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    12100 results match your criteria Biological psychiatry[Journal]

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    Impaired Midline Theta Power and Connectivity During Proactive Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the Mind Research Network/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Background: Disrupted proactive cognitive control, a form of early selection and active goal maintenance, is hypothesized to underlie the broad cognitive deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia (SPs). Current research suggests that the disrupted activation within and connectivity between regions of the cognitive control network contribute to disrupted proactive cognitive control; however, no study has examined these mechanisms using an AX Continuous Performance Test task in schizophrenia.

    Methods: Twenty-six SPs (17 male subjects; mean age 34. Read More

    Cocaine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Input Regions to Distinct Cell Types in Nucleus Accumbens.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Neurobiology Section, Biological Sciences Division, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California; Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California. Electronic address:
    Background: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region implicated in pathological motivated behaviors such as drug addiction and is composed predominantly of two discrete populations of neurons, dopamine receptor-1- and dopamine receptor-2-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs, respectively). It is unclear whether these populations receive inputs from different brain areas and whether input regions to these cell types undergo distinct structural adaptations in response to the administration of addictive drugs such as cocaine.

    Methods: Using a modified rabies virus-mediated tracing method, we created a comprehensive brain-wide monosynaptic input map to NAc D1- and D2-MSNs. Read More

    Nutritional Status Affects Cortical Folding: Lessons Learned From Anorexia Nervosa.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Translational Developmental Neuroscience Section, Eating Disorder Research and Treatment Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Cortical folding is thought to remain relatively invariant after birth. Therefore, differences seen in psychiatric disorders have been proposed as early biomarkers or used as intermediate phenotypes in imaging genetics studies. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with drastic and rapid structural brain alterations and thus may be an ideal model disorder to study environmental influences on cortical folding. Read More

    Sustained Attention and Interference Control Among 7-Year-Old Children With a Familial High Risk of Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder-A Nationwide Observational Cohort Study.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services Capital Region, Research Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Aarhus, Denmark; Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background: Given the partially shared genetic liability between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we aimed to assess whether 7-year-old children with a familial high risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder display specific deficits of sustained attention and interference control compared with each other and with control children.

    Methods: An observational cohort was identified through Danish registries and consisted of 522 children 7 years of age with no, one, or two parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Control subjects were matched based on age, sex, and municipality. Read More

    The Lateral Habenula Directs Coping Styles Under Conditions of Stress Via Recruitment of the Endocannabinoid System.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington; Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Electronic address:
    Background: The ability to effectively cope with stress is a critical determinant of disease susceptibility. The lateral habenula (LHb) and the endocannabinoid (ECB) system have independently been shown to be involved in the selection of stress coping strategies, yet the role of ECB signaling in the LHb remains unknown.

    Methods: Using a battery of complementary techniques in rats, we examined the localization of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and assessed the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of intra-LHb CBR manipulations. Read More

    A Longitudinal Imaging Genetics Study of Neuroanatomical Asymmetry in Alzheimer's Disease.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Background: Contralateral brain structures represent a unique, within-patient reference element for disease, and asymmetries can provide a personalized measure of the accumulation of past disease processes. Neuroanatomical shape asymmetries have recently been associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the biological basis of asymmetric brain changes in AD remains unknown.

    Methods: We investigated genetic influences on brain asymmetry by identifying associations between magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures of asymmetry and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have previously been identified in genome-wide association studies for AD diagnosis and for brain subcortical volumes. Read More

    Aberrant Cortical Integration in First-Episode Psychosis During Natural Audiovisual Processing.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering and Advanced Magnetic Imaging Center, Aalto NeuroImaging, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland.
    Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychotic disorders have reported both hypoactivity and hyperactivity in numerous brain regions. In line with the dysconnection hypothesis, these regions include cortical integrative hub regions. However, most earlier studies focused on a single cognitive function at a time, assessed by delivering artificial stimuli to patients with chronic psychosis. Read More

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol at Retrieval Drives False Recollection of Neutral and Emotional Memories.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
    Background: It is well established that the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs episodic memory encoding and modulates emotional processing, but little is known about the impact of THC during the retrieval of emotional episodic memories. With the rise of cannabis to treat medical conditions, including those characterized by emotional and episodic memory disturbances, there is an urgent need to determine the effects of THC on memory accuracy and distortion. Here, we report the first study investigating the effects of THC during retrieval of neutral and emotional episodic memories. Read More

    Dynamics of Defensive Response Mobilization to Approaching External Versus Interoceptive Threat.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Jun 27;3(6):525-538. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Physiological and Clinical Psychology/Psychotherapy, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Excessive fear and anxiety are core features of anxiety disorders. Defensive response mobilization varies dynamically with threat proximity.

    Methods: We analyzed defensive responses in 48 healthy students to an approaching external, predator-like threat (an electric shock resembling a predator attack) versus an approaching threat from inside the body (feeling of dyspnea as evoked by forced breath-holding). Read More

    Interoception and Inflammation in Psychiatric Disorders.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Jun 9;3(6):514-524. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Department of Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom; Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom; Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Brighton, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Despite a historical focus on neurally mediated interoceptive signaling mechanisms, humoral (and even cellular) signals also play an important role in communicating bodily physiological state to the brain. These signaling pathways can perturb neuronal structure, chemistry, and function, leading to discrete changes in behavior. They are also increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Read More

    Interoception and Mental Health: A Roadmap.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Jun 28;3(6):501-513. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
    Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a moment-by-moment mapping of the body's internal landscape across conscious and unconscious levels. Interoceptive signaling has been considered a component process of reflexes, urges, feelings, drives, adaptive responses, and cognitive and emotional experiences, highlighting its contributions to the maintenance of homeostatic functioning, body regulation, and survival. Dysfunction of interoception is increasingly recognized as an important component of different mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, addictive disorders, and somatic symptom disorders. Read More

    A Model of Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol Self-administration and Reinstatement That Alters Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
    Background: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, but knowledge of the neurological consequences of cannabis use is deficient. Two primary components of cannabis are Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We established a THC+CBD model of self-administration and reinstated drug seeking to determine if, similar to other addictive drugs, cannabis produces enduring synaptic changes in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) thought to contribute vulnerability to drug reinstatement. Read More

    Cocaine Self-administration Alters Transcriptome-wide Responses in the Brain's Reward Circuitry.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Fishberg Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:
    Background: Global changes in gene expression underlying circuit and behavioral dysregulation associated with cocaine addiction remain incompletely understood. Here, we show how a history of cocaine self-administration (SA) reprograms transcriptome-wide responses throughout the brain's reward circuitry at baseline and in response to context and/or cocaine re-exposure after prolonged withdrawal (WD).

    Methods: We assigned male mice to one of six groups: saline/cocaine SA + 24-hour WD or saline/cocaine SA + 30-day WD + an acute saline/cocaine challenge within the previous drug-paired context. Read More

    Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is a Novel Prodepressant.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Background: While downregulation of several growth factors in major depressive disorder is well established, less attention has been paid to the upregulation of other growth factors. Yet, upregulated growth factors may offer better therapeutic targets. We show that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) represents a target based on its upregulation in major depressive disorder and studies in animal models implicating it in negative affect. Read More

    Thalamic Cortical Error-Related Responses in Adult Social Drinkers: Sex Differences and Problem Alcohol Use.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:
    Background: Error-related brain activities are altered in individuals with substance use disorders. Here we examined error-related activities in relation to problem drinking in nondependent alcohol drinkers. In particular, we investigated sex differences and whether altered error responses are related to post-error behavioral control. Read More

    Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-5-Defined Eating Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Adults.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Background: Few population-based data on the prevalence of eating disorders exist, and such data are especially needed because of changes to diagnoses in the DSM-5. This study aimed to provide lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of DSM-5-defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Methods: A national sample of 36,306 U. Read More

    Polygenic Risk Scores, School Achievement, and Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    i-PSYCH initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Lundbeck Foundation, Copenhagen; National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Centre for Integrated Register-Based Research and National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Background: Studies have suggested that poor school achievement is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia; however, the possible genetic contribution to this association is unknown. We investigated the possible effect of the polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia (PRS) and for educational attainment (PRS) on the association between school performance and later schizophrenia.

    Methods: We conducted a case-cohort study on a Danish population-based sample born from 1987 to 1995 comprising 1470 individuals with schizophrenia and 7318 subcohort noncases. Read More

    Working Memory Load and Negative Picture Processing: Neural and Behavioral Associations With Panic, Social Anxiety, and Positive Affect.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 22. Epub 2018 Apr 22.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
    Background: Internalizing disorders such as anxiety may be characterized by an imbalance between bottom-up (stimulus-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) attention. The late positive potential (LPP) can be used to assess these processes when task-irrelevant negative and neutral pictures are presented within a working memory paradigm. Prior work using this paradigm has found that working memory load reduces the picture-elicited LPP across participants; however, anxious individuals showed a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP, suggesting increased distractibility. Read More

    Enhanced Striatal Dopamine Release to Expectation of Alcohol: A Potential Risk Factor for Alcohol Use Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York; Department of Radiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.
    Background: We used positron emission tomography imaging with [C]raclopride to examine the effects of consumption of alcohol or placebo beverage by participants with alcohol use disorder (AUD) compared with healthy participants with and without family history of AUD. We sought to assess dopamine release following alcohol exposure in relation to AUD risk.

    Methods: Three groups were enrolled: participants with AUD (n = 15) and healthy participants with family history negative (n = 34) or positive (n = 16) for AUD. Read More

    Anterior Cingulate Cortex Glutamatergic Metabolites and Mood Stabilizers in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder Patients: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Mar 31. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Bipolar Disorders Program, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent illness characterized by depressive and manic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) studies have demonstrated glutamate (Glu) system abnormalities in BD, but it is unclear how Glu varies among mood states and how medications modulate it. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of mood stabilizers on anterior cingulate cortex Glu levels using H-MRS during euthymia. Read More

    Making Individual Prognoses in Psychiatry Using Neuroimaging and Machine Learning.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 22. Epub 2018 Apr 22.
    Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Read More

    Multimodal Connectomics in Psychiatry: Bridging Scales From Micro to Macro.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Connectome Lab, Department of Complex Traits Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The human brain is a highly complex system, with a large variety of microscale cellular morphologies and macroscale global properties. Working at multiple scales, it forms an efficient system for processing and integration of multimodal information. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between modalities of both microscales and macroscales of brain organization. Read More

    Resting-State Connectivity Biomarkers of Cognitive Performance and Social Function in Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Kimel Family Translational Imaging-Genetics Research Lab, Campbell Family Mental Health Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. Electronic address:
    Background: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition are drivers of reduced functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, with potentially shared neurobiological underpinnings. Many studies have sought to identify brain-based biomarkers of these clinical variables using a priori dichotomies (e.g. Read More

    A Connectome-wide Functional Signature of Transdiagnostic Risk for Mental Illness.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Laboratory of NeuroGenetics, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    Background: High rates of comorbidity, shared risk, and overlapping therapeutic mechanisms have led psychopathology research toward transdiagnostic dimensional investigations of clustered symptoms. One influential framework accounts for these transdiagnostic phenomena through a single general factor, sometimes referred to as the "p" factor, associated with risk for all common forms of mental illness.

    Methods: We build on previous research identifying unique structural neural correlates of the p factor by conducting a data-driven analysis of connectome-wide intrinsic functional connectivity (n = 605). Read More

    Dissociable Frontostriatal Connectivity: Mechanism and Predictor of the Clinical Efficacy of Capsulotomy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Apr 22. Epub 2018 Apr 22.
    Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Little is known about the neural mechanism and response variability underlying neurosurgical interventions for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Methods: Of 81 OCD patients screened for capsulotomy identified in our institutional database, 36 patients with clinical assessment before and after capsulotomy and imaging data (9 of 36 patients without postoperative imaging data used as an independent test group), and 29 healthy control subjects were retrospectively recruited. Twenty of 36 patients (56%) responded to the lesion procedure (determined as a ≥35% reduction in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS] score). Read More

    Quantifying the Effects of 16p11.2 Copy Number Variants on Brain Structure: A Multisite Genetic-First Study.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: 16p11.2 breakpoint 4 to 5 copy number variants (CNVs) increase the risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and language and cognitive impairment. In this multisite study, we aimed to quantify the effect of 16p11. Read More

    Transdiagnostic Effects of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cue Reactivity.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Center for Biomedical Imaging, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address:
    Background: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC).

    Methods: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans). Read More

    Multivariate Relationships Between Cognition and Brain Anatomy Across the Psychosis Spectrum.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Mar 31. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Bio-Imaging Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. Electronic address:
    Background: Cognitive and structural brain abnormalities range from mild to severe in psychosis. The relation of specific cognitive functions to specific brain structures across the psychosis spectrum is less certain.

    Methods: Participants (n = 678) with bipolar, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia psychoses and healthy control subjects were recruited via the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes. Read More

    Using Multilevel Modeling to Examine Blunted Neural Responses to Reward in Major Depression.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Kinesiology and Health, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Electronic address:
    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pernicious disorder characterized by deficits in reward processing. A better understanding of these deficits may help to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology and guide treatment development.

    Methods: This study assessed reward positivity and feedback negativity event-related potentials and their difference scores elicited in response to monetary gains and losses among 100 young adults (52 with MDD). Read More

    The Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor in Depression and Reward.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Jun 22;83(11):963-976. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    The metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA) receptor was the first described obligate G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer and continues to set the stage for discoveries in G protein-coupled receptor signaling complexity. In this review, dedicated to the life and work of Athina Markou, we explore the role of GABA receptors in depression, reward, and the convergence of these domains in anhedonia, a shared symptom of major depressive disorder and withdrawal from drugs of abuse. GABA receptor expression and function are enhanced by antidepressants and reduced in animal models of depression. Read More

    Emotion Regulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Unaffected Siblings, and Unrelated Healthy Control Participants.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    OCD-team, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Functional neuroimaging endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been suggested during executive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether behavioral and neural responses during emotion processing and regulation also represent an endophenotype of OCD.

    Methods: Forty-three unmedicated adult OCD patients, 19 of their unaffected siblings, and 38 healthy control participants underwent 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotion regulation task including neutral, fear-inducing, and OCD-related visual stimuli. Read More

    Primary and Secondary Variants of Psychopathy in a Volunteer Sample Are Associated With Different Neurocognitive Mechanisms.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Developmental Risk and Resilience Unit, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. Read More

    TAR DNA-Binding Protein 43 and Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 Coaggregation Disrupts Dendritic Local Translation and Mental Function in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Laboratory for Protein Conformation Diseases, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: Neurodegenerative diseases involving protein aggregation often accompany psychiatric symptoms. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) associated with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) aggregation is characterized by progressive neuronal atrophy in frontal and temporal lobes of cerebral cortex. Furthermore, patients with FTLD display mental dysfunction in multiple behavioral dimensions. Read More

    Impaired Expected Value Computations Coupled With Overreliance on Stimulus-Response Learning in Schizophrenia.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences and Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Background: While many have emphasized impaired reward prediction error signaling in schizophrenia, multiple studies suggest that some decision-making deficits may arise from overreliance on stimulus-response systems together with a compromised ability to represent expected value. Guided by computational frameworks, we formulated and tested two scenarios in which maladaptive representations of expected value should be most evident, thereby delineating conditions that may evoke decision-making impairments in schizophrenia.

    Methods: In a modified reinforcement learning paradigm, 42 medicated people with schizophrenia and 36 healthy volunteers learned to select the most frequently rewarded option in a 75-25 pair: once when presented with a more deterministic (90-10) pair and once when presented with a more probabilistic (60-40) pair. Read More

    Neural Correlates of Drug-Biased Choice in Currently Using and Abstinent Individuals With Cocaine Use Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 11;3(5):485-494. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
    Background: The choice for drugs over alternative reinforcers is a translational hallmark feature of drug addiction. The neural basis of such drug-biased choice is not well understood, particularly in individuals with protracted drug abstinence who cannot ethically participate in studies that offer drug-using opportunities.

    Methods: We developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging drug-choice task to examine the choice for viewing drug-related images, rather than for actually consuming a drug. Read More

    Subjective Cognitive Decline Is Associated With Altered Default Mode Network Connectivity in Individuals With a Family History of Alzheimer's Disease.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 14;3(5):463-472. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre for the Studies on Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Douglas Mental Health University Institute Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) portend risk of brain abnormalities and progression to dementia. Posterior default mode network (pDMN) connectivity is altered early in the course of AD. It is unclear whether SCD predicts similar outcomes in cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD. Read More

    Abnormal Trajectory of Intracortical Myelination in Schizophrenia Implicates White Matter in Disease Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Mechanism of Action of Antipsychotics.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 14;3(5):454-462. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:
    Background: Postmortem and imaging studies provide converging evidence that the frontal lobe myelination trajectory is dysregulated in schizophrenia (SZ) and suggest that early in treatment, antipsychotic medications increase intracortical myelin (ICM). We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ICM trajectory in SZ is dysregulated and altered by antipsychotic treatment.

    Methods: We examined 93 subjects with SZ (64 men and 29 women) taking second-generation oral antipsychotics with medication exposures of 0-333 months in conjunction with 80 healthy control subjects (52 men and 28 women). Read More

    Dynamic Functional Connectivity States Reflecting Psychotic-like Experiences.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 28;3(5):443-453. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
    Background: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with lower social and occupational functioning, and lower executive function. Emerging evidence also suggests that PLEs reflect neural dysfunction resembling that of psychotic disorders.

    Methods: The present study examined dynamic connectivity related to a measure of PLEs derived from the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, in an otherwise-healthy sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project. Read More

    Cortical Dysconnectivity Measured by Structural Covariance Is Associated With the Presence of Psychotic Symptoms in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 May 10;3(5):433-442. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Developmental Imaging and Psychopathology Laboratory, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Switzerland; Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Switzerland.
    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the third-largest known genetic risk factor for the development of psychosis. Dysconnectivity has consistently been implicated in the physiopathology of psychosis. Read More

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