1,678,334 results match your criteria Biology & Philosophy[Journal]


PTEN-deficient prostate cancer is associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by increased expression of IDO1 and infiltrating FoxP3+ T regulatory cells.

Prostate 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Cancer Biology and Genetics, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Background: Accumulating evidence shows that tumor cell-specific genomic changes can influence the cross talk between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene is observed in 20% to 30% of prostate cancers (PCa) when first detected and the rate increases with PCa progression and advanced disease. Recent findings implicate a role for PTEN in cellular type I interferon response and immunosuppression in PCa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23808DOI Listing

Hyperglycemia and T Cell infiltration are associated with stromal and epithelial prostatic hyperplasia in the nonobese diabetic mouse.

Prostate 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: Prostatic inflammation and various proinflammatory systemic comorbidities, such as diabetes and obesity are associated with human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There is a paucity of in vivo models reflecting specific aspects of BPH pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a potential model for subsequent intervention studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23809DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Adipokines Regulate the Expression of Tumor-Relevant MicroRNAs.

Obes Facts 2019 Apr 18;12(2):211-225. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Background: Increasing prevalence of obesity requires the investigation of respective comorbidities, including tumor diseases like colorectal, renal, post-menopausal breast, prostate cancer, and leukemia. To date, molecular mechanisms of the malignant transformation of these peripheral tissues induced by obesity remain unclear. Adipose tissue secretes factors with hormone-like functions, the adipokines, and is therefore categorized as an endocrine organ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496625DOI Listing

Computational approaches to macromolecular interactions in the cell.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2019 Apr 15;55:59-65. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Computational Biology Program and Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. Electronic address:

Structural modeling of a cell is an evolving strategic direction in computational structural biology. It takes advantage of new powerful modeling techniques, deeper understanding of fundamental principles of molecular structure and assembly, and rapid growth of the amount of structural data generated by experimental techniques. Key modeling approaches to principal types of macromolecular assemblies in a cell already exist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Discovery of 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as selective covalent irreversible inhibitors of interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk).

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Mar 26;173:167-183. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Engineering Laboratory for Chiral Drug Synthesis, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen, 518055, China. Electronic address:

Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) plays an important role in multiple signal transduction pathways in T and mast cells, and is a potential drug target for treating inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Herein, we describe the discovery of a series of covalent Itk inhibitors based on the 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold. Placing an appropriate substitution group at a hydration site of the ATP binding pocket of Itk and using a saturated heterocyclic ring as a linker to the reactive group were crucial for selectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.03.055DOI Listing

A method for the cell-cycle-specific analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and breaks.

Mutat Res 2019 Apr 6;815:10-19. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen, Germany. Electronic address:

The classical G-assay is widely used to assess cell-radiosensitivity and cancer phenotype: Cells are exposed to low doses of ionizing-radiation (IR) and collected for cytogenetic- analysis ˜1.5 h later. In this way, chromosome-damage is measured in cells irradiated in G-phase, without retrieving information regarding kinetics of chromosome-break-repair. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00275107193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Plant cell division - defining and finding the sweet spot for cell plate insertion.

Authors:
Sabine Müller

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 15;60:9-18. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Plant Molecular Biology, Auf der Morgenstelle 32, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The plant microtubules form unique arrays using acentrosomal microtubule nucleation pathways, yet utilizing evolutionary conserved centrosomal proteins. In cytokinesis, a multi-component cytoskeletal apparatus, the phragmoplast mediates the biosynthesis of the new cell plate by dynamic centrifugal expansion, a process that demands exquisite coordination of microtubule turnover and endomembrane trafficking. At the same time, the phragmoplast is guided to meet with the parental wall at a cortical site that is predefined before mitotic entry and transiently marked by the preprophase band of microtubules. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Folding the genome into mitotic chromosomes.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 15;60:19-26. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR), Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

How linear DNA molecules are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell division has remained one of the central outstanding questions in cell biology. Condensin is a highly conserved protein complex that universally determines large-scale DNA geometry during mitotic chromosome assembly. A wide range of recently developed approaches, including super resolution microscopy, single molecule imaging, Hi-C analyses and computational modeling, have profoundly changed how we view mitotic chromosomes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Ghrelin signalling within the rat nucleus accumbens and skilled reach foraging.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 8;106:183-194. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Motivation alters behaviour in a complex manner and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell has been implied as a key structure regulating such behaviour. Recent studies show that acute ghrelin signalling enhances motivation when assessed in a simple motor task. The aim of the present study was to define the role of ghrelin signalling on motivation in a more complex motor behaviour. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064530193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Rapid quantitative analysis of ginkgo flavonoids using paper spray mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Apr 10;171:158-163. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Phytochemical R&D of Hunan Province and Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, PR China.

In this work, a method for the rapid and reliable analysis of ginkgo flavonoids was developed by using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) assisted by microwave-assisted hydrolysis (MAH). Kaempferol-D, quercetin-D, and isorhamnetin-D were used as internal standards (IS). Samples analyses were completed by simply treating with extraction, MAH, dilution, and quantitative analysis by PS-MS. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07317085183281
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.04.018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Interaction of neurotransmitters and neurochemicals with lymphocytes.

J Neuroimmunol 2019 Apr 11;332:99-111. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

Neurotransmitters and neurochemicals can act on lymphocytes by binding to receptors expressed by lymphocytes. This review describes lymphocyte expression of receptors for a selection of neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, the anatomical locations where lymphocytes can interact with neurotransmitters, and the effects of the neurotransmitters on lymphocyte function. Implications for health and disease are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.04.006DOI Listing

STIM1 structure-function and downstream signaling pathways.

Cell Calcium 2019 Apr 8;80:101-102. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Life Science Center, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz, Austria. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2019.01.004DOI Listing

Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on stem Leydig cell functions in the rat.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 9;250:206-215. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, No.1 Xi'an Men Street, West District, Beijing, 100034, China; Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325027, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) are two perfluorinated chemical products widely existing in the environment. Evidence suggested that PFOA might relate to male reproductive dysfunction in rats and humans. PFOA exposure inhibited the function of Leydig cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02697491193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.120DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Synergetic effect of combined ensiling of freshly harvested and excessively wilted maize stover for efficient biogas production.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Apr 11;285:121338. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

College of Engineering (Key Laboratory for Clean Renewable Energy Utilization Technology, Ministry of Agriculture), China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, PR China; Yantai Institute, China Agricultural University, Yantai 264032, Shandong, PR China.

This study investigated the synergetic effects of ensiling freshly harvested maize stover (FHM) and excessively wilted maize stover (EWM) on biogas production. FHM and EWM were mixed in various proportions to obtain dry matter (DM) contents of 30%, 35% and 40%. For reference, FHM alone was ensiled and stored in open-air. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121338DOI Listing

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of neurotoxic insecticides using the micronucleus test in Tradescantia pallida.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 12;227:371-380. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Institute of Biotechnology, Federal University of Uberlândia, Campus Umuarama, 38900-402, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Neonicotinoids and phenylpyrazoles are classes of neurotoxic insecticides which are able to bind at different ligand sites of neural receptors, leading to the deregulation of insect neural activity and hence resulting in death. The misuse or indiscriminate use of these chemicals is directly associated with several toxicological effects in biota and at different trophic levels. Based on this premise, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the genotoxic capacity of different concentrations of thiamethoxam (TMX), acetamiprid (ACP), imidacloprid (IMI) and fipronil (FP) through the Micronucleus Test in Tradescantia pallida (Trad-MCN). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535193072
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.073DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of IFIT5 in tissues of ducklings infected with virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 3.

Res Vet Sci 2019 Apr 8;124:256-262. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang Province, PR China; Northeastern Science Inspection Station, China Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Pathogen Biology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are a family of proteins strongly induced downstream of type I interferon signaling. The function of IFITs has been investigated extensively in mammals. IFIT5 is the sole protein in this family found in birds and little information is available about the function of avian IFIT5. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00345288183132
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Calu-3 cells are largely resistant to entry driven by filovirus glycoproteins and the entry defect can be rescued by directed expression of DC-SIGN or cathepsin L.

Virology 2019 Apr 3;532:22-29. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Infection Biology Unit, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Biology and Psychology, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) by the cellular proteases cathepsin B and L (CatB, CatL) is believed to be essential for cell entry of filoviruses. However, pseudotyping systems that predominantly produce non-filamentous particles have frequently been used to prove this concept. Here, we report that GP-mediated entry of retroviral-, rhabdoviral and filoviral particles depends on CatB/CatL activity and that this effect is cell line-independent. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00426822193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.020DOI Listing
April 2019
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Current status of nanomaterial-based treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Apr 15;116:108852. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Departments of Biology, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Cancer continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a prominent form of liver cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, thanks to the lack of efficient diagnostic tools and consequently late diagnosis and to the scarce of available suitable treatments. Thus, novel approaches to treat HCC are in demand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108852DOI Listing

Evidence for sea spray effect on oxygen stable isotopes in bone phosphate - Approximation and correction using Gaussian Mixture Model clustering.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 10;673:668-684. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biology I, Anthropology and Human Genomics, Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Palaeobiodiversity research based on stable isotope analysis in coastal environments can be severely hampered by the so-called "sea spray" effect. This effect shifts the isotopic signal of terrestrial individuals towards too marine values. It is commonly agreed upon that sea spray influences sulphur stable isotopes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193159
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.072DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Managing small, highly prolific invasive aquatic species: Exploring an ecosystem approach for the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 6;673:594-604. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Research in Biodiversity (IRBio-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Integrative Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Sevilla, Spain.

Invasive exotic species threaten native biodiversity worldwide and their management is on the agenda of an increasing number of countries. We explored the potential of an ecosystem approach for the natural control of Gambusia holbrooki, which is among the most pernicious and widely distributed fish invaders. Individual-based linear mixed models were used to identify the ecosystem factors (conspecific density, environment and piscivorous birds) that most influenced life-history variation in male and female G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.460DOI Listing

Unlocking the trove of metabolic treasures: activating silent biosynthetic gene clusters in bacteria and fungi.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2019 Apr 15;51:9-15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Michael G. DeGroote Institute of Infectious Disease Research and Department of Biology McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Bacteria and fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, yet they house a multitude of silent biosynthetic gene clusters that are poorly expressed and whose products are unknown or 'cryptic'. Stimulating the expression of these clusters and accessing their associated molecules is a major priority, as they are expected to have a veritable cornucopia of bioactivites. Here, we highlight three strategies that have been the focus of recent developments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2019.03.003DOI Listing

The Reference Genome Sequence of Scutellaria baicalensis Provides Insights into the Evolution of Wogonin Biosynthesis.

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Resources, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; John Innes Centre, Norwich, NR4 7UH UK. Electronic address:

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is important in Chinese Traditional Medicine where preparations of dried roots, 'Huang Qin', are used for liver and lung complaints including complementary cancer treatments. We report a high-quality reference genome sequence for S. baicalensis where 93% of the 408. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S16742052193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Overexpression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase alleviated iron-deficiency stress by regulating iron distribution and redox homeostasis.

J Plant Physiol 2019 Apr 1;237:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Germplasm Creation in Huang-Huai Region, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient element for plant growth. The S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) gene's functions under Fe-deficiency conditions are not well understood. Here, GSNOR expression was induced by Fe deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01761617183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Mechanisms underlying a critical period of respiratory development in the rat.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA.

Twenty-five years ago, Filiano and Kinney (1994) proposed that a critical period of postnatal development constitutes one of the three risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The underlying mechanism was poorly understood. In the last 17 years, much has been uncovered on this period in the rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Adverse and hormetic effects in rats exposed for 12 months to low dose mixture of 13 chemicals: RLRS part III.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center of Toxicology Science & Research, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Department of Analytical and Forensic Medical Toxicology, Sechenov University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of thirteen common chemicals on rats, after a one-year exposure to doses around the acceptable daily intake (ADIs), using blood and urinary tests. The influence of low doses of the mixture on weight gain, water consumption, feed consumption and feed efficiency, biochemistry parameters, haematological parameters, blood lymphocytes subsets, serum inflammation profile and urine parameters was evaluated. Our mixture caused a moderate monotonic increase of the males' appetite and a non-monotonic increase of anabolism and a monotonic increase of appetite for the females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Reconciling the controversial data on the effects of C fullerene at the organismal and molecular levels using as a model Drosophila melanogaster.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska St., 64, 01601, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Fullerenes have attracted attention since their discovery as structural units of complex carbon nanostructures capable of transporting drugs and macromolecules. As such artificial nanomaterials are applied in biology and medicine, they are routinely scrutinized for their effects on living organisms. The results of such studies range from direct destabilizing effects on DNA molecules to amelioration of the toxic effects of known genotoxic agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Phylogenomics clarifies biogeographic and evolutionary history, and conservation status of West Indian tremblers and thrashers (Aves: Mimidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

The West Indian avifauna has provided fundamental insights into island biogeography, taxon cycles, and the evolution of avian behavior. Our interpretations, however, should rely on robust hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and consistent conclusions about taxonomic status in groups with many endemic island populations. Here we present a phylogenetic study of the West Indian thrashers, tremblers, and allies, an assemblage of at least 5 species found on 29 islands, including what is considered the Lesser Antilles' only avian radiation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10557903193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.04.016DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Comparison of MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper and 16S rDNA sequencing for identification of Pseudomonas species isolated from fish.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, K. Helmaņa iela 8, LV-3004, Jelgava, Latvia.

Effective and reliable methods of identification of Pseudomonas spp. are important for characterization of microorganisms. The aim of present study was to compare identification conducted with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper and 16S rDNA sequencing of Pseudomonas species isolated from fish. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08824010193042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.024DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sex-Specific Neurogenic Deficits and Neurocognitive Disorders in Middle-Aged HIV-1 Tg26 Transgenic Mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Metabolic Disease Research, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States. Electronic address:

Varying degrees of cognitive deficits affect over half of all HIV-1 infected patients. Because of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens, the HIV-1 patient population is increasing in age. Very few epidemiological studies have focused on sex-specific differences in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08891591183060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.029DOI Listing
April 2019
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Evaluation of the schistosomicidal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction from Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf. Roots on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver pathology in mice and its phytochemical characterization.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Apr 15:111883. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Biology, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Centre for Schistosomiasis and Parasitology, P.O. Box 7244, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf. (syn.: Heeria pulcherrrima Schweinf. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111883DOI Listing

Anti-atherogenic effects of CD36-targeted epigallocatechin gallate-loaded nanoparticles.

J Control Release 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. Electronic address:

Intimal macrophages play a critical role in atherosclerotic lesion initiation and progression by taking up oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and promoting inflammatory process. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine (KOdiA-PC), a major type of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (PC) found on oxLDL, has a high binding affinity to the macrophage scavenger receptor CD36 and participates in CD36-mediated recognition and uptake of oxLDL by intimal macrophages. We successfully synthesized epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-loaded nanoparticles (Enano), which were composed of EGCG, PC, (+) alpha-tocopherol acetate, and surfactant. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01683659193021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Physical activity sustains memory retrieval in dopamine-depleted mice previously treated with L-Dopa.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 15:111915. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

The neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease affects motor abilities as well as cognition. The gold standard therapy is L-Dopa, which mainly restores motor skills. Therefore, we require additional interventions to sustain cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111915DOI Listing

IL-17-high asthma with features of a psoriasis immunophenotype.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Respiratory, Inflammation, Autoimmunity IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: The role of interleukin-17 immunity is well established in inflammatory diseases like psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease but not in asthma where further study is required.

Objective: To undertake a deep-phenotyping study of asthmatics with up-regulated interleukin-17 immunity.

Methods: Whole genome transcriptomic analysis was performed using epithelial brushings, bronchial biopsies (91 asthmatics patients and 46 healthy controls) and whole blood samples (n=498) from the U-BIOPRED cohort. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00916749193048
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.03.027DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Dysregulation of Akt-FOXO1 pathway leads to dysfunction of regulatory T cells in psoriasis patients.

J Invest Dermatol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Psoriasis is a T lymphocyte-driven systemic inflammatory disease. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for establishing and maintaining immune tolerance. In this study, we found that the psoriatic patients and healthy controls had comparable percentages of circulating CD4CD25FOXP3 Treg cells, but psoriatic Treg cells had reduced suppressive function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.12.035DOI Listing

The nanoscopic molecular pathway through human skin.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Knowledge regarding the barrier properties of human skin is important for understanding skin pathology, developing of transdermal drug delivery systems and computational skin absorption models; however, the molecular pathways through human skin remains to be fully investigated on a nanoscopic level. In particular the nanoscopic pathway of molecules passing the intercellular lipid bilayers separating the corneocytes in the stratum corneum (SC) is not fully elucidated.

Methods: Using stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) the molecular pathways through the SC, the main barrier of the skin, are determined for lipophilic and water-soluble molecules at a nanoscopic resolution. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03044165193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2019.04.012DOI Listing

On the critical evaluation and confirmation of germline sequence variants identified using massively parallel sequencing.

J Biotechnol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Geneton Ltd., Bratislava, Slovakia. Electronic address:

Although massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is becoming common practice in both research and routine clinical care, confirmation requirements of identified DNA variants using alternative methods are still topics of debate. When evaluating variants directly from MPS data, different read depth statistics, together with specialized genotype quality scores are, therefore, of high relevance. Here we report results of our validation study performed in two different ways: 1) confirmation of MPS identified variants using Sanger sequencing; and 2) simultaneous Sanger and MPS analysis of exons of selected genes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01681656193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.04.013DOI Listing
April 2019
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The adrenergic receptor antagonist carvedilol interacts with serotonin 2A receptors both in vitro and in vivo.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Section on Drug Design and Synthesis, National Institute on Drug Abuse and Chemical Biology Research Branch, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

There is increasing support for the potential clinical use of compounds that interact with serotonin 2A (5-HT) receptors. It is therefore of interest to discover novel compounds that interact with 5-HT receptors. In the present study, we used computational chemistry to identify critical ligand structural features of 5-HT receptor binding and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Lipotoxicity reduces β cell survival through islet stellate cell activation regulated by lipid metabolism-related molecules.

Exp Cell Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Zhongda Hospital, Institute of Diabetes, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Islet stellate cells (ISCs) activation is mainly associated with islet fibrosis, which contributes to the progression of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not fully understood.

Methods: In order to investigate this process the current study examined ectopic fat accumulation in rats with high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Stress responses in stromal cells and tumor homeostasis.

Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Paris, France. Electronic address:

In most (if not all) solid tumors, malignant cells are outnumbered by their non-malignant counterparts, including immune, endothelial and stromal cells. However, while the mechanisms whereby cancer cells adapt to microenvironmental perturbations have been studied in great detail, relatively little is known on stress responses in non-malignant compartments of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we discuss the mechanisms whereby cancer-associated fibroblasts and other cellular components of the tumor stroma react to stress in the context of an intimate crosstalk with malignant, endothelial and immune cells, and how such crosstalk influences disease progression and response to treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Prioritized Brain Selenium Retention and Selenoprotein Expression: Nutritional Insights into Parkinson's Disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Geriatrics and Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, China; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se), an essential trace mineral, confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, most of which are oxidoreductases. Results from animal, epidemiological, and human genetic studies link Parkinson's disease to Se and certain selenoproteins. Parkinson's disease is characterized by multiple motor and non-motor symptoms that are difficult to diagnose at early stages of the pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2019.04.004DOI Listing

The formation of the Thickveins (Tkv) gradient in Drosophila wing discs: A theoretical study.

Authors:
Zhan Chen

J Theor Biol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, United States.

The development of wing imaginal disc (wing disc) is commonly adopted for the studies of patterning and growth which are two fundamental problems in developmental biology. Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling regulates several aspects of wing development, such as the anterior (A)-posterior (P) patterning, cellular growth rate, and cell adhesion. The distribution and activity of Dpp signaling are controlled in part by the expression level of its major type I receptor, Thickveins (Tkv). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.04.015DOI Listing

Bacterial Transcription Factors: Regulation by Pick 'N' Mix.

J Mol Biol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address:

Transcription in most bacteria is tightly regulated in order to facilitate bacterial adaptation to different environments, and transcription factors play a key role in this. Here we give a brief overview of the essential features of bacterial transcription factors and how they affect transcript initiation at target promoters. We focus on complex promoters that are regulated by combinations of activators and repressors, combinations of repressors only, or combinations of activators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.04.011DOI Listing
April 2019
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Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) might disturb the sensitive mechanism of cerebral pressure autoregulation. This study examines whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) is impaired in the posterior or anterior circulation of CAA patients. Fifteen patients with known CAA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 14 age-matched controls were examined with transcranial Doppler. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00068993193020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.014DOI Listing
April 2019
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Quantitative atomic force microscopy provides new insight into matrix vesicle mineralization.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Nanoscience & Nanotechnology & Innovative Instrumentation (NAST) Centre, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Matrix vesicles (MVs) are a class of extracellular vesicles that initiate mineralization in cartilage, bone, and other vertebrate tissues by accumulating calcium ions (Ca) and inorganic phosphate (P) within their lumen and forming a nucleation core (NC). After further sequestration of Ca and P, the NC transforms into crystalline complexes. Direct evidence of the existence of the NC and its maturation have been provided solely by analyses of dried samples. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00039861183104
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Automated in vivo screen in zebrafish identifies clotrimazole as targeting a metabolic vulnerability in a melanoma model.

Dev Biol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Biology, CIBIO Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Povo TN, Italy. Electronic address:

Therapeutic approaches for cutaneous melanoma are flourishing, but despite promising results, there is an increasing number of reported primary or secondary resistance to the growing sets of drugs approved for therapy in the clinics. Combinatorial approaches may overcome resistance, as they may tackle specific weaknesses of melanoma cells, not sufficient on their own, but effective in combination with other therapies. The transgenic zebrafish line kita:ras develops melanoma with high frequency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Probing the substrate promiscuity of isopentenyl phosphate kinase as a platform for hemiterpene analogue production.

Chembiochem 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

North Carolina State University, Department of Chemistry, Campus Box 8204, 27695-8204, Raleigh, UNITED STATES.

Isoprenoids are a large class of natural products with wide-ranging applications. Synthetic biology approaches to the manufacture of isoprenoids and their new-to-nature derivatives are limited due to the provision in Nature of just two hemiterpene building blocks for isoprenoid biosynthesis. To address this limitation, artificial chemo-enzymatic pathways such as the alcohol-dependent hemiterpene pathway (ADH) serve to leverage consecutive kinases to convert exogenous alcohols to pyrophosphates that could be coupled to downstream isoprenoid biosynthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900135DOI Listing

Therapeutic Window for Phosphodiesterase 6-Related Retinitis Pigmentosa.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Jonas Children's Vision Care and Bernard & Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Departments of Ophthalmology and Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Institute of Human Nutrition, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.6381DOI Listing

Genome sequencing and transcript analysis of Hemileia vastatrix reveal expression dynamics of candidate effectors dependent on host compatibility.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215598. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Coffee leaf rust caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix is one of the most important leaf diseases of coffee plantations worldwide. Current knowledge of the H. vastatrix genome is limited and only a small fraction of the total fungal secretome has been identified. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215598PLOS

HIV disease, metabolic dysfunction and atherosclerosis: A three year prospective study.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215620. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

HIV infection is known to be associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities; here we investigated the progression and causes of these abnormalities. Three groups of participants were recruited: HIV-negative subjects and two groups of treatment-naïve HIV-positive subjects, one group initiating antiretroviral treatment, the other remaining untreated. Intima-media thickness (cIMT) increased in HIV-positive untreated group compared to HIV-negative group, but treatment mitigated the difference. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215620PLOS
April 2019
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Identification of evolutionarily conserved downstream core promoter elements required for the transcriptional regulation of Fushi tarazu target genes.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215695. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

The regulation of transcription initiation is critical for developmental and cellular processes. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is recruited by the basal transcription machinery to the core promoter where Pol II initiates transcription. The core promoter encompasses the region from -40 to +40 bp relative to the +1 transcription start site (TSS). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215695PLOS
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