259 results match your criteria Biologie aujourd'hui[Journal]


Diplôme Mérite et Dévouement Français à la Société de Biologie.

Authors:
William Rostène

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):53. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018021DOI Listing

[Endosomal control of intracellular signaling].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):45-51. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Institut Curie - Centre de Recherche, PSL Research University, Membrane Dynamics and Mechanics of Intracellular Signaling Laboratory, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1143, Paris, France - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR 3666, Paris, France.

Membrane receptors control essential processes such as cell growth, adhesion, differentiation and metabolism through the activation of specific signaling pathways. Nowadays, these receptors are not only known to signal from the plasma membrane but also from intracellular compartments. Indeed, after being internalized with their ligands via different endocytic pathways, some membrane receptors can initiate signal only after reaching the sorting endosome where they associate with specific protein partners. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2018023
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018023DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

[Traffic and signalisation of the leptin receptor].

Authors:
Julie Dam

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):35-43. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 22 Rue Méchain, 75014 Paris, France.

Receptors are the master regulators conveying the information provided by the hormone from the extracellular environment to the intracellular milieu. As a result, the level of receptors at the cell surface can determine the signaling strength. Regulation of receptor trafficking to the cell surface or receptor retention processes in intracellular compartments are key mechanisms for leptin receptor (ObR) activity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2018020
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018020DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Nuclear EGFR: a new mode of oncogenic signalling in cancer].

Authors:
Sylvie Gazzeri

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):27-33. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

« Epigénétique, maladies chroniques et cancer », INSERM U1209, CNRS UMR 5309, Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut pour l'Avancée des Biosciences (IAB), Allée des Alpes, 38700 La Tronche Cedex 09, France.

EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) is one of the most studied molecules in biology. From its early identification and cloning to the discovery of its role in cancer, it has been at the forefront of our understanding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) and cell signals that induce homeostasis, but when overexpressed, facilitate tumorigenesis. While the biological functions of EGFR traditionally involve the activation of a signaling network from the plasma membrane that includes activation of the RAS/MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT and STATS pathways, a new mode of EGFR signaling has been progressively decoded in which membrane-associated EGFR is transported after endocytosis from cell surface to the nucleus through endocytosis, retrograde trafficking to the Golgi, the endoplasmic reticulum and the inner nuclear membrane through a series of proteic interactions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2018016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018016DOI Listing
April 2019
14 Reads

[Mitochondrial signaling of G protein-coupled receptors].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):21-26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Inserm, U1016, Institut Cochin, 22 rue Méchain, 75014 Paris, France - CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France - Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of integral membrane receptors with 800 members in humans that are expressed at the cell surface responding to a large panel of extracellular stimuli. Recent advances indicate that GPCRs are also expressed in intracellular compartments where they fulfil important functions. Here, we will report on the mitochondrial localization and function of GPCRs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018024DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Internalized receptor for glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide stimulates adenylyl cyclase on early endosomes].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):13-19. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-objets (LPCNO), équipe RTTC, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INSA, INSERM, Université Paul Sabatier, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, 31432 Toulouse cedex, France - INSERM ERL1226, Receptors and Therapeutic Targeting of Cancers, Toulouse, France.

G-protein coupled receptors represent the largest family of membrane receptors. G-protein dependent signal of GPCR is classically thought to originate exclusively from the plasma membrane and, until very recently, internalized GPCRs were considered silent. At present, experimental proofs exist showing that GPCR can continue to signal via G proteins after internalization. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2018018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018018DOI Listing
April 2019
14 Reads

[Understanding chronic ocular pain].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 26;212(1-2):1-11. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France.

Dry eye disease (DED) is a common chronic condition with multifactorial etiologies that is increasing in prevalence worldwide, up to 20% in the elderly. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable. Chronic ocular pain is the most common symptom of DED and there is currently no topical ocular analgesic therapy available to treat this debilitating disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2018017
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018017DOI Listing
April 2019
15 Reads

[From sequence variability to structural and functional prediction: modeling of homologous protein families].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):239-244. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, Biologie Computationnelle et Quantitative, Institut de Biologie Paris Seine, 75005 Paris, France.

Thanks to next-generation sequencing, the number of sequenced genomes grows rapidly, providing in particular ample examples for the sequence variability between homologous proteins. This article discusses data-driven probabilistic sequence models, which are able to extract a multitude of information from sequence data alone, including (i) structural features like residue-residue contacts, which are formed in the folded protein, (ii) protein-protein interaction interfaces and (iii) phenotypic effects of amino-acid substitutions in proteins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017030DOI Listing

[Nextflow, an efficient tool to improve computation numerical stability in genomic analysis].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):233-237. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Comparative Bioinformatics Group, Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme, Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain - Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.

Reproducing routine bioinformatics analysis is challenging owing to a combination of factors hard to control for. Nextflow is a flow management framework that uses container technology to insure efficient deployment and reproducibility of computational analysis pipelines. Third party pipelines can be ported into Nextflow with minimum re-coding. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017029DOI Listing

[IGoR: a tool for learning and simulating the random generation of antigen receptors].

Authors:
Thierry Mora

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):229-231. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Laboratoire de physique statistique, École Normale Supérieure, CNRS, UPMC et UPD, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France.

Antigen receptors, which form the base of the adaptive immune system, are created stochastically by a DNA editing process called V(D)J recombination. As high-throughput sequencing enables to study the repertoire of these receptors, it is now possible to learn the probabilistic laws of this random process, and to use them to analyse receptors of interest, generate synthetic repertoires to create controls, or aid the identification of receptors that are specific to diseases, with possible applications for medical diagnostics. This article describes how these tasks can be performed using the IGoR software, which can learn statistical models from data, annotate existing sequences, or generate new synthetic ones with the same laws as the recombination process. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017033DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

[Protein-protein interacting networks, their structures and disease-related mutations].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):223-228. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Randall Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, King's College, London, UK.

In recent years, the comparison of protein interactomes has identified conserved modules, that could represent functional nuclei with a common ancestry. Within this context, recent analyses of protein-protein interacting networks have led to a debate on the influence of the experimental method on the quality and biological pertinence of these data. It is crucial to understand the measure in which divergence between networks of different species reflect sampling biases in respective experimental methods, as opposed to topological features dictated by biological functionality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017031DOI Listing

[Stretch-induced axon growth: a universal, yet poorly explored process].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):215-222. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine (IBPS), Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement, CNRS UMR7622, INSERM U1156, 75005 Paris, France - Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, 75005 Paris, France.

The growth of axons is a key step in neuronal circuit assembly. The axon starts elongating with the migration of its growth cone in response to molecular signals present in the surrounding embryonic tissues. Following the formation of a synapse between the axon and the target cell, the distance which separates the cell body from the synapse continues to increase to accommodate the growth of the organism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017028DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

[CRISPR-Cas9, germinal cells and human embryo].

Authors:
Pierre Jouannet

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):207-213. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Université Paris Descartes, 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, 75006 Paris, France.

The performance of the molecular tool using CRISPR-Cas9, which makes it possible to induce targeted modifications of the DNA, has found numerous applications in research and open promising prospects in human clinic. CRISPR-Cas9 has been widely used to generate transgenic animals after targeted modification of the genome at the zygotic stage. It was also tested on human embryos on an experimental basis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2017032
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017032DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

[Usefulness of CGH-array and SNP-array for the etiological diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency].

Authors:
Capucine Hyon

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 7;211(3):199-205. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

AP-HP, GHUEP, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Département de Génétique Médicale, Paris, France - INSERM, UMRS 933, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France - Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40 years and the increase of gonadotropins (> 25 UI/l) occurs in approximately 1-5% of women. Different mechanisms are responsible for POI: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, environmental factors or genetic causes but most frequently no cause is identified. In order to determine the etiology of POI, cytogenetic analyses such as karyotype are performed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017025DOI Listing

[Next-generation vector control].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):137-145. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

MIVEGEC (Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs : Écologie, Génétique, Évolution et Contrôle), UMR IRD-CNRS-Université de Montpellier, 911 avenue Agropolis, 34080 Montpellier, France.

Vector control is a cornerstone of vector-borne infectious disease control, a group of emerging and re-emerging diseases of major public health concern at a global scale. The history and evolution of mosquito disease vectors control, mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides, is emblematic of the successes, failures, lessons learned and experiences gained in setting-up and implementing vector control, and of the challenges that pave the way to sustainable disease vector management. This paper provides a non-exhaustive and non-exclusive overview of some of the most promising cutting-edge technical and strategic innovations that are committed to this endeavour, assessing the strength of scientific evidences for proof of concept, perspectives for scaling-up, and expected impact and outcomes in a rapidly changing world. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019006DOI Listing

[Mosquito microbiota and its influence on disease vectorial transmission].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):119-136. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Groupe « Microbiote des Insectes Vecteurs », Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Cayenne, Guyane, France - Département « Parasites et Insectes Vecteurs », Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are found worldwide. Around 100 among 3500 mosquito species are known to be vectors of parasites and viruses, responsible for infectious diseases including malaria and dengue. Mosquitoes host diverse microbial communities that influence disease transmission, either by direct interference or via affecting host immunity and physiology. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2019003
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019003DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

[Immunomodulatory effect of tick saliva in pathogen transmission].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):107-117. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

EA7290, Virulence Bactérienne Précoce, Groupe Borrelia, Facultés de Pharmacie et Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Institut de bactériologie, 3 rue Koeberlé, 67000 Strasbourg, France - Centre National de Référence Borrelia, Plateau technique de Microbiologie, CHRU Strasbourg, 1 rue Koeberlé, 67000 Strasbourg, France.

Ticks are the most important vectors of pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. These strictly haematophagous acarines produce a saliva containing a variety of bioactive molecules affecting host pharmacology and immunity. This process is vital for hard ticks to prevent rejection by the host during the blood meal that lasts several days. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019001DOI Listing

[Insects: An exceptional reservoir for viruses and antiviral genes].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):101-106. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

CNRS UPR9022, INSERM U1257, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Université de Strasbourg, 15, rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France.

Insects are the most diverse group of animals. They can be infected by an extraordinary diversity of viruses. Among them, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can be transmitted to humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019008DOI Listing

[Mosquitoes as vectors of arboviruses: an endless story].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):89-99. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institut Pasteur, Département de Virologie, Arbovirus et Insectes Vecteurs, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

The recent emergence or re-emergence of vector-borne diseases (VBD) and, more specifically, VBD associated with arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika or yellow fever are not new events. The globalization of trade and travels as well as the unplanned urbanization of many tropical and subtropical cities have created the conditions suitable for the establishment of vector mosquitoes offering opportunities for arbovirus introduction. This review describes the major arboviruses important for human health and their epidemic vectors, and the conditions leading to their emergence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018026DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Treatment of the advanced HCC: A second revolution by using immunotherapy].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):85-87. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Service d'Hépato-Gastro-Entérologie, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, 83 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013, Paris, France.

The treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma has long been hopeless due to an absence of effective molecules and an underlying cirrhosis, compromising tolerance to conventional chemotherapy. A targeted anti-angiogenic therapy, sorafenib, has been the only option for a decade before new oral molecules have been finally validated. Immunotherapy, intended to correct the immunosuppressive context frequently associated with this tumor, has shown very promising results and could profoundly challenge the therapeutic algorithm of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018027DOI Listing

[Immunotherapy and bladder cancer].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):81-84. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Service d'Urologie, Sorbonne Université, GRC n° 5, ONCOTYPE-URO, AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

Immunotherapy as a treatment of solid malignancy is based on the activation of the immune system against tumor cells. Since 1976, intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used widely for the treatment of non muscle invasive bladder cancer and is nowadays recommended by all scientific guidelines. New targeted systemic immunotherapies and particularly checkpoints inhibitors are now widely used in several different cancers and notably in onco-urology. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018028DOI Listing

[Combinations of chemotherapy or radiotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):77-79. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France - Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Département d'Oncologie Médicale, 1 rue Pr Marion, BP77980, 21079 Dijon, France - INSERM LNC U1231, Dijon, France.

Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy with the development of anti-PD1/PD-L1 antibodies are revolutionizing cancer care. Nevertheless, the efficacy of these treatments in monotherapy is limited to a subpopulation representing about 25-30% of patients in most indications. The development of new strategies is based on combinations between standard treatments (cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy) and immunotherapy in order to find synergistic combinations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019004DOI Listing

[Anti-cancer vaccines: What future in anti-cancer immunotherapy strategies?]

Authors:
Eric Tartour

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):69-76. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Inserm U970 PARCC, Université Paris Descartes, Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, Service d'immunologie biologique, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France.

Tumor cells can be recognized by the immune system and in particular by cytotoxic CD8T cells. From this observation was derived the concept that vaccination targeting these tumor-associated molecules was feasible. Preventive cancer vaccines targeting oncogenic papillomavirus or hepatitis B virus do exist and are efficient. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019002DOI Listing

[New frontiers in the fight against cancer].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):61-67. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Innate Pharma Research Labs, Innate Pharma, 117 avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille, France - Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, INSERM, CIML, Marseille, France - Service d'Immunologie, Marseille Immunopôle, Hôpital de la Timone, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, 278 rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille, France.

After many years of research, recent advances shed a new light on the role of the immune system in cancer. New therapeutic antibodies, such as anti-PD-1/L1, that block the interactions of inhibitory receptors (immune checkpoint inhibitors, ICI) with their ligands, have revolutionized the management of cancer patients. Nevertheless, they only affect a small part of the patient population. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019011DOI Listing

[Circadian proteomics].

Biol Aujourdhui 2018 11;212(3-4):55-59. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institut de Bioingénierie, Faculté des Sciences de la Vie, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Suisse - Département de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie, Université de Lausanne, 1005 Lausanne, Suisse.

Recent development in the proteomic technologies offers new perspectives in circadian biology and in particular the possibility to study post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. Applying in vivo proteomics on whole liver or on nuclear extracts, we were able to characterize the rhythmic liver proteome with unprecedented coverage. It allows the characterization of new rhythmic processes such as protein secretion, ribosome biogenesis, DNA repair, and polyploidy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018025DOI Listing

Note de correction : Le déterminisme du sexe chez les cucurbitacées.

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):197. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Inra-CNRS, UMR 1165, Unité de Recherche en Génomique Végétale, 91057 Évry cedex, France.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017017DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

[Insulinoresistancy in Man: from mechanisms to nutritional interference].

Authors:
Ariane Sultan

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):189-196. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Équipe Nutrition-Diabète, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France - PHYMEDEXP INSERM U1046, CNRS UMR9214, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Obesity is presently regarded as the "the first non-infectious epidemic outbreak" in the history of Humanity. It is a multifactorial pathology, that contributes to the emergence of insulinoresistancy. Some obese individuals display an obesity qualified as metabolically sound, i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017026DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

[Optically dissecting brain nicotinic receptor function with photo-controllable designer receptors].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):173-188. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Neuroscience Paris Seine - Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (NPS - IBPS), 75005 Paris, France.

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017022DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

[Claude Bernard and nicotinic receptors: from the neuromuscular junction to tobacco weaning].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):169-172. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Pharmacologie Cardiovasculaire, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle, Université et CHU de Strasbourg, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg, France.

Claude Bernard (1813-1878) was fascinated by the pharmacological mechanisms of poisons. In particular, using a huge amount of ingenious and robust experiments, he demonstrated the peripheral toxic action of the natural compound curare. His work generated controversies in a period where scientific methodology and technical development followed the progression of concepts and ideas. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017024DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

[Diabetes: What are the key targets and the objectives? Preserving and protecting a functional pancreatic beta cell mass].

Authors:
Stéphane Dalle

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):165-168. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Inserm U1191, UMR CNRS 5203, Université de Montpellier, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34094 Montpellier, France.

Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes, which represents 90% of diabetes cases, is the consequence of an insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction combination. Since the beta cells are the only cells of the organism to synthesize and to secrete insulin, it is essential to maintain and to protect their function and survival. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017018DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

[Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard: about a posthumous controversy].

Authors:
Patrice Debré

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):161-164. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Département d'immunologie, CIMI Paris, UPMC/INSERM, U1135, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, bâtiment CERVI, 83 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

Claude Bernard and Louis Pasteur will meet on various occasions, scientific prizes were awarded by Claude Bernard to Louis Pasteur, Claude Bernard's lessons were followed by Louis Pasteur at the Faculty of Science or at the College de France, and friendly relationship were established. But the essential lies in a posthumous controversy where Claude Bernard, denying the role of microbes in the fermentation, seems to criticize Pasteur's assertions and, later, his method and vision. We shall report here the exchanges which concern these two scientists and, beyond that, the scientific approach. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2017019
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017019DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

[Claude Bernard - then and now].

Authors:
Peter Wise

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):157-160. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Charing Cross Hospital and Imperial College School of Medicine, Londres, Royaume-Uni.

The early life of Claude Bernard - dreamer and frustrated playwright - reveals no indication of his future scientific aptitude. Cartesian doubt, a principle that he would adhere to lifelong, clouded a failed pharmacy apprenticeship that led to medical studies in Paris - but without great success. Research was his only aim, it was made possible only by a lucrative but unsuccessful arranged marriage. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017023DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

La Société de Biologie se réunit au Musée Claude Bernard.

Authors:
René Habert

Biol Aujourdhui 2017;211(2):155-156. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017027DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

[Antibiotic transport and membrane permeability: new insights to fight bacterial resistance].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):149-154. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

UMR_MD1, Transporteurs Membranaires, Chimiorésistance et Drug Design, Faculté de Médecine et Faculté de Pharmacie, 27 boulevard Jean-Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France.

A main challenge in medicinal chemistry is to determine the parameters modulating the in cellulo drug concentration needed for a therapeutic action. In Gram-negative antibacterial research, the concern is to evaluate the antibiotic permeation across the outer and inner membranes, that delineate the periplasm surrounding the bacterial cytoplasm. Passing through the membrane barrier to reach the inhibitory concentration inside the bacterium is the first pivotal step for antibiotics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2017020
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017020DOI Listing
October 2018
22 Reads

[Mechanics of inner cell mass formation].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 13;211(2):137-148. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS UMR3215 Inserm U934, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris, France - Équipe mécanique du développement mammifère, Unité Génétique et Biologie du Développement, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris cedex 05, France.

During the very first days of mammalian development, the embryo forms a structure called the blastocyst. The blastocyst consists of two cell types: the trophectoderm (TE), which implants the embryo in the uterus and the inner cell mass (ICM), which gives rise to all cells of the mammalian body. Previous works identified how cells differentiate according to their position within the embryo: TE for surface cells and ICM for internal cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017021DOI Listing
October 2018

Assemblée Générale.

Biol Aujourdhui 2017;211(1):127-135. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017016DOI Listing
October 2018

[History of the Strasbourg Society of Biology].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):117-125. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 7104, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkir, France.

The Society of Biology of Strasbourg (SBS) is a learned society that was created in 1919 based on the model of the Society of Biology of which it is a subsidiary. Like its Parisian colleague, SBS aims at diffusing and promoting scientific knowledge in biology. To achieve this goal, SBS initiated since its creation a dialogue interface between researchers in biology and physicians, and more recently with other scientific disciplines, industry and the civil society. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017003DOI Listing
April 2018
14 Reads

[History of the Montpellier Society of Biology].

Authors:
Jean-Pierre Bali

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):103-115. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

The provincial branch of Montpellier was officially created in April, 1956, that is to say if the gestation was long since the birth of the Society of Biology of Paris in 1848. During this long period, famous personalities of Montpellier in the field of biology and physiology came to Paris to present their work, published in the "Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales". Following its creation as a 1901 law public association, the provincial branch organized communication sessions, followed by thematic meetings on various topics, always in the spirit of Claude Bernard on the transversality of knowledge. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017006DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

Génétique et épigénétique des troubles des conduites alimentaires.

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):97-102. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

INSERM U894, Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences (CPN), Université Paris Descartes, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France - Clinique des Maladies Mentales et de l'Encéphale (CMME), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France.

Eating disorders (EDs) are complex and multifactorial psychiatric illnesses that induce significant and sustained pathological disruption of food intake. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Illnesses (DSM-5) describes the clinical criteria of major disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). The neurobiological basis of food intake is well characterized. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017011DOI Listing
April 2018
2 Reads

[Epigenetic mechanisms and alcohol use disorders: a potential therapeutic target].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):83-91. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

INSERM ERi 24 Groupe de Recherche sur l'Alcool et les Pharmacodépendances (GRAP) - Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.

Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017014DOI Listing
April 2018
77 Reads

[Genetics and epigenetics of schizophrenia and other psychoses].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):69-82. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

INSERM, U894, Laboratoire "Physiopathologie des maladies psychiatriques", Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 102-108 rue de la Santé, 75014 Paris, France Institut de Psychiatrie-GDR 3557, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France.

Schizophrenia and other psychoses are categorical psychiatric diagnoses corresponding to frequent and heterogeneous disorders. Their physiopathology still remains largely unknown despite numerous recent advances. In particular, the last decade has identified different types of genetic variants, thanks to emergence of high-throughput methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017015DOI Listing
April 2018
23 Reads

[Gut microbiota and efficacy of cancer therapies].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):51-67. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94800 Villejuif, France - Université Paris Saclay, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France - Unité INSERM U1015, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, France.

The gut microbiota is known to affect digestion, protection against pathogens infection, immune system maturation and enteric nervous system development, but others links have also been established with diabetes, obesity, autism and cancer. Lately, bacterial species from the gut have been involved in tumor immunosurveillance. Natural or mediated by treatment such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy, anti-tumoral immune responses seem to rely on gut microbiota. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017009DOI Listing
April 2018
29 Reads

La génétique de l’hôte influe sur les écosystèmes microbiens par l’intermédiaire du système immunitaire de l’hôte.

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):39-49. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses (CIMI-Paris UMRS1135), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Paris, France - Département d'Immunologie, AP-HP, Groupement Hospitalier Pitié - Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017010DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

[Involvement of gut bacteria in appetite control].

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):29-37. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Animals perceive alternating feelings of hunger and satiety, which constitute their daily rhythms of appetite and drive their feeding behavior. In humans, these rhythms include the onset of satiety about 20 min after meal ingestion and a duration of satiety of about 5 h followed by hunger, triggering food seeking and intake. Molecular mechanisms underlying such appetite cycles involve secretion of intestinal satiety hormones and corresponding activation of the brain anorexigenic and feeding reward pathways. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017007DOI Listing
April 2018
2 Reads

[Challenges set by the microbiota].

Authors:
Patrice Debré

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):19-28. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

The microbiota designates the various flora of commensal microbes of living species. Most research in human focusing mainly on the intestinal microbiota, we will limit ourselves to its description and role in physiology and pathology. The intestinal microbiota acts on digestion and the immune system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.biologie-journal.org/10.1051/jbio/2017012
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017012DOI Listing
April 2018
15 Reads

[Gut microbiota and immune crosstalk in metabolic disease].

Authors:
Rémy Burcelin

Biol Aujourdhui 2017 6;211(1):1-18. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), 31024 Toulouse, France - Université Paul Sabatier (UPS), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1048, Hôpital Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse, France - Institut des Maladies Métaboliques et Cardiovasculaires (I2MC), 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.

The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2017008DOI Listing
April 2018
26 Reads

Jacques Taxi.

Authors:
André Calas

Biol Aujourdhui 2017;211(4):289-290. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018010DOI Listing

Ladislas Robert.

Biol Aujourdhui 2017;211(4):287. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2018011DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read