528 results match your criteria Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging[Journal]


Extra-axial Cerebrospinal Fluid Relationships to Infant Brain Structure, Cognitive Development, and Risk for Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Increased volume of extra-axial cerebrospinal fluid (EA-CSF) is associated with autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in young children. However, little is known about EA-CSF development in typically developing (TD) children or in children at risk for schizophrenia (SCZHR).

Methods: 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained in TD children (n = 105) and in SCZHR children (n = 38) at 1 and 2 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.008DOI Listing

Effect of Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Telomere Length and Amygdala Volume.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 31. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California.

Background: Traumatic stress can adversely affect physical and mental health through neurobiological stress response systems. We examined the effects of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging, and volume of the amygdala, a key structure of stress regulation, in combat-exposed veterans. In addition, the relationships of psychopathological symptoms and autonomic function with telomere length and amygdala volume were examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.007DOI Listing

The Longitudinal Assessment of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease and Their Association With White Matter Hyperintensities in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 2. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

University Health Network Memory Clinic, Department of Neurology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). NPSs contribute to patients' distress, caregiver burden, and institutionalization. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) appear on magnetic resonance imaging, usually indicative of cerebrovascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.006DOI Listing

Acute Posttrauma Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Periaqueductal Gray Prospectively Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 28. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, avoidance, and intrusive/re-experiencing symptoms. The periaqueductal gray (PAG), which generates behavioral responses to physical and psychological stressors, is also implicated in threat processing. Distinct regions of the PAG elicit opposing responses to threatening or stressful stimuli; the ventrolateral PAG evokes passive coping strategies (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.004DOI Listing

Stopping to Think About Stopping.

Authors:
Hugh Garavan

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May;5(5):476-477

Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.009DOI Listing

Predicting Trajectories of Risk or Resilience in Traumatized Youth.

Authors:
Ran Barzilay

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May;5(5):473-475

Lifespan Brain Institute, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Penn Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.002DOI Listing

Parsing Comorbidity: The Challenge of Studying Neurobiological Correlates of Callous-Unemotional Traits.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May;5(5):470-472

Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.005DOI Listing

In Vivo Imaging of Gray Matter Microstructure in Major Psychiatric Disorders: Opportunities for Clinical Translation.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 25. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Kimel Family Translational Imaging Genetics Research Laboratory, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Postmortem studies reveal that individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder have gray matter microstructural abnormalities. These include abnormalities in neuropil organization, expression of proteins supporting neuritic and synaptic integrity, and myelination. Genetic and postmortem studies suggest that these changes may be causally linked to the pathogenesis of these disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Examining Specificity of Neural Correlates of Childhood Psychotic-like Experiences During an Emotional n-Back Task.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 19. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during childhood are associated with greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder in adulthood, highlighting the importance of identifying neural correlates of childhood PLEs. Furthermore, impairment of cognitive functions, such as working memory and emotion regulation, has also been linked to psychosis risk as well as to disruptions in several brain regions. However, impairments in these domains have also been linked to other disorders, including depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.012DOI Listing

Association Between a Directly Translated Cognitive Measure of Negative Bias and Self-reported Psychiatric Symptoms.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 4. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Negative interpretation biases are thought to be core symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders. However, prior work using cognitive tasks to measure such biases is largely restricted to case-control group studies, which cannot be used for inference about individuals without considerable additional validation. Moreover, very few measures are fully translational (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.010DOI Listing

Memantine Effects on Electroencephalographic Measures of Putative Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance in Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb 22. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California; VA Desert Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.

Background: Abnormalities in cortical excitation and inhibition (E/I) balance are thought to underlie sensory and information processing deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in early auditory information processing mediate both neurocognitive and functional impairment and appear to be normalized by acute pharmacologic challenge with the NMDA antagonist memantine (MEM).

Methods: Thirty-six subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 31 healthy control subjects underwent electroencephalographic recordings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.004DOI Listing
February 2020

Borderline Personality Traits Are Not Correlated With Brain Structure in 2 Large Samples.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb 24. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Background: Borderline personality disorder is associated with severe psychiatric presentations and has been linked to variability in brain structure. Dimensional models of borderline personality traits (BPTs) have become influential; however, associations between BPTs and brain structure remain poorly understood.

Methods: We tested whether BPTs are associated with regional cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volumes (n = 152 brain structure metrics) in data from the Duke Neurogenetics Study (n = 1299) and Human Connectome Project (n = 1099). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.006DOI Listing
February 2020

Toward a Revised Nosology for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Heterogeneity.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb 24. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the many syndromes in the psychiatric nosology for which etiological signal and clinical prediction are weak. Reducing phenotypic and mechanistic heterogeneity should be useful to arrive at stronger etiological and clinical prediction signals. We discuss key conceptual and methodological issues, highlighting the role of dimensional features aligned with Research Domain Criteria and cognitive, personality, and temperament theory as well as neurobiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.005DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of Bergen 4-Day Treatment on Resting-State Graph Features in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb 6. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Bergen Center for Brain Plasticity, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Exposure and response prevention is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but it is unclear how symptom reduction is related to changes in the brain. We aimed to determine the effects of a 4-day concentrated exposure and response prevention program (Bergen 4-day treatment) on the static and dynamic functional connectome in patients with OCD.

Methods: Thirty-four patients with OCD (25 unmedicated) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging the day before the Bergen 4-day treatment, and 28 (21 unmedicated) were rescanned after 1 week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.007DOI Listing
February 2020

Alcohol Use Disorder, But Not Cannabis Use Disorder, Symptomatology in Adolescents Is Associated With Reduced Differential Responsiveness to Reward Versus Punishment Feedback During Instrumental Learning.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, Nebraska.

Background: The two most commonly used illegal substances by adolescents in the United States are alcohol and cannabis. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have been associated with dysfunction in decision-making processes in adolescents. One potential mechanism for these impairments is thought to be related to abnormalities in reward and punishment processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.003DOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of Childhood Trauma on Executive Function in Adolescence-Mediating Functional Brain Networks and Prediction of High-Risk Drinking.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 11;5(5):499-509. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California; Neural Engineering and Translation Labs, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Background: Childhood trauma is known to impart risk for several adverse life outcomes. Yet, its impact during adolescent development is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the relationships among childhood trauma, functional brain connectivity, executive dysfunction (ED), and the development of high-risk drinking in adolescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.011DOI Listing

Transdiagnostic and Illness-Specific Functional Dysconnectivity Across Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 10;5(5):542-553. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

The Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience and Brain-Inspired Intelligence (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China; Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Mental disorders are typically defined as distinct diagnostic entities, but similar patterns of clinical and cognitive impairments are frequently found across diagnostic groups. We investigated whether these transdiagnostic deficits result from common neural substrates across disorders or various illness-specific mechanisms, or a combination of both.

Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from clinically stable patients with major depressive disorder (n = 53), bipolar disorder (n = 78), or schizophrenia (n = 100) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 109) using a single scanner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.010DOI Listing

The Importance of Examining Psychometrics of Biomarkers.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr;5(4):379-380

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.008DOI Listing

How Should We Measure Fear?

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr;5(4):377-378

Department of Health Psychology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.009DOI Listing

Why Do Certain Moments Haunt Us? Conceptualizing Intrusive Memories as Conditioned Responses.

Authors:
Renée M Visser

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr;5(4):375-376

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.007DOI Listing

Psychiatric Illnesses as Disorders of Network Dynamics.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Jan 16. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Theoretical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

This review provides a dynamical systems perspective on mental illness. After a brief introduction to the theory of dynamical systems, we focus on the common assumption in theoretical and computational neuroscience that phenomena at subcellular, cellular, network, cognitive, and even societal levels could be described and explained in terms of dynamical systems theory. As such, dynamical systems theory may also provide a framework for understanding mental illnesses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.001DOI Listing
January 2020

Improving the Reliability of Computational Analyses: Model-Based Planning and Its Relationship With Compulsivity.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Jan 13. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Background: Computational models show great promise in mapping latent decision-making processes onto dissociable neural substrates and clinical phenotypes. One prominent example in reinforcement learning is model-based planning, which specifically relates to transdiagnostic compulsivity. However, the reliability of computational model-derived measures such as model-based planning is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.019DOI Listing
January 2020

Canonical Correlation Analysis for Identifying Biotypes of Depression.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 13;5(5):478-480. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Max Planck-University College London Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.002DOI Listing

Fully Automated Habenula Segmentation Provides Robust and Reliable Volume Estimation Across Large Magnetic Resonance Imaging Datasets, Suggesting Intriguing Developmental Trajectories in Psychiatric Disease.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Jan 31. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Studies of habenula (Hb) function and structure provided evidence of its involvement in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Previous studies using magnetic resonance imaging (manual/semiautomated segmentation) have reported conflicting results. Aiming to improve Hb segmentation reliability and the study of large datasets, we describe a fully automated protocol that was validated against manual segmentations and applied to 3 datasets (childhood/adolescence and adult bipolar disorder and schizophrenia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.004DOI Listing
January 2020

Neural Remodeling Begins With the First Cigarette.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 17. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Reliant Medical Group, Inc., Leominster, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.09.012DOI Listing

Emotion-Cognition Interactions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Increased Early Attention Capture and Weakened Attentional Control in Emotional Contexts.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 15;5(5):520-529. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Background: Emotion dysregulation is a key dimensional trait in psychopathology. It is of particular interest in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because individual differences in emotion dysregulation predict impairment. Despite growing recognition of its importance, an understanding of emotional functioning in ADHD needs to be better integrated with the well-known nonemotional attentional impairments in the disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224233PMC

Altered Cortical Gyrification in Adults Who Were Born Very Preterm and Its Associations With Cognition and Mental Health.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb 5. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's Health Partners, London, United Kingdom; Centre for the Developing Brain, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The last trimester of pregnancy is a critical period for the establishment of cortical gyrification, and altered folding patterns have been reported following very preterm birth (< 33 weeks of gestation) in childhood and adolescence. However, research is scant on the persistence of such alterations in adulthood and their associations with cognitive and psychiatric outcomes.

Methods: We studied 79 very preterm and 81 age-matched full-term control adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.006DOI Listing
February 2020

Reply to: Neural Remodeling Begins With the First Cigarette.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 17. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.005DOI Listing

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Applied to the Dorsolateral and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortices in Smokers Modifies Cognitive Circuits Implicated in the Nicotine Withdrawal Syndrome.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 13;5(4):448-460. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background: The nicotine withdrawal syndrome remains a major impediment to smoking cessation. Cognitive and affective disturbances are associated with altered connectivity within and between the executive control network, default mode network (DMN), and salience network. We hypothesized that functional activity in cognitive control networks, and downstream amygdala circuits, would be modified by application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left (L) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, executive control network) and right (R) ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, DMN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150637PMC

Biomarkers of Face Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Time to Shift to Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation With Electroencephalography?

Authors:
Bruno Rossion

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar;5(3):258-260

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, Université de Lorraine; and Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Nancy, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.008DOI Listing

Increased Basolateral Amygdala Functional Connectivity With Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Fear-Related Memory Encoding in High Anxious Participants: A Premorbid Feature?

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar;5(3):256-257

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.003DOI Listing

Can Applying Neuroanatomical Precision Advance Our Models and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar;5(3):253-255

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.009DOI Listing

Disruptive Behavior Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits, and Regional Gray Matter Volume in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 22;5(5):481-489. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, Florida.

Background: Neurobiological differences linked to socioemotional and cognitive processing are well documented in youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), especially youths with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The current study expanded this literature by examining gray matter volume (GMV) differences among youths with DBD with CU traits (DBDCU+), youths with DBD without CU traits (DBD-only), and youths that were typically developing (TD).

Methods: Data were from the first full sample release of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study (mean age = 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214118PMC

Fixel-Based Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Novel Associations Between White Matter Microstructure and Childhood Aggressive Behavior.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 13;5(5):490-498. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: Childhood aggression has been linked to white matter abnormalities, but research has been inconsistent with regard to both regions of alterations and directionality of the associations. We examined white matter microstructure correlates of aggression using a novel diffusion imaging analysis technique, fixel-based analysis, which leverages connectivity and crossing-fiber information to assess fiber bundle density.

Methods: The sample included 70 children with aggressive behavior and 25 healthy control children without aggressive behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214205PMC

Data-Driven Approaches to Neuroimaging Analysis to Enhance Psychiatric Diagnosis and Therapy.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Jan 7. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Electronic address:

Combining advanced neuroimaging with novel computational methods in network science and machine learning has led to increasingly meaningful descriptions of structure and function in both the normal and the abnormal brain, thereby contributing significantly to our understanding of psychiatric disorders as circuit dysfunctions. Despite its marked potential for psychiatric care, this approach has not yet extended beyond the research setting to any clinically useful applications. Here we review current developments in the study of neuroimaging data using network models and machine learning methods, with a focus on their promise in offering a framework for clinical translation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.015DOI Listing
January 2020

The Resilient Emotional Brain: A Scoping Review of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Limbic Structure and Function in Resilient Adults With a History of Childhood Maltreatment.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 20;5(4):392-402. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is one of the strongest predictors of adult mental illness, although not all adults with CM develop psychopathology. Here, we describe the structure and function of the emotional brain regions that may contribute to resilient functioning after CM. We review studies that report medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus (limbic regions) structure, function, and/or connections in resilient adults (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.008DOI Listing

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Prefrontal Cortex in Depression Modulates Cortical Excitability in Emotion Regulation Regions as Measured by Concurrent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Exploratory Study.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Dec 17. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: A well-established impaired top-down network for effortful emotion regulation (ER) in major depressive disorder (MDD) includes the dorsal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation method that has been used successfully to induce mood changes in MDD. Despite reliable findings, little is known regarding the precise effects of tDCS on cortical excitability in vivo in depression and how such changes relate to ER. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.004DOI Listing
December 2019

Neural Processing During Fear Extinction Predicts Intrusive Memories.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 13;5(4):403-411. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Clinical Stress and Emotion Laboratory, Division of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Deficient extinction learning has been suggested as an important mechanism involved in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. A key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder, reexperiencing the trauma in form of intrusions, may be linked to deficient extinction learning. This link is investigated in a novel, functional magnetic resonance imaging-compatible fear conditioning procedure that uses trauma films. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.017DOI Listing

Computational Evidence for Underweighting of Current Error and Overestimation of Future Error in Anxious Individuals.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 24;5(4):412-419. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Background: Real-time control of goal-directed actions requires continuous adjustments in response to both current error (i.e., distance from goal state) and predicted future error. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150628PMC

Intergenerational Transmission of Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Among Mother-Infant Dyads.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 17;5(4):420-428. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Background: Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is a well-established neurobiological indicator of depression risk. Reduced FAA relates to current and remitted depression in adults and is seen in offspring of mothers with depression as young as 3 months of age, suggesting a potentially transmittable mechanism of depression risk. It is unclear, however, whether direct familial associations exist for FAA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.003DOI Listing

Data-Driven Diagnostics and the Potential of Mobile Artificial Intelligence for Digital Therapeutic Phenotyping in Computational Psychiatry.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Dec 13. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics (Systems Medicine), Stanford University, Stanford, California; Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (by courtesy), Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Data science and digital technologies have the potential to transform diagnostic classification. Digital technologies enable the collection of big data, and advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence enable scalable, rapid, and automated classification of medical conditions. In this review, we summarize and categorize various data-driven methods for diagnostic classification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.11.015DOI Listing
December 2019

Neural Activity During Self-referential Processing in Children at Risk for Depression.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 24;5(4):429-437. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; The Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: According to cognitive theories of depression, more negative and less positive self-schemas are thought to play a causal role in the disorder. Existing evidence speaks to the neural substrates of self-referential processes in both healthy and depressed individuals, but little is known about how the brain relates to self-referential processing in the context of depression risk in children. We therefore studied the neural substrates of self-referential processing in never-depressed preadolescent children at high and low risk for depression based on maternal depression history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.012DOI Listing

Heart Rate Variability, Cue-Evoked Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Response, and Problem Alcohol Use in Adult Drinkers.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Dec 30. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: Many studies employed cue exposure paradigms to investigate the neural processes underlying cue-elicited alcohol craving. Cue exposure elicits robust autonomic reactivity. However, whether or how cue-elicited autonomic response relates to the severity of alcohol misuse and the neural bases underlying the potential relationship remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.013DOI Listing
December 2019

An Active Inference Approach to Dissecting Reasons for Nonadherence to Antidepressants.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Dec 5. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Background: Antidepressant medication adherence is among the most important problems in health care worldwide. Interventions designed to increase adherence have largely failed, pointing toward a critical need to better understand the underlying decision-making processes that contribute to adherence. A computational decision-making model that integrates empirical data with a fundamental action selection principle could be pragmatically useful in 1) making individual-level predictions about adherence and 2) providing an explanatory framework that improves our understanding of nonadherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.11.012DOI Listing
December 2019

Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Control in Late-Life Depression.

Authors:
Julie A Dumas

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb;5(2):138-139

Department of Psychiatry, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.014DOI Listing
February 2020

Of Forests and Trees: Bridging the Gap Between Neurobiology and Behavior in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb;5(2):135-137

Clinical Neurosciences Division, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Department of Veterans Affairs, West Haven, Connecticut; Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.010DOI Listing
February 2020

What Might Prediction Tell Us About the Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Depression?

Authors:
Michael Browning

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Feb;5(2):133-134

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Oxford Health National Health Service Trust, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.009DOI Listing
February 2020

Polygenic Risk Score-Derived Subcortical Connectivity Mediates Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Mar 13;5(3):330-341. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; Department of Psychiatry, and Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has substantial heritability, and a recent large-scale investigation has identified common genome-wide significant loci associated with increased risk for ADHD. Along the same lines, many studies using noninvasive neuroimaging have identified differences in brain functional connectivity in children with ADHD. We attempted to bridge these studies to identify differences in functional connectivity associated with common genetic risk for ADHD using polygenic risk score (PRS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.11.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147985PMC

Nervous and Endocrine System Dysfunction in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview and Consideration of Sex as a Biological Variable.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 19;5(4):381-391. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Depression and Anxiety, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts.

Decades of research into the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests that chronic activation of the stress response leads to long-lasting changes in the structure and function of the nervous and endocrine systems. While the prevalence of PTSD is twice as high in females as males, little is known about how sex differences in neuroendocrine systems may contribute to PTSD. In response to the paucity of research on sex-related mechanisms, the National Institutes of Health created a policy that asks researchers to consider sex as a biological variable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150641PMC

Functional Disruption of Cerebello-thalamo-cortical Networks in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Apr 13;5(4):438-447. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive, compulsive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have implicated altered connectivity among the functional networks of the cerebral cortex in the pathophysiology of OCD. However, there has been no comprehensive investigation of the cross-talk between the cerebellum and functional networks in the cerebral cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150632PMC