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    11694 results match your criteria Biological psychiatry[Journal]

    1 OF 234

    An altered scaffold for information processing: Cognitive control development in adolescents with autism.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Sep;2(6):464-475
    Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA, 2230 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA 95817.
    We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control that have been conducted since 2007 in individuals with ASD and typical development (TYP) ages 10 to 30 years that examined how these regions and networks support behavioral and task-based fMRI performance on tasks assessing cognitive control during this period. Longitudinal structural studies reveal overgrowth of the anterior cingulate (ACC) and slower white matter development in the parietal cortex in adolescents with ASD versus TYP. Read More

    Competition Effects in Visual Cortex Between Emotional Distractors and a Primary Task in Remitted Depression.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Jul 21;2(5):396-403. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Center for Affective Science, Binghamton University (SUNY).
    Background: Attentional biases, particularly difficulty inhibiting attention to negative stimuli, are implicated in risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study examined a neural measure of attentional bias using a continuous index of visuocortical engagement (steady-state visual evoked potentials [SSVEPs]) before and after a negative mood induction in a population at high-risk for MDD recurrence due to a recently remitted MDD (rMDD) episode. Additionally, we examined working memory (WM) capacity as a potential moderator of the link between rMDD and visuocortical responses. Read More

    Modulation of γ- and β-Secretases as Early Prevention Against Alzheimer's Disease.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    KU Leuven Department for Neurosciences, Leuven, Belgium; VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain and Disease Research, Leuven, Belgium.
    The genetic evidence implicating amyloid-β in the initial stage of Alzheimer's disease is unequivocal. However, the long biochemical and cellular prodromal phases of the disease suggest that dementia is the result of a series of molecular and cellular cascades whose nature and connections remain unknown. Therefore, it is unlikely that treatments directed at amyloid-β will have major clinical effects in the later stages of the disease. Read More

    Biological Psychiatry: A New Approach to Reviews.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicin, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Psychiatry and Behavioral Health Services, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut; Clinical Neuroscience Division, VA National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

    Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Section of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula. Read More

    The Association Between Prenatal Stress and Externalizing Symptoms in Childhood: Evidence From the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    School of Epidemiology, Public Health, and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: It has been suggested that prenatal maternal stress may increase the risk of childhood externalizing disorders, yet no large cohort study has investigated this association across a large range of acute stressors. Our objective was to estimate the association between prenatal stressful events and risk of offspring conduct disorder and hyperactivity.

    Methods: We used data from 10,184 mother-offspring pairs from the United Kingdom-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Read More

    Hyperactivation in Cognitive Control and Visual Attention Brain Regions During Emotional Interference in Adolescent Depression.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Jul;2(5):388-395
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University.
    Background: Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are characterized by biases in attention to negative emotional material. While there is evidence that anomalous functioning in frontocingulate regions may underlie these biases, we know little about the neural correlates of negative emotional biases in depressed adolescents.

    Methods: Eighteen adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 21 matched healthy control (CTL) adolescents underwent fMRI while performing an emotional distractor task. Read More

    Vicarious Social Defeat Stress Induces Depression-Related Outcomes in Female Mice.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
    Background: Stress is a prevailing risk factor for mood-related illnesses, wherein women represent the majority of those affected by major depression. Despite the growing literature suggesting that affective disorders can arise after a traumatic event is vicariously experienced, this relationship remains understudied in female subjects at the preclinical level. Thus, the objective of the current investigation was to examine whether exposure to emotional and/or psychological stress (ES) mediates depression-related outcomes in female mice. Read More

    Network Mechanisms of Clinical Response to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Butler Hospital Mood Disorders Research Program and Neuromodulation Research Facility, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy can modulate pathological neural network functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Posttraumatic stress disorder is often comorbid with MDD, and symptoms of both disorders can be alleviated with TMS therapy. This is the first study to evaluate TMS-associated changes in connectivity in patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and MDD. Read More

    Persistent Increase in Microglial RAGE Contributes to Chronic Stress-Induced Priming of Depressive-like Behavior.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:
    Background: Chronic stress-induced inflammatory responses occur in part via danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, such as high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), but the receptor(s) underlying DAMP signaling have not been identified.

    Methods: Microglia morphology and DAMP signaling in enriched rat hippocampal microglia were examined during the development and expression of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced behavioral deficits, including long-term, persistent changes after CUS.

    Results: The results show that CUS promotes significant morphological changes and causes robust upregulation of HMGB1 messenger RNA in enriched hippocampal microglia, an effect that persists for up to 6 weeks after CUS exposure. Read More

    Error-Specific Cognitive Control Alterations in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Jul;2(5):413-420
    Stony Brook University.
    Background: Trait anxiety is reliably associated with enhanced neural responses following errors: meta analyses have described how the electrophysiological response to errors known as the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) is increased in anxious individuals, particularly in relation to worry. The ERN has been related to a broader class of control signals, particularly via a common theta band denominator, but it is unknown whether worry relates to these alternative medial frontal metrics. Moreover, it is unclear if increased ERN in anxiety relates to altered cognitive control. Read More

    Intergenerational Effect of Maternal Exposure to Childhood Maltreatment on Newborn Brain Anatomy.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Medical Psychology, Berlin, Germany; Development, Health, and Disease Research Program, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California. Electronic address:
    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) confers deleterious long-term consequences, and growing evidence suggests some of these effects may be transmitted across generations. We examined the intergenerational effect of maternal CM exposure on child brain structure and also addressed the hypothesis that this effect may start during the child's intrauterine period of life.

    Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a clinical convenience sample of 80 mother-child dyads. Read More

    The Unpredictive Brain Under Threat: A Neurocomputational Account of Anxious Hypervigilance.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 6;82(6):447-454. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Background: Anxious hypervigilance is marked by sensitized sensory-perceptual processes and attentional biases to potential danger cues in the environment. How this is realized at the neurocomputational level is unknown but could clarify the brain mechanisms disrupted in psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Predictive coding, instantiated by dynamic causal models, provides a promising framework to ground these state-related changes in the dynamic interactions of reciprocally connected brain areas. Read More

    Computational Dysfunctions in Anxiety: Failure to Differentiate Signal From Noise.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 21;82(6):440-446. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California. Electronic address:
    Background: Differentiating whether an action leads to an outcome by chance or by an underlying statistical regularity that signals environmental change profoundly affects adaptive behavior. Previous studies have shown that anxious individuals may not appropriately differentiate between these situations. This investigation aims to precisely quantify the process deficit in anxious individuals and determine the degree to which these process dysfunctions are specific to anxiety. Read More

    A Formal Valuation Framework for Emotions and Their Control.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 12;82(6):413-420. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Translational Neuromodeling Unit, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Zürich, Switzerland.
    Computational psychiatry aims to apply mathematical and computational techniques to help improve psychiatric care. To achieve this, the phenomena under scrutiny should be within the scope of formal methods. As emotions play an important role across many psychiatric disorders, such computational methods must encompass emotions. Read More

    Reward-related ventral striatum activity links polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to problematic alcohol use in young adulthood.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Mar;2(2):180-187
    Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    Background: Problematic alcohol use in adolescence and adulthood is a common and often debilitating correlate of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Converging evidence suggests that ADHD and problematic alcohol use share a common additive genetic basis, which may be mechanistically related to reward-related brain function. In the current study, we examined whether polygenic risk for childhood ADHD is linked to problematic alcohol use in young adulthood through alterations in reward-related activity of the ventral striatum, a neural hub supporting appetitive behaviors and reinforcement learning. Read More

    Positive Allosteric Modulation of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Suppresses Pathological Pain Without Producing Tolerance or Dependence.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Program in Neuroscience, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; Gill Center for Biomolecular Science, Bloomington, Indiana. Electronic address:
    Background: Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors suppresses pathological pain but also produces unwanted central side effects. We hypothesized that a positive allosteric modulator of CB1 signaling would suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain without producing cannabimimetic effects or physical dependence. We also asked whether a CB1 positive allosteric modulator would synergize with inhibitors of endocannabinoid deactivation and/or an orthosteric cannabinoid agonist. Read More

    No Evidence That Schizophrenia Candidate Genes Are More Associated With Schizophrenia Than Noncandidate Genes.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 13. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado.
    Background: A recent analysis of 25 historical candidate gene polymorphisms for schizophrenia in the largest genome-wide association study conducted to date suggested that these commonly studied variants were no more associated with the disorder than would be expected by chance. However, the same study identified other variants within those candidate genes that demonstrated genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia. As such, it is possible that variants within historic schizophrenia candidate genes are associated with schizophrenia at levels above those expected by chance, even if the most-studied specific polymorphisms are not. Read More

    Infant Gut Microbiome Associated With Cognitive Development.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Electronic address:
    Background: Studies in rodents provide compelling evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut influence neurodevelopment. In particular, experimental manipulations that alter intestinal microbiota impact exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. In humans, the first years of life are a dynamic time in gut colonization and brain development, but little is known about the relationship between these two processes. Read More

    Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 Antagonism Is Ineffective for Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Medication and psychotherapy treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provide insufficient benefit for many patients. Substantial preclinical and clinical data indicate abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including signaling by corticotropin-releasing factor, in the pathophysiology of PTSD.

    Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fixed-dose clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of GSK561679, a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1 receptor) antagonist in adult women with PTSD. Read More

    Cell- and Single Molecule-Based Methods to Detect Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Autoantibodies in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis From the OPTiMiSE Project.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, UMR 5297, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France. Electronic address:
    Circulating autoantibodies against glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have been reported in a proportion of patients with psychotic disorders, raising hopes for more appropriate treatment for these antibody-positive patients. However, the prevalence of circulating autoantibodies against glutamatergic NMDAR in psychotic disorders remains controversial, with detection prevalence rates and immunoglobulin classes varying considerably between studies, perhaps because of different detection methods. Here, we compared the results of serum assays for a large cohort of patients with first-episode psychosis using classical cell-based assays in three labs and a single molecule-based imaging method. Read More

    Altered GluA1 (Gria1) Function and Accumbal Synaptic Plasticity in the ClockΔ19 Model of Bipolar Mania.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Disruptions in circadian rhythms are associated with an increased risk for bipolar disorder. Moreover, studies show that the circadian protein CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) is involved in regulating monoaminergic systems and mood-related behavior. However, the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Read More

    Susceptibility and Resilience to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-like Behaviors in Inbred Mice.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida; Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida. Electronic address:
    Background: The limited neurobiological understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been partially attributed to the need for improved animal models. Stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) in rodents recapitulates many PTSD-associated behaviors, including stress-susceptible and stress-resilient subgroups in outbred rats. Identification of subgroups requires additional behavioral phenotyping, a confound to mechanistic studies. Read More

    Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Inflammatory and Endothelial Function Markers in Women.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may contribute to heightened cardiovascular disease risk by promoting a proinflammatory state and impaired endothelial function. Previous research has demonstrated associations of PTSD with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers, but most work has been cross-sectional and does not separate the effects of trauma exposure from those of PTSD.

    Methods: We investigated associations of trauma exposure and chronic PTSD with biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor II) and endothelial function (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) in 524 middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Read More

    Sleep Deprivation Disrupts Recall of Conditioned Fear Extinction.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Mar;2(2):123-129
    Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences. Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Background: Learned fear is crucial in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders, and extinction of learned fear is necessary for response to exposure-based treatments. In humans, research suggests disrupted sleep impairs consolidation of extinction, though no studies have examined this experimentally using total sleep deprivation.

    Methods: Seventy-one healthy controls underwent a paradigm to acquire conditioned fear to a visual cue. Read More

    Converging Prefronto-Insula-Amygdala Pathways in Negative Emotion Regulation in Marmoset Monkeys.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: Impaired regulation of emotional responses to potential threat is a core feature of affective disorders. However, while the subcortical circuitry responsible for processing and expression of fear has been well characterized, the top-down control of this circuitry is less well understood. Our recent studies demonstrated that heightened emotionality, as measured both physiologically and behaviorally, during conditioned fear and innate/social threat was induced, independently, by excitotoxic lesions of either the anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Read More

    Maternal Systemic Interleukin-6 During Pregnancy Is Associated With Newborn Amygdala Phenotypes and Subsequent Behavior at 2 Years of Age.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Development, Health and Disease Research Program, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Medical Psychology, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Maternal inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for offspring psychiatric disorders and other adverse long-term health outcomes. The influence of inflammation on the developing fetal brain is hypothesized as one potential mechanism but has not been examined in humans.

    Methods: Participants were adult women (N = 86) who were recruited during early pregnancy and whose offspring were born after 34 weeks' gestation. Read More

    Activity-Dependent Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Release Is Required for the Rapid Antidepressant Actions of Scopolamine.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Departments of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:
    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Recent clinical studies demonstrate that scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in patients with depression. Rodent studies demonstrate that scopolamine increases glutamate transmission and synaptogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Read More

    Dopa Decarboxylase Modulates Tau Toxicity.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle Division; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:
    Background: The microtubule-associated protein tau accumulates into toxic aggregates in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. We found previously that loss of D2-family dopamine receptors ameliorated tauopathy in multiple models including a Caenorhabditis elegans model of tauopathy.

    Methods: To better understand how loss of D2-family dopamine receptors can ameliorate tau toxicity, we screened a collection of C. Read More

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