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    Prefrontal and Striatal Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels and the Effect of Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Psychosis Patients.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
    Background: Abnormally elevated levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been reported in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia. Whether such GABA elevations are also present in other brain regions and persist after antipsychotic treatment has not been previously investigated.

    Methods: Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 18 healthy control subjects completed the study. Read More

    Modeling the Interplay Between Neurons and Astrocytes in Autism Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Obstetrics, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unclear etiology and imprecise genetic causes. The main goal of this work was to investigate neuronal connectivity and the interplay between neurons and astrocytes from individuals with nonsyndromic ASD using induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Methods: Induced pluripotent stem cells were derived from a clinically well-characterized cohort of three individuals with nonsyndromic ASD sharing common behaviors and three control subjects, two clones each. Read More

    Does Childhood Trauma Moderate Polygenic Risk for Depression? A Meta-analysis of 5765 Subjects From the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center and GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and CT, albeit in opposing directions. This study aims to meta-analyze MDD-PRS × CT interaction results across these two and other cohorts, while applying more accurate PRSs based on a larger discovery sample. Read More

    Associations of Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Inflammation and Endothelial Function: On Timing, Specificity, and Mechanisms.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Dec;82(12):861-863
    Department of Psychiatry and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, California; Mental Health Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, California.

    Transcriptome Alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Center for Genes and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of nearly 8% in the general population. While the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of PTSD remain unknown, recent studies indicate that PTSD is associated with aberrant gene expression in brain as well as peripheral blood cells. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies will allow us to elucidate the gene expression changes occurring in both brain and blood of patients with PTSD. Read More

    Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. Electronic address:
    Background: Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. Read More

    The Role of the Hippocampus in Predicting Future Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Recently Traumatized Civilians.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in recent trauma survivors is important for early interventions. Impaired inhibition of fear or behavioral responses is thought to be central to PTSD symptomatology, but its role in predicting PTSD is unknown. Here we examine whether brain function during response inhibition early after a civilian trauma can predict future PTSD symptoms. Read More

    Distinct responses to predictable and unpredictable threat in anxiety pathologies: effect of panic attack.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Oct;2(7):575-581
    National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD.
    Background: Delineating specific clinical phenotypes of anxiety disorders is a crucial step toward better classification and understanding of these conditions. The present study sought to identify differential aversive responses to predictable and unpredictable threat of shock in healthy comparisons and in non-medicated anxiety patients with and without a history of panic attacks (PAs).

    Method: 143 adults (72 healthy controls; 71 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or/and social anxiety disorder (SAD), 24 with and 47 without PAs) were exposed to three conditions: 1) predictable shocks signaled by a cue, 2) unpredictable shocks, and 3) no shock. Read More

    Psychotropic medication use in autism spectrum disorders may affect functional brain connectivity.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Sep;2(6):518-527
    Brain Development Imaging Laboratory, Department of Psychology San Diego State University, 6363 Alvarado CT, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92120, USA.
    Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. Read More

    What Can Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Tell Us About Mood Disorders?
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:
    Variants in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in bipolar disorder, depression, or other psychiatric disorders have been studied for decades, since mitochondrial dysfunction was first suggested in the brains of patients with these diseases. Candidate gene association studies initially resulted in findings compatible with the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis. Many of those studies, however, were conducted with modest sample sizes (N < 1000), which could cause false positive findings. Read More

    Effect of Novel Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors on Drug Self-administration and Relapse: A Review of Preclinical Studies and Their Clinical Implications.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Results from preclinical rodent studies during the last 20 years implicated glutamate neurotransmission in different brain regions in drug self-administration and rodent models of relapse. These results, along with evidence for drug-induced neuroadaptations in glutamatergic neurons and receptors, suggested that addiction might be treatable by medications that inhibit glutamatergic responses to drugs of abuse, drug-associated cues, and stressors. This idea is supported by findings in rodent and primate models that drug self-administration and relapse are reduced by systemic injections of antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) or orthosteric agonists of mGluR2/3. Read More

    Amygdala Reward Reactivity Mediates the Association Between Preschool Stress Response and Depression Severity.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.
    Background: Research in adolescents and adults has suggested that altered neural processing of reward following early life adversity is a highly promising depressive intermediate phenotype. However, very little is known about how stress response, neural processing of reward, and depression are related in very young children. The present study examined the concurrent associations between cortisol response following a stressor, functional brain activity to reward, and depression severity in children 4 to 6 years old. Read More

    Drug Cues, Conditioned Reinforcement, and Drug Seeking: The Sequelae of a Collaborative Venture With Athina Markou.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Athina Markou spent a research period in my laboratory, then in the Department of Anatomy in Cambridge University, in 1991 to help us establish a cocaine-seeking procedure. Thus we embarked on developing a second-order schedule of intravenous cocaine reinforcement to investigate the neural basis of the pronounced effects of cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli on cocaine seeking. This brief review summarizes the fundamental aspects of cocaine seeking measured using this approach and the importance of the methodology in enabling us to define the neural mechanisms and circuitry underlying conditioned reinforcement and cocaine, heroin, and alcohol seeking. Read More

    Stress Promotes Drug Seeking Through Glucocorticoid-Dependent Endocannabinoid Mobilization in the Prelimbic Cortex.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:
    Background: Clinical reports suggest that rather than directly driving cocaine use, stress may create a biological context within which other triggers for drug use become more potent. We hypothesize that stress-induced increases in corticosterone "set the stage" for relapse by promoting endocannabinoid-induced attenuation of inhibitory transmission in the prelimbic cortex (PL).

    Methods: We have established a rat model for these stage-setting effects of stress. Read More

    Metabotropic Glutamatergic Receptor 5 and Stress Disorders: Knowledge Gained From Receptor Imaging Studies.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.
    The metabotropic glutamatergic receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) may represent a promising therapeutic target for stress-related psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe mGluR5 findings in stress disorders, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), highlighting insights from positron emission tomography studies. Positron emission tomography studies report either no differences or lower mGluR5 in MDD, potentially reflecting MDD heterogeneity. Read More

    Developmental Changes Within the Genetic Architecture of Social Communication Behavior: A Multivariate Study of Genetic Variance in Unrelated Individuals.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Background: Recent analyses of trait-disorder overlap suggest that psychiatric dimensions may relate to distinct sets of genes that exert maximum influence during different periods of development. This includes analyses of social communication difficulties that share, depending on their developmental stage, stronger genetic links with either autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. We developed a multivariate analysis framework in unrelated individuals to model directly the developmental profile of genetic influences contributing to complex traits, such as social communication difficulties, during an approximately 10-year period spanning childhood and adolescence. Read More

    Locus Coeruleus Activity Mediates Hyperresponsiveness in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. Read More

    Heritable Variation, With Little or No Maternal Effect, Accounts for Recurrence Risk to Autism Spectrum Disorder in Sweden.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has both genetic and environmental origins, including potentially maternal effects. Maternal effects describe association of one or more maternal phenotypes with liability to ASD in progeny that are independent of maternally transmitted risk alleles. While maternal effects could play an important role, consistent with association to maternal traits such as immune status, no study has estimated maternal, additive genetic, and environmental effects in ASD. Read More

    Stability of Cortical Thinning in Persons at Increased Familial Risk for Major Depressive Disorder Across 8 Years.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Oct;2(7):619-625
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.
    Background: A biological marker of vulnerability should precede onset of illness and be independent of disease course. We previously reported that cortical thinning may serve as a potential biomarker for risk for familial depression. We now test stability of the cortical thinning across 8 years, and whether thinning mediates associations between familial risk and depressive traits. Read More

    Oxytocin Receptors in the Anteromedial Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Promote Stress-Induced Social Avoidance in Female California Mice.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, Davis, California; Psychology Department, University of California, Davis, Davis, California. Electronic address:
    Background: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a key regulator of social and emotional behaviors. The effects of OT are context dependent, and it has been proposed that OT increases the salience of both positive and negative social cues. Here we tested whether the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates anxiogenic effects of OT. Read More

    Conditional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transactivator of Transcription Protein Expression Induces Depression-like Effects and Oxidative Stress.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Oct 20;2(7):599-609. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    McLean Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478.
    Background: The prevalence of major depression in those with HIV/AIDS is substantially higher than in the general population. Mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are poorly understood. HIV-transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein, produced and excreted by HIV, could be involved. Read More

    Internal Consistency of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electroencephalography Measures of Reward in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Apr 19;2(3):289-297. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Psychology Department at Stony Brook University.
    Background: Abnormal neural response to reward is increasingly thought to function as a biological correlate of emerging psychopathology during adolescence. However, this view assumes such responses have good psychometric properties-especially internal consistency-an assumption that is rarely tested.

    Methods: Internal consistency (i. Read More

    Expression of the PPM1F Gene Is Regulated by Stress and Associated With Anxiety and Depression.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Institut de Neurociènces, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; Unitat de Psicobiologia (Facultat de Psicologia), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background: Molecular mechanisms underlying psychological sequelae of exposure to stressful experiences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are not well understood.

    Methods: Using convergent evidence from animal and human transcriptomic and genomic studies, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms underlying depression and anxiety after traumatic experiences.

    Results: From a transcriptome-wide analysis in mice, we found the Ppm1f gene to be differentially expressed in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a week after immobilization stress. Read More

    Prefrontal Connectivity and Glutamate Transmission: Relevance to Depression Pathophysiology and Ketamine Treatment.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Oct;2(7):566-574
    University of California, San Francisco; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
    Background: Prefrontal global brain connectivity with global signal regression (GBCr) was proposed as a robust biomarker of depression, and was associated with ketamine's mechanism of action. Here, we investigated prefrontal GBCr in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at baseline and following treatment. Then, we conducted a set of pharmacological challenges in healthy subjects to investigate the glutamate neurotransmission correlates of GBCr. Read More

    The Default Mode Network in Autism.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Sep;2(6):476-486
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction. Since its discovery as a major functional brain system, the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including ASD. Here we review converging multimodal evidence for DMN dysfunction in the context of specific components of social cognitive dysfunction in ASD: 'self-referential processing' - the ability to process social information relative to oneself and 'theory of mind' or 'mentalizing' - the ability to infer the mental states such as beliefs, intentions, and emotions of others. Read More

    Anhedonia Following Early-Life Adversity Involves Aberrant Interaction of Reward and Anxiety Circuits and Is Reversed by Partial Silencing of Amygdala Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Anatomy/Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine California; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine California. Electronic address:
    Background: Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is an important dimensional entity linked to depression, schizophrenia, and other emotional disorders, but its origins and mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously identified anhedonia, manifest as decreased sucrose preference and social play, in adolescent male rats that experienced chronic early-life adversity/stress (CES). Here we probed the molecular, cellular, and circuit processes underlying CES-induced anhedonia and tested them mechanistically. Read More

    In Vivo Brain Glycine and Glutamate Concentrations in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis Measured by Echo Time-Averaged Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 4T.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Psychotic Disorders Division, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of abnormal glutamateric neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo glutamate (Glu) and glycine (Gly) levels in patients with first-episode psychosis as well as age-matched healthy control subjects with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).

    Methods: The subjects were 46 patients with first-episode psychosis (20 with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 26 with bipolar disorder) and 50 age-matched healthy control subjects. Read More

    Harnessing Gut Microbes for Mental Health: Getting From Here to There.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology. Read More

    Altered Medial Frontal Feedback Learning Signals in Anorexia Nervosa.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices and overexercising) that may originate in altered decision making and learning.

    Methods: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we employed computational modeling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female patients with AN and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years). Participants performed a decision task that required adaptation to changing reward contingencies. Read More

    Serine Racemase and D-serine in the Amygdala Are Dynamically Involved in Fear Learning.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Aug 26. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Laboratory for Psychiatric and Molecular Neuroscience, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Background: The amygdala is a central component of the neural circuitry that underlies fear learning. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent plasticity in the amygdala is required for pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation requires the binding of a coagonist, D-serine, which is synthesized from L-serine by the neuronal enzyme serine racemase (SR). Read More

    Vigilance, the Amygdala, and Anxiety in Youths with a History of Institutional Care.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Sep 4;2(6):493-501. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, 1190 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027.
    Background: Early adversity is commonly associated with alterations of amygdala circuitry and increased anxiety. While many theoretical and clinical accounts of early adversity suggest that it increases vigilance to threatening stimuli, the present study tested whether heightened anxiety and amygdala reactivity associated with early adversity enhanced goal-directed attention for threatening stimuli. Showing this association would provide support that these adversity-induced alterations are developmental adaptations of the individual. Read More

    Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 and Glutamate Involvement in Major Depressive Disorder: A Multimodal Imaging Study.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 Jul 6;2(5):449-456. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT.
    Background: Preclinical and postmortem studies have implicated the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of the present study was to determine the role of mGluR5 in a large group of individuals with MDD compared to healthy controls (HC) in vivo with [(18)F]FPEB and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, we sought to determine the role glutamate plays on mGluR5 availability in MDD. Read More

    Hippocampal volume changes following electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2017 May 5;2(4):327-335. Epub 2017 Feb 5.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511.
    Introduction: Reduced hippocampal volume is one of the most consistent morphological findings in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective therapy for MDD, yet its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Animal models show that ECT induces several neuroplastic processes, which lead to hippocampal volume increases. Read More

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