12,293 results match your criteria Biology[Journal]


Water-filtered Infrared A and visible light (wIRA/VIS) treatment reduces Chlamydia caviae-induced ocular inflammation and infectious load in a Guinea pig model of inclusion conjunctivitis.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jul 5;209:111953. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Trachoma is a devastating neglected tropical disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and the leading global cause of infectious blindness. Although antibiotic treatment against trachoma is efficient (SAFE strategy), additional affordable therapeutic strategies are of high interest. Water-filtered infrared A and visible light (wIRA/VIS) irradiation has proven to reduce chlamydial infectivity in vitro and ex vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111953DOI Listing

A ROS responsive nanomedicine with enhanced photodynamic therapy via dual mechanisms: GSH depletion and biosynthesis inhibition.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jul 5;209:111955. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Centre of Biomedical Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, Jiangsu 224051, China. Electronic address:

Reduced glutathione (GSH, containing sulfydryl) inside cancer cells strongly consumes reactive oxygen species (ROS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) process to reduce PDT effect. Thiol-ene click reaction is a classic method to couple sulfydryl and alkene groups. However, little effort was dedicated to developing medicines for GSH depletion based on this reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111955DOI Listing

Exoenzyme C3 transferase lowers actin cytoskeleton dynamics, genomic stability and survival of malignant melanoma cells under UV-light stress.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jul 2;209:111947. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Biomolecular Systems Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Actin cytoskeleton remodeling is the major motor of cytoskeleton dynamics driving tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The typical RhoA, RhoB and RhoC GTPases are the main regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. The C3 exoenzyme transferase from Clostridium botulinum is a toxin that causes the specific ADP-ribosylation of Rho-like proteins, leading to its inactivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111947DOI Listing

Biogeochemical and photobiological responses of subarctic lakes to UV radiation.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 11;209:111932. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, 15140 Lahti, Finland.

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces photodegradation of optically and functionally important organic compounds in lakes and may negatively impact aquatic biota. We disentangled UV impacts on dissolved organic matter (DOM) transformation, and algal and zoobenthic micro-organisms in two shallow subarctic lakes in NW Finnish Lapland; in a high-UV + low-DOM (tundra, Iso-Jehkas) and a low-UV + high-DOM (mountain birch woodland, Mukkavaara) system. In addition to site and seasonal comparisons, in situ experiments with three treatments (DARK, photosynthetically active radiation [PAR], UV + PAR) were set up floating on the lakes for four weeks during midsummer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111932DOI Listing

Insulin-like growth factor-I rescue of primary keratinocytes from pre- and post-ultraviolet B radiation effects.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jul 3;209:111951. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) induces the formation of photolesions in epidermal keratinocytes, potentially affecting cellular function and contributing towards malignant transformation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) contributes to protection of keratinocytes against UVBR-induced damage. Studies have shown that exogenous IGF-I or dermal fibroblast conditioned media pre-UVBR contributes to protection in primary keratinocytes by preventing apoptosis, modulating cell cycle progression and affecting photolesion removal through its damage preventative effects, however, the efficacy of IGF-I post-UVBR has not been sufficiently addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111951DOI Listing

A general framework for non-exponential delayed fluorescence and phosphorescence decay analysis, illustrated on Protoporphyrin IX.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Apr 30;209:111887. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Laboratory for functional and metabolic imaging, LIFMET, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Delayed fluorescence (DF) is a long-lived luminescence process used in a variety of applications ranging from oxygen sensing in biological tissues to organic Light Emitting Diodes. In common cases, DF results from the de-excitation of the first excited triplet state via the first excited singlet state of the chromophore, which produces a mono-exponential light signal whose amplitude and lifetime give an insight into the probed environment. However, non-linear de-excitation reactions such as triplet-triplet annihilation, which can cause decays to lose their mono-exponential nature, are often neglected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111887DOI Listing

Assessment of Cytocompatibility and Anti-Inflammatory (Inter)Actions of Genipin-Crosslinked Chitosan Powders.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Biomaterial Laboratory, Department of Innovation for Engineering, University of Salento c/o Ecotekne, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Chitosan is a polysaccharide commonly used, together with its derivatives, in the preparation of hydrogel formulations, scaffolds and films for tissue engineering applications. Chitosan can be used as such, but it is commonly stabilized by means of chemical crosslinkers. Genipin is one of the crosslinkers that has been considered that is a crystalline powder extracted from the fruit of and processed to obtain an aglycon compound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070159DOI Listing

Role of B Cell Lymphoma 2 in the Regulation of Liver Fibrosis in miR-122 Knockout Mice.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) has been identified as a marker of various liver injuries, including hepatitis- virus-infection-, alcoholic-, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced liver fibrosis. Here, we report that the extracellular miR-122 from hepatic cells can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to modulate their proliferation and gene expression. Our published Argonaute crosslinking immunoprecipitation (Ago-CLIP) data identified several pro-fibrotic genes, including Ctgf, as miR-122 targets in mice livers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070157DOI Listing

Understanding the Morpho-Anatomical, Physiological, and Functional Response of Sweet Basil to Isosmotic Nitrate to Chloride Ratios.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy.

Sweet basil ( L.) is a leafy green with a short-production cycle that is emerging as a model species among aromatic plants. Modulating the mineral composition of the nutrient solution has proved to be a valuable tool to uncover the mechanisms and responses that higher plants adopt in relation to the availability of mineral nutrients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070158DOI Listing

Rest-task modulation of fMRI-derived global signal topography is mediated by transient coactivation patterns.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 10;18(7):e3000733. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Mental Health Center, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Recent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed that the global signal (GS) exhibits a nonuniform spatial distribution across the gray matter. Whether this topography is informative remains largely unknown. We therefore tested rest-task modulation of GS topography by analyzing static GS correlation and dynamic coactivation patterns in a large sample of an fMRI dataset (n = 837) from the Human Connectome Project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000733DOI Listing

A single touch can provide sufficient mechanical stimulation to trigger Venus flytrap closure.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 10;18(7):e3000740. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology and Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The carnivorous Venus flytrap catches prey by an ingenious snapping mechanism. Based on work over nearly 200 years, it has become generally accepted that two touches of the trap's sensory hairs within 30 s, each one generating an action potential, are required to trigger closure of the trap. We developed an electromechanical model, which, however, suggests that under certain circumstances one touch is sufficient to generate two action potentials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000740DOI Listing

Wonky whales: the evolution of cranial asymmetry in cetaceans.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 10;18(1):86. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Genetics, Evolution, and Environment Department, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: Unlike most mammals, toothed whale (Odontoceti) skulls lack symmetry in the nasal and facial (nasofacial) region. This asymmetry is hypothesised to relate to echolocation, which may have evolved in the earliest diverging odontocetes. Early cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) such as archaeocetes, namely the protocetids and basilosaurids, have asymmetric rostra, but it is unclear when nasofacial asymmetry evolved during the transition from archaeocetes to modern whales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00805-4DOI Listing

CoVid-19 Pandemic Trend Modeling and Analysis to Support Resilience Decision-Making.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan, Italy.

Policy decision-making for system resilience to a hazard requires the estimation and prediction of the trends of growth and decline of the impacts of the hazard. With focus on the recent worldwide spread of CoVid-19, we take the infection rate as the relevant metric whose trend of evolution to follow for verifying the effectiveness of the countermeasures applied. By comparison with the theories of growth and recovery in coupled socio-medical systems, we find that the data for many countries show infection rate trends that are exponential in form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070156DOI Listing

Structural basis of human full-length kindlin-3 homotrimer in an auto-inhibited state.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 9;18(7):e3000755. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Kindlin-1, -2, and -3 directly bind integrin β cytoplasmic tails to regulate integrin activation and signaling. Despite their functional significance and links to several diseases, structural information on full-length kindlin proteins remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of human full-length kindlin-3, which reveals a novel homotrimer state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000755DOI Listing

High-fidelity SaCas9 identified by directional screening in human cells.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 9;18(7):e3000747. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Vision Science, Ministry of Health and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

CRISPR-Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (CRISPR-SaCas9) has been harnessed as an effective in vivo genome-editing tool to manipulate genomes. However, off-target effects remain a major bottleneck that precludes safe and reliable applications in genome editing. Here, we characterize the off-target effects of wild-type (WT) SaCas9 at single-nucleotide (single-nt) resolution and describe a directional screening system to identify novel SaCas9 variants with desired properties in human cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000747DOI Listing

Protective Effects of Bee Venom against Endotoxemia-Related Acute Kidney Injury in Mice.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu 42472, Korea.

Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a leading cause of death in hospitalized patients worldwide. Despite decades of effort, there is no effective treatment for preventing the serious medical condition. Bee venom has long been used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070154DOI Listing

The Importance of Protein Phosphorylation for Signaling and Metabolism in Response to Diel Light Cycling and Nutrient Availability in a Marine Diatom.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Integrative Oceanography Division, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Diatoms are major contributors to global primary production and their populations in the modern oceans are affected by availability of iron, nitrogen, phosphate, silica, and other trace metals, vitamins, and infochemicals. However, little is known about the role of phosphorylation in diatoms and its role in regulation and signaling. We report a total of 2759 phosphorylation sites on 1502 proteins detected in . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070155DOI Listing

Anticancer pentamethinium salt is a potent photosensitizer inducing mitochondrial disintegration and apoptosis upon red light illumination.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 23;209:111939. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Žlutý kopec 7, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Despite progress in the development and application of novel therapeutic agents, cancer remains a major cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is a need for new approaches to increase therapeutic options and efficiency. The metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of non-malignant cells and their mitochondria show altered activities that can be utilized as a target for drug development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111939DOI Listing

A First Insight into North American Plant Pathogenic Fungi Transcriptome.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 4;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Physics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351, boul. des Forges, Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7, Canada.

, a fungal pathogen of primary timber species of North American forests, causes white root rot disease that ultimately kills the trees. A more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this illness will support future developments on disease resistance and management, as well as in the decomposition of cellulosic material for further use. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to compare the transcriptome profiles of fungal culture grown in yeast malt broth medium supplemented or not with betulin, a natural compound of the terpenoid group found in abundance in white birch bark. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070153DOI Listing

Regulation of the Mammalian SWI/SNF Family of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes by Phosphorylation during Myogenesis.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.

Myogenesis is the biological process by which skeletal muscle tissue forms. Regulation of myogenesis involves a variety of conventional, epigenetic, and epigenomic mechanisms that control chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modification, and activation of transcription factors. Chromatin remodeling enzymes utilize ATP hydrolysis to alter nucleosome structure and/or positioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070152DOI Listing

Principles for creating a single authoritative list of the world's species.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 7;18(7):e3000736. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Taxonomy Australia, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia.

Lists of species underpin many fields of human endeavour, but there are currently no universally accepted principles for deciding which biological species should be accepted when there are alternative taxonomic treatments (and, by extension, which scientific names should be applied to those species). As improvements in information technology make it easier to communicate, access, and aggregate biodiversity information, there is a need for a framework that helps taxonomists and the users of taxonomy decide which taxa and names should be used by society whilst continuing to encourage taxonomic research that leads to new species discoveries, new knowledge of species relationships, and the refinement of existing species concepts. Here, we present 10 principles that can underpin such a governance framework, namely (i) the species list must be based on science and free from nontaxonomic considerations and interference, (ii) governance of the species list must aim for community support and use, (iii) all decisions about list composition must be transparent, (iv) the governance of validated lists of species is separate from the governance of the names of taxa, (v) governance of lists of accepted species must not constrain academic freedom, (vi) the set of criteria considered sufficient to recognise species boundaries may appropriately vary between different taxonomic groups but should be consistent when possible, (vii) a global list must balance conflicting needs for currency and stability by having archived versions, (viii) contributors need appropriate recognition, (ix) list content should be traceable, and (x) a global listing process needs both to encompass global diversity and to accommodate local knowledge of that diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000736DOI Listing

Comparative whole genome DNA methylation profiling across cattle tissues reveals global and tissue-specific methylation patterns.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 6;18(1):85. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Background: Efforts to improve animal health, and understand genetic bases for production, may benefit from a comprehensive analysis of animal genomes and epigenomes. Although DNA methylation has been well studied in humans and other model species, its distribution patterns and regulatory impacts in cattle are still largely unknown. Here, we present the largest collection of cattle DNA methylation epigenomic data to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00793-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339546PMC

A Selective PPARγ Modulator Reduces Hepatic Fibrosis.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Research Service, VA Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE 68105, USA.

Hepatic fibrosis is the accumulation of excess collagen as a result of chronic liver injury. If left unabated, hepatic fibrosis can lead to the disruption of the liver architecture, portal hypertension, and increased risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs, through their target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), have protective effects against liver fibrosis, and can inhibit the profibrotic activity of hepatic stellate cells, the major collagen-producing liver cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070151DOI Listing

: An Untapped Source of Anti-Tumor Molecules.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, University City, Sharjah 2141, UAE.

Despite intensive research, cancer incidence and mortality continue to rise. Consequently, the necessity to develop effective anti-cancer therapy is apparent. We have recently shown that the gut bacteria of animals living in polluted environments, such as crocodiles, are a potential source of novel anti-tumor molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070150DOI Listing

Ranacyclin-NF, a Novel Bowman-Birk Type Protease Inhibitor from the Skin Secretion of the East Asian Frog, .

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Natural Drug Discovery Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK.

Serine protease inhibitors are found in plants, animals and microorganisms, where they play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Inhibitor scaffolds based on natural proteins and peptides have gradually become the focus of current research as they tend to bind to their targets with greater specificity than small molecules. In this report, a novel Bowman-Birk type inhibitor, named ranacyclin-NF (RNF), is described and was identified in the skin secretion of the East Asian frog, . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070149DOI Listing

A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide (Kassinatuerin-3) Isolated from the Skin Secretion of the African Frog, .

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Natural Drug Discovery Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK.

Amphibian skin secretions are remarkable sources of novel bioactive peptides. Among these, antimicrobial peptides have demonstrated an outstanding efficacy in killing microorganisms via a general membranolytic mechanism, which may offer the prospect of solving specific target-driven antibiotic resistance. Here, the discovery of a novel defensive peptide is described from the skin secretion of the African frog, Named kassinatuerin-3, it was identified through a combination of "shot-gun" cloning and MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070148DOI Listing

The Role of Mitochondria in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Infection Pathology and Molecular Microecology, Institute of Human Morphology, 3 Tsyurupa Street, 117418 Moscow, Russia.

The role of mitochondria in cardiovascular diseases is receiving ever growing attention. As a central player in the regulation of cellular metabolism and a powerful controller of cellular fate, mitochondria appear to comprise an interesting potential therapeutic target. With the development of DNA sequencing methods, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) became a subject of intensive study, since many directly lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, deficient energy production and, as a result, cell dysfunction and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9060137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344641PMC

Termite Societies Promote the Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Archaeal Communities in Mound Soils.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Food Security and Safety Niche, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Mail Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.

Recent studies involving microbial communities in termite mounds have been more focused on bacteria and fungi with little attention given to archaea, which play significant roles in nutrient cycling. Thus, we aimed at characterizing the archaeal taxonomic and functional diversity in two termite mound soils using the shotgun sequencing method with the assumption that termite activities could promote archaeal diversity. Our findings showed that termite mound soils have archaeal groups that are taxonomically different from their surrounding soils, with , , and being predominant while and were predominant in the surrounding soils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9060136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345372PMC

Cuttlefish Buoyancy in Response to Food Availability and Ocean Acidification.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Nossa Senhora do Cabo, 939, 2750-374 Cascais, Portugal.

Carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is expected to continue rising by 2100, leading to a decrease in ocean pH in a process known as ocean acidification (OA). OA can have a direct impact on calcifying organisms, including on the cuttlebone of the common cuttlefish . Moreover, nutritional status has also been shown to affect the cuttlebone structure and potentially affect buoyancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070147DOI Listing

Structural Insights into the Evolutionarily Conserved BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complex.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, 2205 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3500, USA.

The switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) family of proteins acts to regulate chromatin accessibility and plays an essential role in multiple cellular processes. A high frequency of mutations has been found in SWI/SNF family subunits by exome sequencing in human cancer, and multiple studies support its role in tumor suppression. Recent structural studies of yeast SWI/SNF and its human homolog, BAF (BRG1/BRM associated factor), have provided a model for their complex assembly and their interaction with nucleosomal substrates, revealing the molecular function of individual subunits as well as the potential impact of cancer-associated mutations on the remodeling function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070146DOI Listing

Single and repeated low-dose UVB radiation exposures affect the visual system.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 28;209:111941. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

The visual system is an important biological indicator of effects induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, research has extensively investigated the effects of high-dose UV radiation in a single exposure, thus, the differential of this work was to investigate the effects of UVB radiation in low doses in single and repeated exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated exposure to environmental UVB doses (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111941DOI Listing

Characterization of the fluorescence intensity and color tonality in the exoskeleton of scorpions.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 28;209:111945. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica A.C., A. P. 1-948, 37000 León, Gto, Mexico.

Scorpions are a mesodiverse and nocturnal group of arachnids inhabiting most biomes worldwide. Different species of scorpions have divergent adaptations to the substrate they live in, but most of them share an intriguing characteristic: their exoskeleton contains fluorophores that emit blue-greenish fluorescence under ultraviolet radiation. Although there are some reports in the literature on the study of fluorescence in scorpions, the biological functionality of this light emission is currently unknown and is under debate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111945DOI Listing

Chemical features of the photosensitizers new methylene blue N and S137 influence their subcellular localization and photoinactivation efficiency in Candida albicans.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 21;209:111942. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-903, Brazil. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) has emerged as an effective therapy against pathogenic fungi with both acquired and intrinsic resistance to commonly used antifungal agents. Success of APDT depends on the availability of effective photosensitizers capable of acting on different fungal structures and species. Among the phenothiazinium dyes tested as photoantifungals, new methylene blue N (NMBN) and the novel pentacyclic compound S137 are the most efficient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111942DOI Listing

In vitro effects of 635 nm photobiomodulation under hypoxia/reoxygenation culture conditions.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 24;209:111935. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Ludwig Boltzmann institute for experimental and clinical traumatology, Donaueschingenstrasse 13, 1200 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Photobiomodulation (PBM), especially in the red wavelength range, has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment option for superficial and chronic wounds. However, ischemia and subsequent reperfusion can further challenge wound healing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of pulsed red LED light at 635 nm on cellular function in an in-vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111935DOI Listing

The roles of hybridization and habitat fragmentation in the evolution of Brazil's enigmatic longwing butterflies, Heliconius nattereri and H. hermathena.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):84. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Ecology & Evolution, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Heliconius butterflies are widely distributed across the Neotropics and have evolved a stunning array of wing color patterns that mediate Müllerian mimicry and mating behavior. Their rapid radiation has been strongly influenced by hybridization, which has created new species and allowed sharing of color patterning alleles between mimetic species pairs. While these processes have frequently been observed in widespread species with contiguous distributions, many Heliconius species inhabit patchy or rare habitats that may strongly influence the origin and spread of species and color patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00797-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334841PMC

Epigenomics and genotype-phenotype association analyses reveal conserved genetic architecture of complex traits in cattle and human.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):80. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Background: Lack of comprehensive functional annotations across a wide range of tissues and cell types severely hinders the biological interpretations of phenotypic variation, adaptive evolution, and domestication in livestock. Here we used a combination of comparative epigenomics, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and selection signature analysis, to shed light on potential adaptive evolution in cattle.

Results: We cross-mapped 8 histone marks of 1300 samples from human to cattle, covering 178 unique tissues/cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00792-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334855PMC

TDP-43 prevents retrotransposon activation in the Drosophila motor system through regulation of Dicer-2 activity.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):82. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste, Italy.

Background: Mutations in the small RNA-binding protein TDP-43 lead to the formation of insoluble cytoplasmic aggregates that have been associated with the onset and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting homeostasis of the motor system which is also characterized by aberrant expression of retrotransposable elements (RTEs). Although the TDP-43 function was shown to be required in the neurons and glia to maintain the organization of neuromuscular synapses and prevent denervation of the skeletal muscles, the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological dysregulation remain elusive. Here, we address this issue using a null mutation of the TDP-43 Drosophila homolog, TBPH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00816-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334854PMC

Real-time tracking of stem cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation with autonomous bioluminescence imaging.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):79. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

490 BioTech, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Background: Luminescent reporter proteins are vital tools for visualizing cells and cellular activity. Among the current toolbox of bioluminescent systems, only bacterial luciferase has genetically defined luciferase and luciferin synthesis pathways that are functional at the mammalian cell temperature optimum of 37 °C and have the potential for in vivo applications. However, this system is not functional in all cell types, including stem cells, where the ability to monitor continuously and in real-time cellular processes such as differentiation and proliferation would be particularly advantageous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00815-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333384PMC

Temporospatial shifts within commercial laboratory mouse gut microbiota impact experimental reproducibility.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):83. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

Background: Experimental reproducibility in mouse models is impacted by both genetics and environment. The generation of reproducible data is critical for the biomedical enterprise and has become a major concern for the scientific community and funding agencies alike. Among the factors that impact reproducibility in experimental mouse models is the variable composition of the microbiota in mice supplied by different commercial vendors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00810-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334859PMC
July 2020
7.984 Impact Factor

AIMTOR, a BRET biosensor for live imaging, reveals subcellular mTOR signaling and dysfunctions.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):81. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

DMEM, University of Montpellier, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: mTOR signaling is an essential nutrient and energetic sensing pathway. Here we describe AIMTOR, a sensitive genetically encoded BRET (Bioluminescent Resonance Energy Transfer) biosensor to study mTOR activity in living cells.

Results: As a proof of principle, we show in both cell lines and primary cell cultures that AIMTOR BRET intensities are modified by mTOR activity changes induced by specific inhibitors and activators of mTORC1 including amino acids and insulin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00790-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334845PMC

The feasibility and usability of DNA-dot bioconjugation to antibody for targeted in vitro cancer cell fluorescence imaging.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 26;209:111944. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

DNA-protein bioconjugation is an appealing target-tracking strategy. The new capability of DNA molecule as a biological nanomaterial endows unique fluorescence and physicochemical properties to be applied in bioimaging. Progression in targeted imaging is contingent on the conjugation of diagnostic nanoparticles to biomolecular signatures, particularly antibody-based ligands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111944DOI Listing

Relationship between oxygen consumption and neuronal activity in a defined neural circuit.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):76. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, 82152, Planegg, Germany.

Background: Neuronal computations related to sensory and motor activity along with the maintenance of spike discharge, synaptic transmission, and associated housekeeping are energetically demanding. The most efficient metabolic process to provide large amounts of energy equivalents is oxidative phosphorylation and thus dependent on O consumption. Therefore, O levels in the brain are a critical parameter that influences neuronal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00811-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333326PMC

Why is CarH photolytically active in comparison to other B-dependent enzymes?

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 May 28;209:111919. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, United States of America. Electronic address:

The discovery of naturally occurring B-depedent photoreceptors has allowed for applications of cobalamins (Cbls) in optogenetics and synthetic biology to emerge. However, theoretical investigations of the complex mechanisms of these systems have been lacking. Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent photoreceptor, CarH, is one example and it relies on daylight to perform its catalytic function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111919DOI Listing
May 2020
2.960 Impact Factor

Highly chemoselective turn-on fluorescent probe for ferrous (Fe) ion detection in cosmetics and live cells.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 24;209:111943. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Amrita Centre for Industrial Research &Innovation, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore 641112, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India; Departmentof Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore 641112, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India. Electronic address:

In modern society, the use of cosmetics has increased extensively; unfortunately, so-called several toxic metal salts are present as the colorant or filler in cosmetics. The ferrous ion (Fe) is one of the metal ions used in cosmetics as a colorant. Ferrous ion (Fe) is a vital component in live cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111943DOI Listing

Resting-state brain and spinal cord networks in humans are functionally integrated.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 2;18(7):e3000789. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Centre de recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

In the absence of any task, both the brain and spinal cord exhibit spontaneous intrinsic activity organised in a set of functionally relevant neural networks. However, whether such resting-state networks (RSNs) are interconnected across the brain and spinal cord is unclear. Here, we used a unique scanning protocol to acquire functional images of both brain and cervical spinal cord (CSC) simultaneously and examined their spatiotemporal correspondence in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000789DOI Listing

Ability of Adult Ticks to Overwinter in the Temperate Climate Zone.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Chair and Department of Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Lublin, Radziwiłłowska 11 St., 20-080 Lublin, Poland.

ticks, one of the most important vectors and reservoirs of tick-borne diseases in Europe, are widespread in the temperate climate zone and in some localities in the subtropical climate zone of the western Palaearctic region. These ticks occur in a large area characterised by a varied climate type, vegetation, and availability of potential hosts. Hence, they exhibit high ecological plasticity and adaptability to periodically adverse conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070145DOI Listing

The evolution of the Puf superfamily of proteins across the tree of eukaryotes.

BMC Biol 2020 Jun 30;18(1):77. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, BIOCEV, Průmyslová 595, 252 50, Vestec, Czech Republic.

Background: Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled by a number of RNA-binding proteins (RBP), such as the proteins from the Puf (Pumilio and FBF) superfamily (PufSF). These proteins bind to RNA via multiple Puf repeat domains, each of which specifically recognizes a single RNA base. Recently, three diversified PufSF proteins have been described in model organisms, each of which is responsible for the maturation of ribosomal RNA or the translational regulation of mRNAs; however, less is known about the role of these proteins across eukaryotic diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00814-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325665PMC

Genome assembly of the basket willow, Salix viminalis, reveals earliest stages of sex chromosome expansion.

BMC Biol 2020 Jun 30;18(1):78. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Sex chromosomes have evolved independently multiple times in eukaryotes and are therefore considered a prime example of convergent genome evolution. Sex chromosomes are known to emerge after recombination is halted between a homologous pair of chromosomes, and this leads to a range of non-adaptive modifications causing gradual degeneration and gene loss on the sex-limited chromosome. However, the proximal causes of recombination suppression and the pace at which degeneration subsequently occurs remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00808-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329446PMC

Potassium and Magnesium Mediate the Light and CO Photosynthetic Responses of Grapevines.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) deficiency are common stresses that can impact on grape yield and quality, but their effects on photosynthesis have received little attention. Understanding the diffusional and biochemical limitations to photosynthetic constraints will help to guide improvements in cultural practices. Accordingly, the photosynthetic response of cvs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070144DOI Listing

A New TGF-β1 Inhibitor, CTI-82, Antagonizes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through Inhibition of Phospho-SMAD2/3 and Phospho-ERK.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Asan Medical Center, AMIST, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is highly expressed in the tumor microenvironment and known to play a multifunctional role in cancer progression. In addition, TGF-β1 promotes metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a variety of tumors. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β1 is considered an important strategy in the treatment of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070143DOI Listing