17 results match your criteria Biological theory[Journal]

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Rethinking Causation in Cancer with Evolutionary Developmental Biology.

Authors:
Katherine E Liu

Biol Theory 2018 27;13(4):228-242. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN USA.

Despite the productivity of basic cancer research, cancer continues to be a health burden to society because this research has not yielded corresponding clinical applications. Many proposed solutions to this dilemma have revolved around implementing organizational and policy changes related to cancer research. Here I argue for a different solution: a new conceptualization of causation in cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-018-0303-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267418PMC

A Phenomenological and Dynamic View of Homology: Homologs as Persistently Reproducible Modules.

Biol Theory 2017 22;12(3):169-180. Epub 2017 May 22.

Faculty of Letters, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

Homology is a fundamental concept in biology. However, the metaphysical status of homology, especially whether a homolog is a part of an individual or a member of a natural kind, is still a matter of intense debate. The proponents of the individuality view of homology criticize the natural kind view of homology by pointing out that homologs are subject to evolutionary transformation, and natural kinds do not change in the evolutionary process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-017-0265-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569646PMC
May 2017
2 Reads

A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.

Authors:
J H van Hateren

Biol Theory 2017 8;12(2):112-126. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-017-0261-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487967PMC

The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication.

Authors:
Harry Smit

Biol Theory 2016;11:158-172. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we (1) note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and (2) observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-016-0246-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981630PMC

Epidemiology Without Biology: False Paradigms, Unfounded Assumptions, and Specious Statistics in Radiation Science (with Commentaries by Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake and Christopher Busby and a Reply by the Authors).

Biol Theory 2016;11:69-101. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Nuclear Physics Enterprises, Marlton, NJ USA.

Radiation science is dominated by a paradigm based on an assumption without empirical foundation. Known as the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, it holds that all ionizing radiation is harmful no matter how low the dose or dose rate. Epidemiological studies that claim to confirm LNT either neglect experimental and/or observational discoveries at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels, or mention them only to distort or dismiss them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-016-0244-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4917595PMC
June 2016
17 Reads

On Quantity and Quality in Human Knowledge.

Authors:
Jorge Wagensberg

Biol Theory 2015;10(3):273-280. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Faculty of Physics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Any discipline of human knowledge is characterized by three fundamental elements: the complexity of its content, the method used for its elaboration, and the language used for its expression. This article argues that any method for making knowledge is a particular combination of three main components that we can call (a) science, (b) art, and (c) revelation. The right combination depends on the complexity of the slice of reality that we wish to understand in each case. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-015-0218-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4551538PMC

Engineering and Biology: Counsel for a Continued Relationship.

Biol Theory 2015 Mar;10(1):50-59

Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland. Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, USA.

Biologists frequently draw on ideas and terminology from engineering. Evolutionary systems biology-with its circuits, switches, and signal processing-is no exception. In parallel with the frequent links drawn between biology and engineering, there is ongoing criticism against this cross-fertilization, using the argument that over-simplistic metaphors from engineering are likely to mislead us as engineering is fundamentally different from biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-014-0198-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465806PMC

A Philosophical Perspective on Evolutionary Systems Biology.

Biol Theory 2015 Mar;10:6-17

Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems, Biology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is an emerging hybrid approach that integrates methods, models, and data from evolutionary and systems biology. Drawing on themes that arose at a cross-disciplinary meeting on ESB in 2013, we discuss in detail some of the explanatory friction that arises in the interaction between evolutionary and systems biology. These tensions appear because of different modeling approaches, diverse explanatory aims and strategies, and divergent views about the scope of the evolutionary synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-015-0202-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465572PMC
March 2015
2 Reads

The Comet Cometh: Evolving Developmental Systems.

Biol Theory 2015;10(1):36-49. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

The KLI Institute, Klosterneuburg, Austria.

In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-015-0203-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357653PMC
February 2015
2 Reads

Methodology and Ontology in Microbiome Research.

Authors:
John Huss

Biol Theory 2014 29;9(4):392-400. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Krakow, Poland ; Department of Philosophy, University of Akron, Akron, OH USA.

Research on the human microbiome has generated a staggering amount of sequence data, revealing variation in microbial diversity at the community, species (or phylotype), and genomic levels. In order to make this complexity more manageable and easier to interpret, new units-the metagenome, core microbiome, and enterotype-have been introduced in the scientific literature. Here, I argue that analytical tools and exploratory statistical methods, coupled with a translational imperative, are the primary drivers of this new ontology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-014-0187-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4250566PMC
July 2014
2 Reads

On Quantitative Comparative Research in Communication and Language Evolution.

Biol Theory 2014 Sep;9(3):296-308

Institute for Intelligent Systems, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.

Quantitative comparison of human language and natural animal communication requires improved conceptualizations. We argue that an infrastructural approach to development and evolution incorporating an extended interpretation of the distinctions among illocution, perlocution, and meaning (Austin 1962; Oller and Griebel 2008) can help place the issues relevant to quantitative comparison in perspective. The approach can illuminate the controversy revolving around the notion of functional referentiality as applied to alarm calls, for example in the vervet monkey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-014-0186-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4179202PMC
September 2014
1 Read

On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

Authors:
Jorge Wagensberg

Biol Theory 2014 2;9(3):331-346. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Faculty of Physics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-014-0166-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4131153PMC

Universal Grammar and Biological Variation: An EvoDevo Agenda for Comparative Biolinguistics.

Biol Theory 2014 15;9(2):122-134. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) & Department of Linguistics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Recent advances in genetics and neurobiology have greatly increased the degree of variation that one finds in what is taken to provide the biological foundations of our species-specific linguistic capacities. In particular, this variation seems to cast doubt on the purportedly homogeneous nature of the language faculty traditionally captured by the concept of "Universal Grammar." In this article we discuss what this new source of diversity reveals about the biological reality underlying Universal Grammar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-014-0164-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052002PMC

Human Behavior and Cognition in Evolutionary Economics.

Authors:
Richard R Nelson

Biol Theory 2011 Dec 31;6(4):293-300. Epub 2012 Oct 31.

Columbia Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY USA.

My brand of evolutionary economics recognizes, highlights, that modern economies are always in the process of changing, never fully at rest, with much of the energy coming from innovation. This perspective obviously draws a lot from Schumpeter. Continuing innovation, and the creative destruction that innovation engenders, is driving the system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13752-012-0036-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3563955PMC
December 2011
1 Read

Public goods with punishment and abstaining in finite and infinite populations.

Biol Theory 2008 Apr;3(2):114-122

Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, One Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

The evolution and maintenance of cooperation in human and animal societies challenges various disciplines ranging from evolutionary biology, to anthropology, social sciences and economics. In social interactions, cooperators increase the welfare of the group at some cost to themselves whereas defectors attempt to free-ride and neither provide benefits nor incur costs. The problem of cooperation becomes even more pronounced when increasing the number of interacting individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/biot.2008.3.2.114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927148PMC
April 2008
7 Reads

Twenty Years of Delila and Molecular Information Theory: The Altenberg-Austin Workshop in Theoretical Biology Biological Information, Beyond Metaphor: Causality, Explanation, and Unification Altenberg, Austria, 11-14 July 2002.

Biol Theory 2006 ;1(3):250-260

National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Laboratory of Experimental and Computational Biology, P. O. Box B, Frederick, MD 21702-1201. (301) 846-5581 (-5532 for messages), fax: (301) 846-5598, email: . http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov/ toms/

A brief personal history is given about how information theory can be applied to binding sites of genetic control molecules on nucleic acids. The primary example used is ribosome binding sites in Escherichia coli. Once the sites are aligned, the information needed to describe the sites can be computed using Claude Shannon's method. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2139980PMC
January 2006

Approaches to Information-Theoretic Analysis of Neural Activity.

Biol Theory 2006 ;1(3):302-316

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Weill Medical College of Cornell University New York, NY, USA.

Understanding how neurons represent, process, and manipulate information is one of the main goals of neuroscience. These issues are fundamentally abstract, and information theory plays a key role in formalizing and addressing them. However, application of information theory to experimental data is fraught with many challenges. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709861PMC
January 2006
2 Reads
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