362 results match your criteria Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging[Journal]


Novel Machine Learning Identifies Brain Patterns Distinguishing Diagnostic Membership of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Alcoholism, and Their Comorbidity of Individuals.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Center for Biomedical Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California. Electronic address:

The incidence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is twice that of the rest of the population. This study documents complex radiologically identified, neuroanatomical effects of AUD+HIV comorbidity by identifying structural brain systems that predicted diagnosis on an individual basis. Applying novel machine learning analysis to 549 participants (199 control subjects, 222 with AUD, 68 with HIV, 60 with AUD+HIV), 298 magnetic resonance imaging brain measurements were automatically reduced to small subsets per group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.02.003DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Reduced Amygdala-Prefrontal Functional Connectivity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-occurring Disruptive Behavior.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: Disruptive behaviors are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and often cause substantial impairments. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of disruptive behaviors remain poorly understood in ASD. In children without ASD, disruptive behavior is associated with amygdala hyperactivity and reduced connectivity with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.009DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Changing Views on the Salience Network in Response to Data on Exposure to Assault.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr;4(4):331-332

Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, Nebraska. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.02.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Neural Markers That Distinguish Bipolar Disorder From Major Depressive Disorder: Moving Closer to a Reality.

Authors:
Mary L Phillips

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr;4(4):328-330

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.010DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Oxytocin Selectively Improves Empathic Accuracy: A Replication in Men and Novel Insights in Women.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Previously, oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in human social cognition and behavior, was shown to improve people's ability to dynamically track another's emotional state ("empathic accuracy") specifically for less socially proficient individuals-i.e., healthy adults who score higher on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ); conversely, oxytocin had no effect on empathic accuracy for more socially proficient individuals, who performed well following oxytocin and placebo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.014DOI Listing
February 2019

Decreased Amygdala Reactivity to Parent Cues Protects Against Anxiety Following Early Adversity: An Examination Across 3 Years.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background: The human brain remains highly plastic for a protracted developmental period. Thus, although early caregiving adversities that alter amygdala development can result in enduring emotion regulation difficulties, these trajectories should respond to subsequent enriched caregiving. Exposure to high-quality parenting can regulate (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Involvement in Sports, Hippocampal Volume, and Depressive Symptoms in Children.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Recent studies have found that higher levels of exercise are associated with fewer symptoms of depression among young people. In addition, research suggests that exercise may modify hippocampal volume, a brain region that has been found to show reduced volume in depression. However, it is not clear whether this relationship emerges as early as preadolescence. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.011DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads

Association Between Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Frontostriatal Connectivity During Maintenance of Visuospatial Working Memory.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been linked with poor clinical outcomes and variation in resting-state striatal connectivity with central executive regions. However, the link between DUP and task-based activation of executive neurocognition has not previously been examined. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the association between DUP and both activation and frontostriatal functional connectivity during a visual working memory (WM) paradigm in patients with first-episode psychosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Micro- and Macrostructural White Matter Integrity in Never-Treated and Currently Unmedicated Patients With Schizophrenia and Effects of Short-Term Antipsychotic Treatment.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Schizophrenia is associated with progressive white matter changes, but it is unclear whether antipsychotic medications contribute to these. Our objective was to characterize effects of short-term treatment with risperidone on white matter diffusion indices.

Methods: We recruited 42 patients with schizophrenia (30 never treated and 12 currently untreated) and 42 matched healthy control subjects in this prospective case-control neuroimaging study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019

Subcortical Shape Abnormalities in Bulimia Nervosa.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York.

Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with functional abnormalities in frontostriatal and frontolimbic circuits. Although structural alterations in the frontal portions of these circuits have been observed, this is the first study of subcortical surface morphometry and the largest study of subcortical volume in BN.

Methods: Anatomical magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 62 female participants with full and subthreshold BN (mean age ± SD, 18. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183033
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.011DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Is Associated With Endogenous Levels of Oxytocin and Can Be Altered by Exogenously Administered Oxytocin in Adults With Autism.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Neural Control of Movement Lab, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Oxytocin (OT) plays a pivotal role in interpersonal bonding, affiliation, and trust, and its intranasal administration is increasingly considered as a potential treatment for autism spectrum disorder.

Methods: We explored whether variations in endogenous salivary OT concentration are related to interindividual differences in core autism symptoms and expressions of attachment in 38 male adults with autism spectrum disorder. Further, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to specifically explore whether interindividual differences are reflected in the intrinsic network organization of key regions of the central oxytocinergic system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.008DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Erratum.

Authors:

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar;4(3):326

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.013DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A Computational Modeling Approach Supports Negative Reinforcement Theories of Addiction.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar;4(3):218-219

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, and the Department of Community Medicine, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Effects of Participant Functioning Level on Brain Functional Connectivity in Autism.

Authors:
Lucina Q Uddin

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar;4(3):216-217

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Miami, Florida; Neuroscience Program, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.004DOI Listing

White Matter Structure and Delay Tolerance in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Authors:
Katya Rubia

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar;4(3):213-215

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.006DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Effects of Ketamine on Brain Activity During Emotional Processing: Differential Findings in Depressed Versus Healthy Control Participants.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Section on Neurobiology and Treatment of Mood Disorders, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: In the search for novel treatments for depression, ketamine has emerged as a unique agent with rapid antidepressant effects. Experimental tasks involving emotional processing can be used during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to investigate ketamine's effects on brain function in major depressive disorder (MDD). This study examined ketamine's effects on functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during an emotional processing task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Dissecting the Heterogeneous Cortical Anatomy of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Normative Models.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The neuroanatomical basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has remained elusive, mostly owing to high biological and clinical heterogeneity among diagnosed individuals. Despite considerable effort toward understanding ASD using neuroimaging biomarkers, heterogeneity remains a barrier, partly because studies mostly employ case-control approaches, which assume that the clinical group is homogeneous.

Methods: Here, we used an innovative normative modeling approach to parse biological heterogeneity in ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.013DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Functional Connectivity of Frontoparietal and Salience/Ventral Attention Networks Have Independent Associations With Co-occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children With Autism.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 9;4(4):343-351. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Center for Autism Research and Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have worse functional outcomes and treatment response than those without ADHD symptoms. There is limited knowledge of the neurobiology of ADHD symptoms in ASD. Here, we test the hypothesis that aberrant functional connectivity of two large-scale executive brain networks implicated in ADHD-the frontoparietal and salience/ventral attention networks-also play a role in ADHD symptoms in ASD. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456394PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

An Integrated Analysis of Neural Network Correlates of Categorical and Dimensional Models of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, putatively induced by dissociable dysfunctional biobehavioral pathways. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study to parse ADHD-related heterogeneity in its underlying neurobiology by investigating functional connectivity across multiple brain networks to 1) disentangle categorical diagnosis-related effects from dimensional behavior-related effects and 2) functionally map these neural correlates to neurocognitive measures.

Methods: We identified functional connectivity abnormalities related to ADHD across 14 networks within a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset (n = 409; age = 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.014DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Peritraumatic Neural Processing and Intrusive Memories: The Role of Lifetime Adversity.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 4;4(4):381-389. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Clinical Stress and Emotion Laboratory, Division of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Health Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Pathological peritraumatic encoding is proposed as a proximal risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with trauma-analog studies linking increased neural processing of trauma films to intrusive trauma recollections, a core symptom of PTSD. Cumulative lifetime adversity is proposed as a more distal risk factor, with research indicating a tipping point at about five events with regard to PTSD development following re-exposure to trauma. Thus, within a diathesis × stress framework, increased peritraumatic neural processing may constitute a specific risk factor for PTSD, particularly in individuals with several lifetime adversities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183033
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.010DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Disruptions in White Matter Maturation and Mediation of Cognitive Development in Youths on the Psychosis Spectrum.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Psychosis onset typically occurs in adolescence, and subclinical psychotic experiences peak in adolescence. Adolescence is also a time of critical neural and cognitive maturation. Using cross-sectional data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined whether regional white matter (WM) development is disrupted in youths with psychosis spectrum (PS) features and whether WM maturation mediates the relationship between age and cognition in typically developing (TD) youths and youths with PS features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.008DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Understanding Personal Control and the Brain Reward System for Psychopathology Is Challenging but Important.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb;4(2):105-107

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Center for Depression, Anxiety and Stress Research, Belmont, Massachusetts; McLean Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377248PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Finding the Neural Basis of Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Authors:
Joel Stoddard

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb;4(2):103-104

Pediatric Mental Health Institute, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.009DOI Listing
February 2019
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Two Methodologies in "Amygdala Activation and Connectivity to Emotional Processing Distinguishes Asymptomatic Patients With Bipolar Disorders and Unipolar Depression" That Can Produce False-Positive Results and Some Statistical Recommendations.

Authors:
Simon N Vandekar

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 4;4(4):409-410. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.007DOI Listing

Reply to: Two Methodologies in "Amygdala Activation and Connectivity to Emotional Processing Distinguishes Asymptomatic Patients With Bipolar Disorders and Unipolar Depression" That Can Produce False-Positive Results and Some Statistical Recommendations.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 4;4(4):411-413. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead; and Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Alcohol Expectancy and Cerebral Responses to Cue-Elicited Craving in Adult Nondependent Drinkers.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: Positive alcohol expectancy (AE) contributes to excessive drinking. Many imaging studies have examined cerebral responses to alcohol cues and how these regional processes related to problem drinking. However, it remains unclear how AE relates to cue response and whether AE mediates the relationship between cue response and problem drinking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.012DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Altered Connectivity Between Cerebellum, Visual, and Sensory-Motor Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from the EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 5;4(3):260-270. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Center, the Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University, the Netherlands; Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging-based studies on functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generated inconsistent results. Interpretation of findings is further hampered by small samples and a focus on a limited number of networks, with networks underlying sensory processing being largely underexamined. We aimed to comprehensively characterize ASD-related alterations within and between 20 well-characterized resting-state networks using baseline data from the EU-AIMS (European Autism Interventions-A Multicentre Study for Developing New Medications) Longitudinal European Autism Project. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.010DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Awake Mouse Imaging: From Two-Photon Microscopy to Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California; Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California; Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown.

Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake behaving mice is well positioned to bridge the detailed cellular-level view of brain activity, which has become available owing to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics, to the macroscopic scale of human noninvasive observables. However, though microscopic (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Dynamic Causal Modeling of Insular, Striatal, and Prefrontal Cortex Activities During a Food-Specific Go/NoGo Task.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the dynamic interactions among three neural systems that are implicated in substance and behavioral addictions in response to food cues in young adults. These include an impulsive system involving the striatum, a reflective system involving the prefrontal cortex, and a homeostasis sensing system involving the insular cortex.

Methods: College students (N = 45) with various levels of body mass index were recruited. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Insula Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia: Subregions, Gradients, and Symptoms.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 13;4(4):399-408. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Mental Health, Carlton, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The insular cortex is connected to a diverse network of cortical and subcortical areas. This study aimed to investigate whether the diversity in functional connectivity across the insula's topography is altered in individuals with schizophrenia and relates to the clinical symptoms of the disorder.

Methods: Insula-to-whole-brain functional connectivity was mapped using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at the resolution of voxels in individuals with schizophrenia (n = 49) and healthy comparison individuals (n = 52). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.003DOI Listing

Alterations in Systemic and Cognitive Glucocorticoid Sensitivity in Depression.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 4;4(3):310-320. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Background: Decades of research point to cortisol insensitivity as a biomarker of depression. Despite a vast literature on cortisol's effects on memory, the role of cortisol insensitivity in core psychological features of depression, such as emotional memory biases, is unknown.

Methods: Sixty-five premenopausal women with varying levels of depression completed this study involving an at-home low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and four experimental sessions (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399042PMC

Impaired Expected Value Computations in Schizophrenia Are Associated With a Reduced Ability to Integrate Reward Probability and Magnitude of Recent Outcomes.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 7;4(3):280-290. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Motivational deficits in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) are associated with an inability to integrate the magnitude and probability of previous outcomes. The mechanisms that underlie probability-magnitude integration deficits, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increased reliance on "valueless" stimulus-response associations, in lieu of expected value (EV)-based learning, could drive probability-magnitude integration deficits in PSZ with motivational deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399031PMC

Variations in Hippocampal White Matter Diffusivity Differentiate Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Major Depression.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 14;4(3):300-309. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for severe depression and is shown to increase hippocampal volume and modulate hippocampal functional connectivity. Whether variations in hippocampal structural connectivity occur with ECT and relate to clinical response is unknown.

Methods: Patients with major depression (n = 36, 20 women, age 41. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.003DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Analysis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 29;4(1):81-90. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Debate exists over the extent to which dysfunctions arising from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Methods: This study investigated 1) the white matter integrity of participants with either mTBI or PTSD, and 2) the relationship between white matter integrity and postconcussive syndrome. The sample comprised 110 civilians (mTBI group = 40; PTSD group = 32; age- and sex-matched trauma-exposed control subjects = 38) recruited from community advertising. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.10.004DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Toward Understanding Developmental Disruption of Default Mode Network Connectivity Due to Early Life Stress.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan;4(1):5-7

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.008DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Early Variations in Amygdala Development May Signal Divergent Behavioral Outcomes.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan;4(1):3-4

The MIND Institute and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California.

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.009DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Neural Correlates of Affective Disturbances: A Comparative Meta-analysis of Negative Affect Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 16;4(3):220-232. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim at Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prominent examples of mental disorders with affective disturbances. Notably, all three disorders share a generally heightened negative affect, which is presumably the result of shared neural abnormalities in affective processing. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to identify transdiagnostic and disorder-specific abnormalities during the processing of negative compared with neutral stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.004DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Elevated Brain Iron in Cocaine Use Disorder as Indexed by Magnetic Field Correlation Imaging.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

Background: Iron homeostasis is a critical biological process that may be disrupted in cocaine use disorder (CUD). In the brain, iron is required for neural processes involved in addiction and can be lethal to cells if unbound, especially in excess. Moreover, recent studies have implicated elevated brain iron in conditions of prolonged psychostimulant exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018
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The Default Mode Network Mediates the Impact of Infant Regulatory Problems on Adult Avoidant Personality Traits.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 16;4(4):333-342. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, München, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, München, Germany; TUM-NIC Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität München, München, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Infant regulatory problems (RPs), i.e., problems with crying, feeding, and/or sleeping, are associated with behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.11.005DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Action-Outcome Knowledge Dissociates From Behavior in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Following Contingency Degradation.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 9;4(2):200-209. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), actions persist despite being inappropriate to the situation and without relationship to the overall goal. Dysfunctional beliefs have traditionally been postulated to underlie this condition. More recently, OCD has been characterized in terms of an imbalance between the goal-directed and the habit systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374986PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Mapping Structure-Function Relationships in the Brain.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Mapping the structural and functional connectivity of the brain is a major focus of systems neuroscience research and will help to identify causally important changes in neural circuitry responsible for behavioral dysfunction. Several methods for examining brain activity in humans have been extended to rodent and monkey models in which molecular and genetic manipulations exist for linking to human disease. In this review, which is part of a special issue focused on bridging brain connectivity information across species and spatiotemporal scales, we address mapping brain activity and neural connectivity in rodents using optogenetics in conjunction with either functional magnetic resonance imaging or optical intrinsic signal imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.10.005DOI Listing
October 2018
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What Can Neuroimaging of Human Alcohol Drinkers Tell Us About Compulsive Alcohol Use?

Authors:
Jodi M Gilman

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec;3(12):983-984

Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Addiction Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.013DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Neural Network-Level Examinations of Psychopathy: Preliminary Evidence and Future Directions.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec;3(12):981-982

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.011DOI Listing
December 2018
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Cognitive Deficits, Structural Neuropathology, and Psychotic Illness: Is It All a Matter of Severity?

Authors:
Jason Smucny

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec;3(12):978-980

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.08.013DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Erratum.

Authors:

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Dec;3(12):1050

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018
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Neurocognitive Pathways in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and White Matter Microstructure.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 29;4(3):233-242. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, The Institute of Living, Hartford, Connecticut; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: This study sought to identify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) abnormalities in relationships between brain white matter structure and individual differences in several types of impulsive behavior.

Methods: Adolescents, n = 67 with ADHD combined subtype and n = 68 without ADHD, were given neuropsychological tests and underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans. Principal component analysis reduced test scores into factors representing different types of impulsive behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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The Neurobiology of Personal Control During Reward Learning and Its Relationship to Mood.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 9;4(2):190-199. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: The majority of reward learning neuroimaging studies have not focused on the motivational aspects of behavior, such as the inherent value placed on choice itself. The experience and affective value of personal control may have particular relevance for psychiatric disorders, including depression.

Methods: We adapted a functional magnetic resonance imaging reward task that probed the value placed on exerting control over one's decisions, termed choice value, in 122 healthy participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374985PMC
February 2019
19 Reads

Relationship Between Cortical Excitation and Inhibition and Task-Induced Activation and Deactivation: A Combined Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study at 7T in First-Episode Psychosis.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 16;4(2):121-130. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Background: Schizophrenia is thought to be a disorder of brain dysconnectivity. An imbalance between cortical excitation/inhibition is also implicated, but the link between these abnormalities remains unclear. The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7T to investigate how measurements of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) relate to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response during a cognitive task, and how these relationships are altered in schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.10.002DOI Listing
February 2019
20 Reads

Regional Prefrontal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 4;4(4):390-398. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Center for Depression, Anxiety and Stress Research, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Prefrontal subregions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC, and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), are differentially implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though few existing studies have examined subregional differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). We hypothesized that PTSD would involve weaker positive rsFC between ventromedial PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and other default mode network regions and increased negative rsFC between DLPFC and posterior default mode network regions. Additionally, we hypothesized that prefrontal regions exhibiting group differences in rsFC would be characterized by alterations in cortical thickness. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447465PMC
April 2019
18 Reads

Chronic Early Stress Impairs Default Mode Network Connectivity in Preadolescents and Their Mothers.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 3;4(1):72-80. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel; Yale University Child Study Center, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: Early life stress (ELS) bears long-term negative consequences throughout life. Yet ELS effect is mostly unknown, and no study has followed children to test its impact on the default mode network (DMN) in relation to maternal behavior across childhood. Focusing on brain oscillations, we utilized a unique cohort of war-exposed preadolescent children (11-13 years of age) and their mothers followed from early childhood to examine the effects of ELS combined with observed parenting on DMN connectivity and power in mother and child. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183024
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.009DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads