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    A novel design of HA-coated nanoparticles co-encapsulating plasmid METase and 5-Fu shows enhanced application in targeting gastric cancer stem cells.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    .
    Nanoparticles (NPs) is recognized as an attractive vehicles for cancer treatment due to their targeting drug release. Gastric cancer is an important death-related disease, and its therapy methods still need improvement. The NPs were prepared using a precipitation method, and were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Read More

    Structural mechanisms of HECT-type ubiquitin ligases.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    .
    Ubiquitin ligases (E3 enzymes) transfer ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes to target proteins. By determining the selection of target proteins, modification sites on those target proteins, and the types of ubiquitin modifications that are formed, E3 enzymes are key specificity factors in ubiquitin signaling. Here, I summarize our knowledge of the structural mechanisms in the HECT E3 subfamily, many members of which play important roles in human disease. Read More

    PARP-1 and PARP-2 activity in cancer-induced cachexia: potential therapeutic implications.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    .
    Skeletal muscle dysfunction and mass loss is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic diseases including cancer and acute conditions such as critical illness. Maintenance of an adequate muscle mass is crucial for the patients' prognosis irrespective of the underlying condition. Moreover, aging-related sarcopenia may further aggravate the muscle wasting process associated with chronic diseases and cancer. Read More

    Mechanisms, pathophysiological roles, and methods for analyzing mitophagy - recent insights.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    , KS 66160.
    In 2012, we briefly summarized the mechanisms, pathophysiological roles and methods for analyzing mitophagy. Since then, the mitophagy field has continued to grow rapidly, and many new molecular mechanisms regulating mitophagy and molecular tools for monitoring mitophagy have been discovered and developed. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to update information regarding these advances in mitophagy while focusing on basic molecular mechanisms of mitophagy in different organisms and its pathophysiological roles. Read More

    The inhibition of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase activity when activated by Ca2+ opens new regulatory roles for NAD.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    .
    The mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase is uncompetitively inhibited by NAD+ only when the natural cofactor Mg2+ is replaced by Ca2+, a mode putatively involved in cell death. The Ca2+- dependent F1F0-ATPase is also inhibited when NAD+ concentration in mitochondria is raised by acetoacetate. The enzyme inhibition by NAD+ cannot be ascribed to any de-ac(et)ylation or ADP-ribosylation by sirtuines, being not reversed by nicotinamide. Read More

    How to get rid of mitochondria: crosstalk and regulation of multiple mitophagy pathways.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    .
    Mitochondria are indispensable cellular organelles providing ATP and numerous other essential metabolites to ensure cell survival. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as side reactions during oxidative phosphorylation or by external agents, induce molecular damage in mitochondrial proteins, lipids/membranes, and DNA. To cope with this and other sorts of organellar stress, a multi-level quality control system exists to maintain cellular homeostasis. Read More

    The dinoponeratoxin peptides from the giant ant Dinoponera quadriceps display in vitro antitrypanosomal activity.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    /CE.
    The crude venom of the giant ant Dinoponera quadriceps is a cocktail of polypeptides and organic compounds that showed antiparasitic effects against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In order to investigate the venom-derived components responsible for such antitrypanosomal activity, four dinoponeratoxins were identified, namely M-PONTX-Dq3a, -Dq3b, -Dq3c and -Dq4e, that are diverse in size, net charge, hydrophobicity and propensity to interact with eukaryote cell membranes. These peptides were tested against epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of benznidazoleresistant Y strain of T. Read More

    Domain topology of human Rasal.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    .
    Rasal is a modular multi-domain protein of the GAP1 (GTPase-activating protein 1) family; its four known members, GAP1m, Rasal, GAP1IP4BP and Capri, have a Ras GTPase-activating domain (RasGAP). This domain supports the intrinsically slow GTPase activity of Ras by actively participating in the catalytic reaction. In the case of Rasal, GAP1IP4BP and Capri, their remaining domains are responsible for converting the RasGAP domains into dual Ras- and Rap-GAPs, via an incompletely understood mechanism. Read More

    The consequences of deglycosylation of recombinant intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    , MD 20892.
    Tyrosinase, a melanosomal glycoenzyme, catalyzes initial steps of the melanin biosynthesis. While glycosylation was previously studied in vivo, we present three recombinant mutant variants of human tyrosinase, which were obtained using multiple site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified, and characterized biochemically. The mutagenesis demonstrated the reduced protein expression and enzymatic activity due to possible loss of protein stability and protein degradation. Read More

    Targeted degradomics in protein terminomics and protease substrate discovery.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Targeted degradomics integrates positional information into mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics workflows and thereby enables analysis of proteolytic cleavage events with unprecedented specificity and sensitivity. Rapid progress in establishment of protease-substrate relations provides extensive degradomics target lists that now can be tested with help of selected and parallel reaction monitoring (S/PRM) in complex biological systems, where proteases act in physiological environments. In this minireview, we describe the general principles of targeted degradomics, outline the generic experimental workflow of the methodology and highlight recent and future applications in protease research. Read More

    Maintaining protein composition in cilia.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    G61 1BD.
    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. Read More

    Brain plasticity, cognitive functions and neural stem cells: a pivotal role for the brain-specific neural master gene -SRGAP2-FAM72.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Due to an aging society with an increased dementia-induced threat to higher cognitive functions, it has become imperative to understand the molecular and cellular events controlling the memory and learning processes in the brain. Here, we suggest that the novel master gene pair |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 - family with sequence similarity to 72) reveals a new dogma for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) gene expression and is a distinctive player in the control of human brain plasticity. Insight into the specific regulation of the brain-specific neural master gene |-SRGAP2- FAM72-| may essentially contribute to novel therapeutic approaches to restore or improve higher cognitive functions. Read More

    Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes from fungi and their medicinal potential.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Eremophilanes are sesquiterpenes with a rearranged carbon skeleton formed both by plants and fungi, however, almost no plant eremophilanes are found in fungi. These eremophilanes possess mainly phytotoxic, antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory properties and in this review fungal eremophilanes with bioactivities of potential medicinal applications are reviewed and discussed. A special focus is set on natural products bearing highly functionalized fatty acids at C-1 or C-3 position of the eremophilane backbone. Read More

    Regulation of protein function by S-nitrosation and S-glutathionylation: processes and targets in cardiovascular pathophysiology.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Decades of chemical, biochemical and pathophysiological research have established the relevance of post-translational protein modifications induced by processes related to oxidative stress, with critical reflections on cellular signal transduction pathways. A great deal of the socalled 'redox regulation' of cell function is in fact mediated through reactions promoted by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on more or less specific aminoacid residues in proteins, at various levels within the cell machinery. Modifications involving cysteine residues have received most attention, due to the critical roles they play in determining the structure/function correlates in proteins. Read More

    Locally produced xenin and the neurotensinergic system in pancreatic islet function and β-cell survival.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Modulation of neuropeptide receptors is important for pancreatic β-cell function. Here, islet distribution and effects of the neurotensin (NT) receptor modulators, xenin and NT, was examined. Xenin, but not NT, significantly improved glucose disposal and insulin secretion, in mice. Read More

    Heat shock protein 47 effects on hepatic stellate cell-associated receptors in hepatic fibrosis of Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Objective: The study aimed to explore the regulation of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) on expressions of receptors associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) in liver fibrosis mouse models induced by Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). Mouse fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) were transfected with HSP47 shRNA plasmid by lipofectamine transfection, and experimental fibrosis in HSCs was studied in S. Read More

    Comparison of cytochrome P450 expression in four different human osteoblast models.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are important for bone homeostasis, but only limited information is available on their expression in human bone cells. We analyzed the expression levels of eight CYPs in osteoblasts cultured in human bone pieces, in osteoblasts differentiated from human periosteum mesenchymal stem cells, in primary human osteoblasts, and in the human osteoblast cell line MG63, respectively. Our results confirm previous reports about the presence of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1, while demonstrating expression of CYP2E1, CYP26A1, CYP39A1, and CYP51A1 for the first time. Read More

    HDAC1 triggers the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via upregulation of interleukin-8.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    Targeted inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is one of the potent anticancer therapy approaches. Our data showed that mRNA and protein levels of HDAC1 in breast cancer cells were greater than that in normal fibroblast 3T3 cells and normal epithelial breast MCF10A cells. The mRNA levels of HDAC1 in 75% breast cancer tissues (18/24) were greater than that in their corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Read More

    The molecular mechanisms involved in lectin-induced human platelet aggregation.
    Biol Chem 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    .
    We have compared the effect of three legume lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) on function of human platelets. We have found that WGA is more active than PHA in stimulating platelet activation/aggregation, while LCA has no effect. Studies on the mechanisms involved put in evidence that WGA and PHA induce phosphorylation/activation of PLCγ2 and increase [Ca2+]i. Read More

    Tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4), a novel biomarker in triple-negative breast cancer.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1151-1164
    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), lacking the steroid hormone receptors ER and PR and the oncoprotein HER2, is characterized by its aggressive pattern and insensitivity to endocrine and HER2-directed therapy. Human kallikrein-related peptidases KLK1-15 provide a rich source of serine protease-type biomarkers associated with tumor growth and cancer progression for a variety of malignant diseases. In this study, recombinant KLK4 protein was generated and affinity-purified KLK4-directed polyclonal antibody pAb587 established to allow localization of KLK4 protein expression in tumor cell lines and archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded TNBC tumor tissue specimens. Read More

    Kallistatin: double-edged role in angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    .
    Kallistatin via its two structural elements - an active site and a heparin-binding domain - displays double-edged function in angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress. First, kallistatin has both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic effects. Kallistatin treatment attenuates angiogenesis and tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. Read More

    The sphingomyelin synthase family: proteins, diseases and inhibitors.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    .
    Sphingomyelin (SM) is among the most important biomolecules in eukaryotes and acts as both constructive components and signal carrier in physiological process. SM is catalyzed by a membrane protein family, sphingomyelin synthases (SMSs), consisting of three members, SMS1, SMS2 and SMSr. SMSs modulate sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids levels, thereby regulating membrane mobility, ceramide-dependent apoptosis and DAG-dependent signaling pathway. Read More

    Production of recombinant porin from Y. pseudotuberculosis in a water-soluble form for pseudotuberculosis diagnostics.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1229-1236
    .
    OmpF porin from the outer membrane of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned into pET-40b(+) plasmid. Using E. coli Rosetta (DE3) strain, MX medium, IPTG concentration of 0. Read More

    Progress in understanding the molecular oxygen paradox - function of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cell signaling.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1209-1227
    .
    The molecular oxygen (O2) paradox was coined to describe its essential nature and toxicity. The latter characteristic of O2 is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage structures vital for cellular function. Mammals are equipped with antioxidant systems to fend off the potentially damaging effects of ROS. Read More

    Human U3 protein 14a plays an anti-apoptotic role in cancer cells.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1247-1257
    .
    Human U three protein 14a (hUTP14a) binds p53 and promotes p53 degradation. Here, we report that hUTP14a plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumor cells through a p53-independent pathway. Knockdown of hUTP14a activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. Read More

    Functional control of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase 3 through an acetylation site in the C-terminal lectin domain.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1237-1246
    , and.
    O-GalNAc glycans are important structures in cellular homeostasis. Their biosynthesis is initiated by members of the polypeptide GalNAc-transferase (ppGalNAc-T) enzyme family. Mutations in ppGalNAc-T3 isoform cause diseases (congenital disorders of glycosylation) in humans. Read More

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-resistant microbes: adaptation and medical implications.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1193-1208
    .
    Nitrosative stress results from an increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within the cell. Though the RNS - nitric oxide (·NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) - play pivotal physiological roles, at elevated concentrations, these moieties can be poisonous to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells alike due to their capacity to disrupt a variety of essential biological processes. Numerous microbes are known to adapt to nitrosative stress by elaborating intricate strategies aimed at neutralizing RNS. Read More

    Immune-regulation and -functions of eicosanoid lipid mediators.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1177-1191
    .
    Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Read More

    Cellular and plasma nitrite levels in myeloid leukemia: a pathogenetic decrease.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1259-1265
    .
    Nitric oxide (NO) has a contributory role in hemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The effects of NO on leukemic cell growth have been predominantly studied in in vitro settings. This study was done to assess the alterations in nitrite level in myeloid leukemias. Read More

    Oxidised protein metabolism: recent insights.
    Biol Chem 2017 Oct;398(11):1165-1175
    .
    The 'oxygen paradox' arises from the fact that oxygen, the molecule that aerobic life depends on, threatens its very existence. An oxygen-rich environment provided life on Earth with more efficient bioenergetics and, with it, the challenge of having to deal with a host of oxygen-derived reactive species capable of damaging proteins and other crucial cellular components. In this minireview, we explore recent insights into the metabolism of proteins that have been reversibly or irreversibly damaged by oxygen-derived species. Read More

    Targeting and inactivation of bacterial toxins by human defensins.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1069-1085
    Defensins, as a prominent family of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), are major effectors of the innate immunity with a broad range of immune modulatory and antimicrobial activities. In particular, defensins are the only recognized fast-response molecules that can neutralize a broad range of bacterial toxins, many of which are among the deadliest compounds on the planet. For a decade, the mystery of how a small and structurally conserved group of peptides can neutralize a heterogeneous group of toxins with little to no sequential and structural similarity remained unresolved. Read More

    Role of sigma 1 receptor in high fat diet-induced peripheral neuropathy.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1141-1149
    The neurobiological mechanisms of obesity-induced peripheral neuropathy are poorly understood. We evaluated the role of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) and NMDA receptor (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in peripheral neuropathy using an animal model of high fat diet-induced diabetes. We examined the expression of Sig-1R and NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B along with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the spinal cord after 24-week HFD treatment in both wild-type and Sig-1R-/- mice. Read More

    I36T↑T mutation in South African subtype C (C-SA) HIV-1 protease significantly alters protease-drug interactions.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1109-1117
    The efficacy of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibition therapies is often compromised by the emergence of mutations in the PR molecule that reduces the binding affinity of inhibitors while maintaining viable catalytic activity and affinity for natural substrates. In the present study, we used a recombinant HIV-1 C-SA PR and a recently reported variant for inhibition (Ki, IC50) and thermodynamic studies against nine clinically used inhibitors. This is the first time that binding free energies for C-SA PR and the mutant are reported. Read More

    Galanin suppresses proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells via its subtype 1 receptor.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1127-1139
    Galanin is a neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the nervous and endocrine systems, and recent studies have shown an anti-proliferative effect of galanin on several types of tumors. However, whether and how galanin and its receptors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, the roles of galanin and its subtype 1 receptor (GAL1) in the proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells were investigated. Read More

    The biology of JC polyomavirus.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul;398(8):839-855
    .
    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of a fatal central nervous system demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML occurs in people with underlying immunodeficiency or in individuals being treated with potent immunomodulatory therapies. JCPyV is a DNA tumor virus with a double-stranded DNA genome and encodes a well-studied oncogene, large T antigen. Read More

    The small GTPases Ras and Rheb studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy: structure and function.
    Biol Chem 2017 May;398(5-6):577-588
    Biomolecular NMR, Ruhr University of Bochum, D-44780 Bochum.
    Ras GTPases are key players in cellular signalling because they act as binary switches. These states manifest through toggling between an active (GTP-loaded) and an inactive (GDP-loaded) form. The hydrolysis and replenishing of GTP is controlled by two additional protein classes: GAP (GTPase-activating)- and GEF (Guanine nucleotide exchange factors)-proteins. Read More

    The small GTPases Ras and Rheb studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy: structure and function.
    Biol Chem 2017 Feb 11. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Ras GTPases are key players in cellular signalling because they act as binary switches. These states manifest through toggling between an active (GTP-loaded) and an inactive (GDPloaded) form. The hydrolysis and replenishing of GTP is controlled by two additional protein classes: GAP (GTPase-activating)- and GEF (Guanine nucleotide exchange factors)-proteins. Read More

    Chronic viral hepatitis and its association with liver cancer.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul;398(8):817-837
    .
    Chronic infection with hepatitis viruses represents the major causative factor for end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC). In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the hepatocarcinogenesis associated with chronic hepatitis virus infections. While chronic inflammation (associated with a persistent, but impaired anti-viral immune response) plays a major role in HCC initiation and progression, hepatitis viruses can also directly drive liver cancer. Read More

    Rhadinoviral interferon regulatory factor homologues.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul;398(8):857-870
    .
    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is a gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The KSHV genome contains genes for a unique group of proteins with homology to cellular interferon regulatory factors, termed viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs). This review will give an overview over the oncogenic, antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory characteristics of KSHV and related vIRFs. Read More

    Employing RNA viruses to fight cancer: novel insights into oncolytic virotherapy.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul;398(8):891-909
    .
    Within recent decades, viruses that specifically target tumor cells have emerged as novel therapeutic agents against cancer. These viruses do not only act via their cell-lytic properties, but also harbor immunostimulatory features to re-direct the tumor microenvironment and stimulate tumor-directed immune responses. Furthermore, oncolytic viruses are considered to be superior to classical cancer therapies due to higher selectivity towards tumor cell destruction and, consequently, less collateral damage of non-transformed healthy tissue. Read More

    Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP): a subtilisin family endopeptidase with multiple virulence activities.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1055-1068
    Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP) is secreted from Aeromonas sobria, a pathogen causing gastroenteritis and sepsis. ASP resembles Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kex2, a member of the subtilisin family, and preferentially cleaves peptide bonds at the C-terminal side of paired basic amino acid residues; also accepting unpaired arginine at the P1 site. Unlike Kex2, however, ASP lacks an intramolecular chaperone N-terminal propeptide, instead utilizes the external chaperone ORF2 for proper folding, therefore, ASP and its homologues constitute a new subfamily in the subtilisin family. Read More

    Catalase, a remarkable enzyme: targeting the oldest antioxidant enzyme to find a new cancer treatment approach.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1095-1108
    This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Read More

    Human papillomavirus first and second generation vaccines-current status and future directions.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul;398(8):871-889
    It has been more than 10 years that the first prophylactic papillomavirus vaccine became available, although distribution has been mainly limited to the more affluent countries. The first two vaccines have been a great success, hundreds of millions of women and a much smaller number of men have been vaccinated ever since. In a few countries with high vaccination coverage, in particular Australia but also parts of Great Britain and others, clinical impact of vaccination programs is already visible and there are indications for herd immunity as well. Read More

    Mechanisms and strategies of papillomavirus replication.
    Biol Chem 2017 Jul;398(8):919-927
    .
    Animal and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate persistently in specific types of stratified epithelia of their host. After the initial infection, the viral genome replicates at low levels in the dividing cells of the epithelium, and these cells form a reservoir of infection that can last for decades. When the infected cells differentiate, viral genomes replicate to high levels to form progeny virus that is released from the surface of the epithelium. Read More

    Mutation of N-linked glycosylation in EpCAM affected cell adhesion in breast cancer cells.
    Biol Chem 2017 Sep;398(10):1119-1126
    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression is elevated in breast cancer tissue, and correlates with the cancer metastasis and cell adhesion. Although EpCAM glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its function remains unclear. Here we analyzed cell adhesion ability of EpCAM in breast cancer cells. Read More

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