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    Comparing species interaction networks along environmental gradients.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences, Canada Research Chair in Integrative Ecology, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500, boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1, Québec, Canada.
    Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions. Read More

    ATAD3 proteins: brokers of a mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum connection in mammalian cells.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IBDM, 13284, Marseille Cedex 07, France.
    In yeast, a sequence of physical and genetic interactions termed the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) controls mitochondria-ER interactions and mitochondrial biogenesis. Several functions that characterize ERMIONE complexes are conserved in mammalian cells, suggesting that a similar tethering complex must exist in metazoans. Recent studies have identified a new family of nuclear-encoded ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+-ATPase) mitochondrial membrane proteins specific to multicellular eukaryotes, called the ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3 (ATAD3) proteins (ATAD3A and ATAD3B). Read More

    Impacts of human-induced environmental change in wetlands on aquatic animals.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
    Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. Read More

    The evolution of gonad expenditure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male and female broadcast-spawning invertebrates.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, 2601, Canberra, Australia.
    Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring. Read More

    New-age ideas about age-old sex: separating meiosis from mating could solve a century-old conundrum.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    The Department of Genetics, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Jerusalem, 9190401, Israel.
    Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. Read More

    The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants - new insights on an ancient subject.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides. Read More

    A hot lunch for herbivores: physiological effects of elevated temperatures on mammalian feeding ecology.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales 2751, Australia.
    Mammals maintain specific body temperatures (Tb ) across a broad range of ambient temperatures. The energy required for thermoregulation ultimately comes from the diet, and so what animals eat is inextricably linked to thermoregulation. Endothermic herbivores must balance energy requirements and expenditure with complicated thermoregulatory challenges from changing thermal, nutritional and toxicological environments. Read More

    Aphid specialism as an example of ecological-evolutionary divergence.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Faculty of Technical and Human Science, Department of Horticulture, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, 540485, Tirgu-Mures, Romania.
    Debate still continues around the definition of generalism and specialism in nature. To some, generalism is equated solely with polyphagy, but this cannot be readily divorced from other essential biological factors, such as morphology, behaviour, genetics, biochemistry, chemistry and ecology, including chemical ecology. Viewed in this light, and accepting that when living organisms evolve to fill new ecological-evolutionary niches, this is the primal act of specialisation, then perhaps all living organisms are specialist in the broadest sense. Read More

    The effects of hydropeaking on riverine plants: a review.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Landscape Ecology Group, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hydropeaking refers to frequent, rapid and short-term fluctuations in water flow and water levels downstream and upstream of hydropower stations. Such fluctuations are becoming increasingly common worldwide and are known to have far-reaching effects on riverine vegetation. Novel hydrology caused by hydropeaking has no natural correspondence in freshwater systems, and hence few species have adaptations to all its aspects. Read More

    Understanding processes at the origin of species flocks with a focus on the marine Antarctic fauna.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Marine Zoology, Bremen Marine Ecology (BreMarE), University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany.
    Species flocks (SFs) fascinate evolutionary biologists who wonder whether such striking diversification can be driven by normal evolutionary processes. Multiple definitions of SFs have hindered the study of their origins. Previous studies identified a monophyletic taxon as a SF if it displays high speciosity in an area in which it is endemic (criterion 1), high ecological diversity among species (criterion 2), and if it dominates the habitat in terms of biomass (criterion 3); we used these criteria in our analyses. Read More

    Coupling factors and exosomal packaging microRNAs involved in the regulation of bone remodelling.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China.
    Bone remodelling is a continuous process by which bone resorption by osteoclasts is followed by bone formation by osteoblasts to maintain skeletal homeostasis. These two forces must be tightly coordinated not only quantitatively, but also in time and space, and its malfunction leads to diseases such as osteoporosis. Recent research focusing on the cross-talk and coupling mechanisms associated with the sequential recruitment of osteoblasts to areas where osteoclasts have removed bone matrix have identified a number of osteogenic factors produced by the osteoclasts themselves. Read More

    Endocrine disruption in aquatic systems: up-scaling research to address ecological consequences.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4PS, U.K.
    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter biological function in organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations and are a significant threat to aquatic biodiversity, but there is little understanding of exposure consequences for populations, communities and ecosystems. The pervasive nature of EDCs within aquatic environments and their multiple sub-lethal effects make assessments of their impact especially important but also highly challenging. Herein, we review the data on EDC effects in aquatic systems focusing on studies assessing populations and ecosystems, and including how biotic and abiotic processes may affect, and be affected by, responses to EDCs. Read More

    Genetics of dispersal.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Research Unit of Biodiversity (UO-CSIC-PA), Oviedo University, 33600 Mieres, Spain.
    Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) review the empirical literature on the genetic basis of dispersal, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations of the evolution of dispersal have represented the genetics of dispersal, and (iii) discuss how the genetic basis of dispersal influences theoretical predictions of the evolution of dispersal and potential consequences. Dispersal has a detectable genetic basis in many organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. Read More

    Building essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) of species distribution and abundance at a global scale.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    School of Computer Science & Informatics, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, U.K.
    Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to capture a minimum set of critical variables required to study, report and manage biodiversity change. Here, we assess the challenges of a 'Big Data' approach to building global EBV data products across taxa and spatiotemporal scales, focusing on species distribution and abundance. Read More

    Comparative analyses of basal rate of metabolism in mammals: data selection does matter.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Integrative Research Center, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL, 60605-2496, U.S.A.
    Basal rate of metabolism (BMR) is a physiological parameter that should be measured under strictly defined experimental conditions. In comparative analyses among mammals BMR is widely used as an index of the intensity of the metabolic machinery or as a proxy for energy expenditure. Many databases with BMR values for mammals are available, but the criteria used to select metabolic data as BMR estimates have often varied and the potential effect of this variability has rarely been questioned. Read More

    An evolutionary perspective on the systems of adaptive immunity.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Parmenides Center for the Conceptual Foundations of Science, 82049 Pullach/Munich, Germany.
    We propose an evolutionary perspective to classify and characterize the diverse systems of adaptive immunity that have been discovered across all major domains of life. We put forward a new function-based classification according to the way information is acquired by the immune systems: Darwinian immunity (currently known from, but not necessarily limited to, vertebrates) relies on the Darwinian process of clonal selection to 'learn' by cumulative trial-and-error feedback; Lamarckian immunity uses templated targeting (guided adaptation) to internalize heritable information on potential threats; finally, shotgun immunity operates through somatic mechanisms of variable targeting without feedback. We argue that the origin of Darwinian (but not Lamarckian or shotgun) immunity represents a radical innovation in the evolution of individuality and complexity, and propose to add it to the list of major evolutionary transitions. Read More

    The concepts of asymmetric and symmetric power can help resolve the puzzle of altruistic and cooperative behaviour.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Birmingham, B23 5YT, U.K.
    Evolutionary theory predicts competition in nature yet altruistic and cooperative behaviour appears to reduce the ability to compete in order to help others compete better. This evolutionary puzzle is usually explained by kin selection where close relatives perform altruistic and cooperative acts to help each other and by reciprocity theory (i.e. Read More

    Biodiversity as a solution to mitigate climate change impacts on the functioning of forest ecosystems.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, P7B 5E1, Canada.
    Forest ecosystems are critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through carbon sequestration. However, climate change has affected forest ecosystem functioning in both negative and positive ways, and has led to shifts in species/functional diversity and losses in plant species diversity which may impair the positive effects of diversity on ecosystem functioning. Biodiversity may mitigate climate change impacts on (I) biodiversity itself, as more-diverse systems could be more resilient to climate change impacts, and (II) ecosystem functioning through the positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning. Read More

    The multiple functions of male song within the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mating system: review, evaluation, and synthesis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 7;92(3):1795-1818. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa and The Dolphin Institute.
    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are seasonal breeders, annually migrating from high-latitude summer feeding grounds to low-latitude winter breeding grounds. The social matrix on the winter grounds is a loose network of interacting individuals and groups and notably includes lone males that produce long bouts of complex song that collectively yield an asynchronous chorus. Occasionally, a male will sing while accompanying other whales. Read More

    Disruptive physiology: olfaction and the microbiome-gut-brain axis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    McMaster Brain-Body Institute at St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 50 Charlton Ave. E. Room T3304 Hamilton, L8N 4A6, Canada.
    This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems. Read More

    Pathways governing development of stem cell-derived pancreatic β cells: lessons from embryogenesis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Diabetes Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar.
    The loss of functional β cells leads to development of diabetes. Several studies have shown that β cells are specified through several stages of progenitors during pancreas development, each stage defined by the expression of specific transcription factors (TFs). Understanding signalling pathways that control the differentiation and specification processes during embryogenesis will facilitate efforts to obtain functional β cells in vitro. Read More

    The mechanism of coupling between oxido-reduction and proton translocation in respiratory chain enzymes.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs (BMSNSO), Section of Medical Biochemistry, University of Bari 'Aldo Moro', Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    The respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria is made up of a set of membrane-associated enzyme complexes which catalyse sequential, stepwise transfer of reducing equivalents from substrates to oxygen and convert redox energy into a transmembrane protonmotive force (PMF) by proton translocation from a negative (N) to a positive (P) aqueous phase separated by the coupling membrane. There are three basic mechanisms by which a membrane-associated redox enzyme can generate a PMF. These are membrane anisotropic arrangement of the primary redox catalysis with: (i) vectorial electron transfer by redox metal centres from the P to the N side of the membrane; (ii) hydrogen transfer by movement of quinones across the membrane, from a reduction site at the N side to an oxidation site at the P side; (iii) a different type of mechanism based on co-operative allosteric linkage between electron transfer at the metal redox centres and transmembrane electrogenic proton translocation by apoproteins. Read More

    Osteoblast migration in vertebrate bone.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Bone Cell and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Straße 22, Technical University Munich, 81675 München, Germany.
    Bone formation, for example during bone remodelling or fracture repair, requires mature osteoblasts to deposit bone with remarkable spatial precision. As osteoblast precursors derive either from circulation or resident stem cell pools, they and their progeny are required to migrate within the three-dimensional bone space and to navigate to their destination, i.e. Read More

    Managing biological control services through multi-trophic trait interactions: review and guidelines for implementation at local and landscape scales.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    INRA (French National Institute for Agricultural Research), Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, UMR 1355-7254, 06903, Sophia Antipolis, France.
    Ecological studies are increasingly moving towards trait-based approaches, as the evidence mounts that functions, as opposed to taxonomy, drive ecosystem service delivery. Among ecosystem services, biological control has been somewhat overlooked in functional ecological studies. This is surprising given that, over recent decades, much of biological control research has been focused on identifying the multiple characteristics (traits) of species that influence trophic interactions. Read More

    Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 1. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia.
    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. Read More

    An Amazonian rainforest and its fragments as a laboratory of global change.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, 4878, Australia.
    We synthesize findings from one of the world's largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km(2) in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation. Read More

    Cephalopod embryonic shells as a tool to reconstruct reproductive strategies in extinct taxa.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Stratigraphy Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017, Russia.
    An exhaustive study of existing data on the relationship between egg size and maximum size of embryonic shells in 42 species of extant cephalopods demonstrated that these values are approximately equal regardless of taxonomy and shell morphology. Egg size is also approximately equal to mantle length of hatchlings in 45 cephalopod species with rudimentary shells. Paired data on the size of the initial chamber versus embryonic shell in 235 species of Ammonoidea, 46 Bactritida, 13 Nautilida, 22 Orthocerida, 8 Tarphycerida, 4 Oncocerida, 1 Belemnoidea, 4 Sepiida and 1 Spirulida demonstrated that, although there is a positive relationship between these parameters in some taxa, initial chamber size cannot be used to predict egg size in extinct cephalopods; the size of the embryonic shell may be more appropriate for this task. Read More

    The comparative study of empathy: sympathetic concern and empathic perspective-taking in non-human animals.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Psychology, Human Evolution and Cognition Group (EvoCog), UIB, IFISC, Associated Unit to CSIC, 07122, Palma, Spain.
    While empathy is a century-old psychological concept, its study in non-human animals has become the focus of much recent scientific interest, as it promises to provide the clues to understand the evolutionary origins of our social and moral nature. A review of the comparative study of empathy is thus timely to complement and constrain anthropocentric views, and to integrate current findings. However, this is not an easy task. Read More

    Did some red alga-derived plastids evolve via kleptoplastidy? A hypothesis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Laboratory of Evolutionary Protistology, Department of Invertebrate Biology, Evolution and Conservation, Institute of Environmental Biology, University of Wrocław, ul. Przybyszewskiego 65, 51-148, Wrocław, Poland.
    The evolution of plastids has a complex and still unresolved history. These organelles originated from a cyanobacterium via primary endosymbiosis, resulting in three eukaryotic lineages: glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants. The red and green algal plastids then spread via eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbioses, known as secondary and tertiary symbioses, to numerous heterotrophic protist lineages. Read More

    Superorganismality and caste differentiation as points of no return: how the major evolutionary transitions were lost in translation.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies. Read More

    Beyond chemoreception: diverse tasks of soluble olfactory proteins in insects.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 7. Epub 2017 May 7.
    Department of Biology, University of Firenze, 50019, Firenze, Italy.
    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are regarded as carriers of pheromones and odorants in insect chemoreception. These proteins are typically located in antennae, mouth organs and other chemosensory structures; however, members of both classes of proteins have been detected recently in other parts of the body and various functions have been proposed. The best studied of these non-sensory tasks is performed in pheromone glands, where OBPs and CSPs solubilise hydrophobic semiochemicals and assist their controlled release into the environment. Read More

    The long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages in aquatic 'seed banks'.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Glaciology and Climate Department, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. Read More

    Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish functional traits.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, U.S.A.
    Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Read More

    The interplay between autophagy and tumorigenesis: exploiting autophagy as a means of anticancer therapy.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Biomedical Research in Cancer Stem Cell Group, Pathology Department, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.
    In wild-type cells, autophagy represents a tumour-suppressor mechanism, and dysfunction of the autophagy machinery increases genomic instability, DNA damage, oxidative stress and stem/progenitor expansion, which are events associated with cancer onset. Autophagy occurs at a basal level in all cells depending on cell type and cellular microenvironment. However, the role of autophagy in cancer is diverse and can promote different outcomes even in a single tumour. Read More

    Developmental temperatures and phenotypic plasticity in reptiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ecology and Evolution Research Centre, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Early environments can profoundly influence an organism in ways that persist over its life. In reptiles, early thermal environments (nest temperatures) can impact offspring phenotype and survival in important ways, yet we still lack an understanding of whether general trends exist and the magnitude of impact. Understanding these patterns is important in predicting how climate change will affect reptile populations and the role of phenotypic plasticity in buffering populations. Read More

    A suite of essential biodiversity variables for detecting critical biodiversity change.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    United Nations Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, U.K.
    Key global indicators of biodiversity decline, such as the IUCN Red List Index and the Living Planet Index, have relatively long assessment intervals. This means they, due to their inherent structure, function as late-warning indicators that are retrospective, rather than prospective. These indicators are unquestionably important in providing information for biodiversity conservation, but the detection of early-warning signs of critical biodiversity change is also needed so that proactive management responses can be enacted promptly where required. Read More

    Biologically meaningful scents: a framework for understanding predator-prey research across disciplines.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, U.S.A.
    Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Read More

    Impacts of taxonomic inertia for the conservation of African ungulate diversity: an overview.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    School of Archaeology & Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    We review the state of African ungulate taxonomy over the last 120 years, with an emphasis on the introduction of the polytypic species concept and the discipline's general neglect since the middle of the 20th century. We single out negative consequences of 'orthodox' taxonomy, highlighting numerous cases of neglect of threatened lineages, unsound translocations that led to lineage introgression, and cases of maladaptation to local conditions including parasitic infections. Additionally, several captive breeding programmes have been hampered by chromosome rearrangements caused by involuntary lineage mixing. Read More

    Causes and consequences of variation in offspring body mass: meta-analyses in birds and mammals.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Apr 9. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1; CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.
    Early survival is highly variable and strongly influences observed population growth rates in most vertebrate populations. One of the major potential drivers of survival variation among juveniles is body mass. Heavy juveniles are better fed and have greater body reserves, and are thus assumed to survive better than light individuals. Read More

    Reproductive senescence: new perspectives in the wild.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1; CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive UMR5558, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.
    According to recent empirical studies, reproductive senescence, the decline in reproductive success with increasing age, seems to be nearly ubiquitous in the wild. However, a clear understanding of the evolutionary causes and consequences of reproductive senescence is still lacking and requires new and integrative approaches. After identifying the sequential and complex nature of female reproductive senescence, we show that the relative contributions of physiological decline and alterations in the efficiency of parental care to reproductive senescence remain unknown and need to be assessed in the light of current evolutionary theories of ageing. Read More

    Reconsidering connectivity in the sub-Antarctic.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Acton, 2601, Australia.
    Extreme and remote environments provide useful settings to test ideas about the ecological and evolutionary drivers of biological diversity. In the sub-Antarctic, isolation by geographic, geological and glaciological processes has long been thought to underpin patterns in the region's terrestrial and marine diversity. Molecular studies using increasingly high-resolution data are, however, challenging this perspective, demonstrating that many taxa disperse among distant sub-Antarctic landmasses. Read More

    Don't forget to look down - collaborative approaches to predator conservation.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Mar 24. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Zoology and Merton College, Tasso Leventis Professor of Biodiversity, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, U.K.
    Finding effective ways of conserving large carnivores is widely recognised as a priority in conservation. However, there is disagreement about the most effective way to do this, with some favouring top-down 'command and control' approaches and others favouring collaboration. Arguments for coercive top-down approaches have been presented elsewhere; here we present arguments for collaboration. Read More

    IgY: a key isotype in antibody evolution.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    The Randall Division of Cell & Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, London, SE1 1UL, U.K.
    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is central to our understanding of immunoglobulin evolution. It has links to antibodies from the ancestral IgM to the mucosal IgX and IgA, as well as to mammalian serum IgG and IgE. IgY is found in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and as their most abundant serum antibody, is orthologous to mammalian IgG. Read More

    Preen oil and bird fitness: a critical review of the evidence.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071, Granada, Spain.
    The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Read More

    The biogeography of tropical reef fishes: endemism and provinciality through time.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Depto. de Ecologia e Zoologia, Marine Macroecology and Biogeography Laboratory, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, 88040-900 Brazil.
    The largest marine biodiversity hotspot straddles the Indian and Pacific Oceans, driven by taxa associated with tropical coral reefs. Centred on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), this biodiversity hotspot forms the 'bullseye' of a steep gradient in species richness from this centre to the periphery of the vast Indo-Pacific region. Complex patterns of endemism, wide-ranging species and assemblage differences have obscured our understanding of the genesis of this biodiversity pattern and its maintenance across two-thirds of the world's oceans. Read More

    PPARs in the central nervous system: roles in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración (CARE-UC), P. Catholic University of Chile, PO Box 114-D, 8331150, Santiago, Chile.
    Over 25 years have passed since peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs), were first described. Like other members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, PPARs have been defined as critical sensors and master regulators of cellular metabolism. Recognized as ligand-activated transcription factors, they are involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism, taking part in different cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and apoptosis, inflammatory modulation and attenuation of acute and chronic neurological damage in vivo and in vitro. Read More

    Lamarck rises from his grave: parental environment-induced epigenetic inheritance in model organisms and humans.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
    Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism. Read More

    Biology and insights into the role of cohesin protease separase in human malignancies.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Texas Children's Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates St., FC1220, Houston, TX 77030, U.S.A.
    Separase, an enzyme that resolves sister chromatid cohesion during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, plays a pivotal role in chromosomal segregation and cell division. Separase protein, encoded by the extra spindle pole bodies like 1 (ESPL1) gene, is overexpressed in numerous human cancers including breast, bone, brain, and prostate. Separase is oncogenic, and its overexpression is sufficient to induce mammary tumours in mice. Read More

    Climate change and alpine stream biology: progress, challenges, and opportunities for the future.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Freshwater Biological Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Read More

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