycin in reducing airway inflammation in COPD and in reducing exacerbations in severe asthma; however, the effects of long-term azithromycin on emphysema development have not been shown. We employed live animal imaging to monitor emphysema-like development and the effects of interventional azithromycin treatment in CS-exposed mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14419DOI Listing

Functional connectome fingerprinting accuracy in youths and adults is similar when examined on the same day and 1.5-years apart.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Pioneering studies have shown that individual correlation measures from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies can identify another scan from that same individual. This method is known as "connectotyping" or functional connectome "fingerprinting." We analyzed a unique dataset of 12-30 years old (N = 140) individuals who had two distinct resting state scans on the same day and again 12-18 months later to assess the sensitivity and specificity of fingerprinting accuracy across different time scales (same day, ~1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25118DOI Listing

A novel intronic variant in UBE3A identified by genome sequencing in a patient with an atypical presentation of Angelman syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Centre for Genetic Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss or deficient expression of UBE3A on the maternally inherited allele. In 10-15% of individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AS, a molecular diagnosis cannot be established with conventional testing. We describe a 13-year-old male with an atypical presentation of AS, who was found to have a novel, maternally inherited, intronic variant in UBE3A (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61740DOI Listing

Topical RT1640 treatment effectively reverses gray hair and stem cell loss in a mouse model of radiation-induced canities.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Gray hair is a visible sign of tissue degeneration during aging. Graying is attributed to dysfunction of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) that results in depletion of their melanin-producing progeny. This non-lethal phenotype makes the hair follicle and its pigment system an attractive model for investigating mechanisms that contribute to tissue aging as well as therapeutic strategies to combat this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12913DOI Listing

De novo mutation and skewed X-inactivation in girl with BCAP31-related syndrome.

Hum Mutat 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Departments of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Full genome analysis of a young girl with deafness, dystonia, central hypomyelination, refractory seizure, and fluctuating liver function impairment revealed a heterozygous, de novo variant in the BCAP31 gene on chromosome Xq28 (NM_001256447.2:c.92G>A), mutations of which caused the X-linked recessive severe neurologic disorder DDCH (Deafness, Dystonia, and Cerebral Hypomyelination). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24080DOI Listing

A literature review of the use of environmental sampling in the surveillance of avian influenza viruses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Asia Pacific Veterinary Information Services, Melbourne, Australia.

This literature review provides an overview of use of environmental samples (ES) such as faeces, water, air, mud and swabs of surfaces in avian influenza (AI) surveillance programs, focussing on effectiveness, advantages and gaps in knowledge. ES have been used effectively for AI surveillance since the 1970s. Results from ES have enhanced understanding of the biology of AI viruses in wild birds and in markets, of links between human and avian influenza, provided early warning of viral incursions, allowed assessment of effectiveness of control and preventive measures, and assisted epidemiological studies in outbreaks, both avian and human. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13633DOI Listing

Metabolic implication of tigecycline as an efficacious second-line treatment for sorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute of Pharmacy, Center for Public Health, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Sorafenib represents the current standard of care for patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, acquired drug resistance occurs frequently during therapy and is accompanied by rapid tumor regrowth after sorafenib therapy termination. To identify the mechanism of this therapy-limiting growth resumption, we established robust sorafenib resistance HCC cell models that exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and chemotherapeutic crossresistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001128RDOI Listing

MIB1-mediated degradation of WRN promotes cellular senescence in response to camptothecin treatment.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Werner syndrome protein (WRN) plays critical roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair, as well as transcription and cellular senescence. Ubiquitination and degradation of WRN have been reported, however, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of WRN is little known. Here, we identify mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MIB1) as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase for WRN protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000268RRRDOI Listing

Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) increases oxidative capacity and contractile stress generated by engineered skeletal muscle.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Laboratory for Living Systems Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, USC Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

In skeletal muscle fibers, mitochondria are densely packed adjacent to myofibrils because adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is needed to fuel sarcomere shortening. However, despite this close physical and biochemical relationship, the effects of mitochondrial dynamics on skeletal muscle contractility are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1), an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, on the structure and function of both mitochondria and myofibrils in skeletal muscle tissues engineered on micromolded gelatin hydrogels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901039RRDOI Listing

Phylogenetic analysis and expression differences of eye-related genes in cavefish genus Sinocyclocheilus.

Integr Zool 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

The adaptive evolution of visual systems has been observed in many cavefish. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations, which include regressive changes such as eye degeneration. Here, we analyzed phylogenetic and expression patterns of six eye-related genes (crx, foxg1b, opn1sw2, otx2, rho, and sox2) in twelve Sinocyclocheilus species from China including eight stygobionts and four stygophiles, and examined photoreceptor cell morphology of these species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12466DOI Listing

A COP1-PIF-HEC regulatory module fine-tunes photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

Light responses mediated by the photoreceptors play crucial roles in regulating different aspects of plant growth and development. An E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1)1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA (SPA), one of the central repressors of photomorphogenesis, is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. It targets several positive regulators of photomorphogenesis for degradation in darkness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14908DOI Listing

Robust geographical determinants of infection prevalence and a contrasting latitudinal diversity gradient for haemosporidian parasites in Western Palearctic birds.

Mol Ecol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Ecology and Conservation Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.

Identifying robust environmental predictors of infection probability is central to forecasting and mitigating the ongoing impacts of climate change on vector-borne disease threats. We applied phylogenetic hierarchical models to a dataset of 2,171 Western Palearctic individual birds from 47 species to determine how climate and landscape variation influence infection probability for three genera of haemosporidian blood parasites (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium). Our comparative models found compelling evidence that birds in areas with higher vegetation density (captured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) had higher likelihoods of carrying parasite infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15545DOI Listing

Positive selection and convergent evolution shape molecular phenotypic traits of innate immunity receptors in tits (Paridae).

Mol Ecol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Viničná 7, 128 43, Prague, Czech Republic.

Despite widespread variability and redundancy abounding animal immunity, little is currently known about the rate of evolutionary convergence (functionally analogous traits not inherited from a common ancestor) in host molecular adaptations to parasite selective pressures. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide the molecular interface allowing hosts to recognize pathogenic structures and trigger early danger signals initiating an immune response. Using a novel combination of bioinformatic approaches, here we explore genetic variation in ligand-binding regions of bacteria-sensing TLR4 and TLR5 in 29 species belonging to the tit family of passerine birds (Aves: Paridae). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15547DOI Listing

Astroglial N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 protects the brain from cerebral edema induced by stroke.

Glia 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Air Force Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Brain edema is a grave complication of brain ischemia and is the main cause of herniation and death. Although astrocytic swelling is the main contributor to cytotoxic edema, the molecular mechanism involved in this process remains elusive. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a well-studied tumor suppressor gene, is mainly expressed in astrocytes in mammalian brains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23888DOI Listing

High Glucosylceramides and Low Anandamide Contribute to Sensory Loss and Pain in Parkinson's Disease.

Mov Disord 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe-University, Medical Faculty, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic pain in two-thirds of patients, in part originating from sensory neuropathies. The aim of the present study was to describe the phenotype of PD-associated sensory neuropathy and to evaluate its associations with lipid allostasis, the latter motivated by recent genetic studies associating mutations of glucocerebrosidase with PD onset and severity. Glucocerebrosidase catalyzes the metabolism of glucosylceramides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28186DOI Listing

Aldosterone-induced microRNAs act as feedback regulators of mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in kidney epithelia.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

The final steps in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone signaling System (RAAS) involve binding of the corticosteroid hormone, aldosterone to its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The bound MR interacts with response elements to induce or repress the transcription of aldosterone-regulated genes. A well characterized aldosterone-induced gene is the serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK1), which acts downstream to increase sodium transport in distal kidney nephron epithelial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902254RRDOI Listing

Genomic analyses reveal the genetic basis of early maturity and identification of loci and candidate genes in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A & F University, Lin'an, Hangzhou, 311300, China.

Although upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutism L.) originated in the tropics, this early maturity cotton can be planted as far north as 46°N in China due to the accumulation of numerous phenotypic and physiological adaptations during domestication. However, how the genome of early maturity cotton has been altered by strong human selection remains largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13446DOI Listing

Expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of de novo missense variants in kinesin family member 1A (KIF1A).

Hum Mutat 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Brain and Mitochondrial Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Defects in the motor domain of kinesin family member 1A (KIF1A), a neuron-specific ATP-dependent anterograde axonal transporter of synaptic cargo, are well-recognized to cause a spectrum of neurological conditions, commonly known as KIF1A-associated neurological disorders (KAND). Here we report one mutation-negative female with classic Rett syndrome (RTT) harboring a de novo heterozygous novel variant [NP_001230937.1:p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24079DOI Listing

Impridone enhances vascular relaxation via FOXO1 pathway.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Cardiovascular complications are a side effect of cancer therapy, potentially through reduced blood vessel function. ONC201(TIC10) is currently used in Phase 2 clinical trials to treat high-grade gliomas. TIC10 is a Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor that induces apoptosis via upregulation of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, which via stimulation of FOXO and death receptor could increase eNOS upregulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13377DOI Listing

Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Cheracebus (Callicebinae, Pitheciidae).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 11:e23167. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Genomics and Systems Biology Center, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil.

Cheracebus is a new genus of New World primate of the family Pitheciidae, subfamily Callicebinae. Until recently, Cheracebus was classified as the torquatus species group of the genus Callicebus. The genus Cheracebus has six species: C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23167DOI Listing

Photophysical properties of DCM revisited: fluorescence vs. photoisomerization.

Chemistry 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, ENS Paris-Saclay, PPSM Laboratory, 4 av des Sciences, 91190, Gif-sur-Yvette, FRANCE.

Although the 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylamino-styryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) has been known for many decades as a bright and photostable fluorophore, used for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, biology and physics, only little attention has been paid so far on the presence of multiple isomers and conformers, namely s-trans-(E), s-cis-(E), s-trans-(Z), and s-cis-(Z). Especially, the light-induced E-Z isomerization plays a great role on the overall photophysical properties of DCM. Here we report the full description of a photoswitchable DCM derivative by a combination of structural, theoretical and spectroscopic methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202002828DOI Listing

Epithelial/mesenchymal heterogeneity of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma samples correlates with miRNA let-7 levels and predicts tumor growth and metastasis.

Mol Oncol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Biochemistry, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Patient-derived samples present an advantage over current cell line models of high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) that are not always reliable and phenotypically faithful models of in vivo HGSOC. To improve upon cell line models of HGSOC, we set out to characterize a panel of patient-derived cells and determine their epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. We analyzed RNA and protein expression levels in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of HGSOC, and functionally characterized these models using flow cytometry, wound healing assays, invasion assays and spheroid cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12762DOI Listing

Detection of peanut allergens in serum: circumventing the inhibitory effect of immunoglobulins.

Allergy 2020 Jul;75(7):1835-1836

Nutritional Biology, Department of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14330DOI Listing

What will studies of Fulani individuals naturally exposed to malaria teach us about protective immunity to malaria?

Scand J Immunol 2020 Jul 11:e12932. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

There are an estimated over 200 million yearly cases of malaria worldwide. Despite concerted international effort to combat the disease, it still causes approximately half a million deaths every year, the majority of which are young children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Successes are largely attributed to malaria prevention strategies, such as insecticide treated mosquito nets and indoor spraying, as well as improved access to existing treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.12932DOI Listing

Expanded roles for the MutL family of DNA mismatch repair proteins.

Yeast 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, 459 Biotechnology Building, Ithaca, New York, 14853-2703, USA.

The MutL family of DNA mismatch repair proteins playsa critical role in excising andrepairing misincorporation errors during DNA replication. In many eukaryotes, members of thisfamily have evolved tomodulate and resolve recombination intermediatesinto crossovers duringmeiosis. In these organisms, such functionspromote the accurate segregation of chromosomes during the Meiosis I division. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/yea.3512DOI Listing

Genetic variants in IL4RA, IL6 and IL12B genes and susceptibility to hepatitis B and C virus infections among Iraqi patients.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Tropical-Biological Research Unit, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are common causative pathogens of viral hepatitis. Progression of both infections is determined by virus- and host-related factors. Cytokines are important host-genetic factors that may have a predisposing role in HBV and HCV infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26297DOI Listing

The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation.

Evolution 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, Vienna, 1090, Austria.

"Magic traits", in which the same trait is both under divergent ecological selection and forms the basis of assortative mating, have been sought after due to their supposed unique ability to promote divergence with gene flow. Here we ask how unique magic traits are, by exploring whether a tightly linked complex of a locus under divergent selection and a locus that acts as a mating cue can mimic a magic trait in its divergence. We find that these "pseudomagic traits" can be very effective in promoting divergence; with tight linkage they are essentially as effective as a magic trait and with loose linkage, and even no linkage, divergence can still be enhanced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.14056DOI Listing

Relationships among host microbiota, parasite resistance or tolerance, and host fitness.

Conserv Biol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, FOR 109, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA.

Article Impact statement: Parasite-induced shifts in host microbiota that lead to parasite resistance or tolerance may have unintended consequences for host fitness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13582DOI Listing

From one-side to two-sides: the effects of stomatal distribution on photosynthesis.

New Phytol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Research Group on Plant Biology under Mediterranean Conditions, Universitat de les Illes Balears / Instituto de Investigaciones Agroambientales y de Economía del Agua (INAGEA), Carretera de Valldemossa Km 7.5, 07121, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain.

The functions of stomata have been studied for a long time, however, a clear understanding of the influences of stomatal distribution on photosynthesis, especially the CO diffusion, is still unclear. Here, we investigated the stomatal morphology, distribution on leaf surfaces, vein traits and gas exchange parameters of 61 species of which 29 were amphistomatous, spanning in 32 families. Photosynthesis (A) was tightly coupled with operational stomatal conductance (g ) and mesophyll conductance (g ) whether or not accounting for phylogenetic relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16801DOI Listing

A single nucleotide substitution in TaHKT1;5-D controls shoot Na accumulation in bread wheat.

Plant Cell Environ 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, The University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia.

Improving salinity tolerance in the most widely cultivated cereal, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is essential to increase grain yields on saline agricultural lands. A Portuguese landrace, Mocho de Espiga Branca accumulates up to six-fold greater leaf and sheath sodium (Na ) than two Australian cultivars, Gladius and Scout, under salt stress in hydroponics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13841DOI Listing

Length measurement accuracy of Adaptive Resolution Imaging Sonar (ARIS) and a predictive model to assess adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) into two size categories with long-range data in a river.

J Fish Biol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology and Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.

Imaging sonars are used around the world for fish population monitoring. The accuracy of the length measurements has been reported in multiple studies for relatively short (< 15 m) ranges and high image resolution. However, imaging sonars are often used at longer ranges (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14456DOI Listing

Role of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses with isolated agenesis of corpus callosum in the era of fetal neurosonography: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Center for Fetal Care and High-risk Pregnancy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: Corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) is frequently diagnosed during fetal life; its prognosis depends also on additional anomalies. The additional value of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with 'isolated' complete (cACC) and partial (pACC) agenesis of the corpus callosum on ultrasound is still debated.

Material And Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis including fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of cACC and pACC without associated structural anomalies on ultrasound, undergoing fetal MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13958DOI Listing

Photocaged functional nucleic acids for spatiotemporal imaging in biology.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2020 Jul 8;57:95-104. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, United States; Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, United States; Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, United States; DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, United States. Electronic address:

Imaging of species in living organisms with high spatiotemporal resolution is essential for understanding biological processes. While functional nucleic acids (FNAs), such as catalytic nucleic acids and aptamers, have emerged as effective sensors for a wide range of molecules, photocaged control of these FNAs has played a key role in translating them into bioimaging agents with high spatiotemporal control. In this review, we summarize methods and results of photocaged FNAs based on photolabile modifications, photoisomerization, and photothermal activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.05.003DOI Listing

PhotoGal4: A Versatile Light-Dependent Switch for Spatiotemporal Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila Explants.

iScience 2020 Jun 23;23(7):101308. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, and Norman Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

We present here PhotoGal4, a phytochrome B-based optogenetic switch for fine-tuned spatiotemporal control of gene expression in Drosophila explants. This switch integrates the light-dependent interaction between phytochrome B and PIF6 from plants with regulatory elements from the yeast Gal4/UAS system. We found that PhotoGal4 efficiently activates and deactivates gene expression upon red- or far-red-light irradiation, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101308DOI Listing

Molecular mechanisms of enterococcal-bacteriophage interactions and implications for human health.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2020 Jul 8;56:38-44. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, United States. Electronic address:

Once overlooked as passive bystanders of the human intestinal microbiota, new evidence is shedding light on the importance of enterococci and their bacteriophages (phages) in shaping human health. Natural predators of enterococci, phages represent a narrow spectrum, precision targeting modality for the eradication of problematic enterococci within the microbiota or infected tissue. The identification of enterococcal phage receptors, absorption factors, and transcriptional responses following phage infection reveals a complex predator-prey relationship that modulates enterococcal cell surface architecture, susceptibility to antibiotics, and adaptation to host associated environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Evaluation of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR kit RUO performances and limit of detection.

J Clin Virol 2020 Jun 29;129:104520. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Université de Paris, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Service de virologie, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France.

Background: The use of efficient, reliable and sensitive PCR assays is a cornerstone in the race to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this work we performed an independent evaluation of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Kit Researh Use Only (Altona) for SARS-CoV-2 detection.

Methods: A comparative limit of detection (LoD) assessment was performed between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and the currently WHO recommended RT-PCR (WHO-PCR) workflow using a quantified clinical sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104520DOI Listing

Effects of short- and long-term exposure to cadmium on salivary glands and fat body of soil centipede Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda): Histology and ultrastructure.

Micron 2020 Jun 30;137:102915. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Akademicka 16, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland; Silesian University of Technology, Biotechnology Centre, Krzywoustego 8, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.

Cadmium (Cd) is the most widely studied heavy metal in terms of food-chain accumulation and contamination because it can strongly affect all environments (e.g., soil, water, air). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2020.102915DOI Listing

Combined blockade of EGFR and glutamine metabolism in preclinical models of colorectal cancer.

Transl Oncol 2020 Jul 8;13(10):100828. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Vanderbilt Center for Molecular Probes, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21(st) Avenue South, Medical Center North, R0102, Nashville, TN 37232, United States; Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Medical Center North, R0102, Nashville, TN 37232, United States; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232, United States; Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2220 Pierce Avenue, Nashville, TN 37232, United States. Electronic address:

Improving response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies in patients with advanced wild-type (WT) RAS colorectal cancer (CRC) remains an unmet need. In this preclinical work, we evaluated a new therapeutic combination aimed at enhancing efficacy by targeting cancer cell metabolism in concert with EGFR. We hypothesized that combined blockade of glutamine metabolism and EGFR represents a promising treatment approach by targeting both the "fuel" and "signaling" components that these tumors need to survive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100828DOI Listing

Quantifying DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and hyperthermia using single DNA molecule imaging.

Transl Oncol 2020 Jul 8;13(10):100822. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common mode of cancer therapy, where DNA damage is the major reason of cell death. Here, we use an assay based on fluorescence imaging of single damaged DNA molecules isolated from radiated lymphocytes, to quantify IR induced DNA damage. The assay uses a cocktail of DNA-repair enzymes that recognizes and excises DNA lesions and then a polymerase and a ligase incorporate fluorescent nucleotides at the damage sites, resulting in a fluorescent "spot" at each site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100822DOI Listing

Insulin-like growth factor-I rescue of primary keratinocytes from pre- and post-ultraviolet B radiation effects.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jul 3;209:111951. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) induces the formation of photolesions in epidermal keratinocytes, potentially affecting cellular function and contributing towards malignant transformation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) contributes to protection of keratinocytes against UVBR-induced damage. Studies have shown that exogenous IGF-I or dermal fibroblast conditioned media pre-UVBR contributes to protection in primary keratinocytes by preventing apoptosis, modulating cell cycle progression and affecting photolesion removal through its damage preventative effects, however, the efficacy of IGF-I post-UVBR has not been sufficiently addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111951DOI Listing

Pamiparib is a potent and selective PARP inhibitor with unique potential for the treatment of brain tumor.

Neoplasia 2020 Jul 8;22(9):431-440. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of In Vivo Pharmacology, BeiGene (Beijing) Co., Ltd., Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Pamiparib, an investigational Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor in clinical development, demonstrates excellent selectivity for both PARP1 and PARP2, and superb anti-proliferation activities in tumor cell lines with BRCA1/2 mutations or HR pathway deficiency (HRD). Pamiparib has good bioavailability and is 16-fold more potent than olaparib in an efficacy study using BRCA1 mutated MDA-MB-436 breast cancer xenograft model. Pamiparib also shows strong anti-tumor synergy with temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA alkylating agent used to treat brain tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Kojic acid-natural product conjugates as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Jun 16;201:112480. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

As part of our effort to develop potential tyrosinase inhibitors, we have conjugated the well-known tyrosinase inhibitor kojic acid (KA) with several phenolic natural products such as umbelliferone, sesamol, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, isoeugenol, vanillin, isovanillin, and apocynin that some reports have shown their activity on tyrosinase enzyme. The designed compounds were synthesized using click reaction and 1,2,3-triazole formation. All compound showed potent anti-tyrosinase activity significantly higher than KA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112480DOI Listing

Digestive solubilization of Cd in highly-contaminated sediment by marine deposit feeders: The roles of intestinal surfactants in Cd mobilization and Re-Adsorption processes.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jul 2;266(Pt 3):115149. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.

Marine deposit feeders are of ecological significance in transferring sedimentary Cd along aquatic food chains. A key process for this transfer is these organisms' dietary uptake of Cd via solubilization of Cd present in ingested contaminated sediment. To better understand the bioavailability of sedimentary Cd to deposit feeders, the present study used in vitro extraction experiments to explore the contribution of different digestive agents (proteins, amino acids and surfactants) to the solubilization of Cd from sediment collected in a highly-contaminated Chinese bay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115149DOI Listing

Metal exposure causes rDNA copy number to fluctuate in mutation accumulation lines of Daphnia pulex.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Jun 30;226:105556. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road West, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Ribosomal (r)DNA is a highly dynamic, conserved, multigene family whose sequence homogeneity is thought to be maintained by intra- and interchromosomal recombination, which are capable of changing rDNA copy number. It is generally not known how environmental stress such as sublethal exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of metals impacts rDNA copy number. To determine how chronic metal exposure affects rDNA, we measured copy number of the 18S rRNA gene in 355 copper and nickel-exposed samples and 132 metal-free samples derived from 325 mutation accumulation (MA) lines of two genetically distinct Daphnia pulex lineages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105556DOI Listing

Comparative study of concatemer efficiency as an isotope-labelled internal standard for allergen quantification.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 27;332:127413. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

CER Groupe, Rue du Point du Jour 8, 6900 Marloie, Belgium. Electronic address:

Mass spectrometry-based methods coupled with stable isotope dilution have become effective and widely used methods for the detection and quantification of food allergens. Current methods target signature peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of proteins of the allergenic ingredient. The choice of appropriate stable isotope-labelled internal standard is crucial, given the diversity of encountered food matrices which can affect sample preparation and analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127413DOI Listing

The falciform ligament: Anatomical study with microsurgical implications.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Jun 29;195:106049. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; Department of Neurosurgery and Ochsner Neuroscience Institute, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA, USA; Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University, St. George's, Grenada; Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Objectives: The current study aims to increase awareness of the falciform ligament and its anatomical and surgical relationships, for the benefit of the neurosurgeon.

Patinents And Methods: Twenty-four sides from twelve Caucasian cadaveric heads (all fresh-frozen) were used in this study. The length and thickness of the falciform ligament were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106049DOI Listing
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