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    Reconstructing pectoral appendicular muscle anatomy in fossil fish and tetrapods over the fins-to-limbs transition.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Museum of Comparative Zoology and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
    The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. Read More

    Tick attachment cement - reviewing the mysteries of a biological skin plug system.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Trauma Surgery, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.
    The majority of ticks in the family Ixodidae secrete a substance anchoring their mouthparts to the host skin. This substance is termed cement. It has adhesive properties and seals the lesion during feeding. Read More

    Scaling biodiversity responses to hydrological regimes.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, U.S.A.
    Of all ecosystems, freshwaters support the most dynamic and highly concentrated biodiversity on Earth. These attributes of freshwater biodiversity along with increasing demand for water mean that these systems serve as significant models to understand drivers of global biodiversity change. Freshwater biodiversity changes are often attributed to hydrological alteration by water-resource development and climate change owing to the role of the hydrological regime of rivers, wetlands and floodplains affecting patterns of biodiversity. Read More

    Towards an eco-phylogenetic framework for infectious disease ecology.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 55108, U.S.A.
    Identifying patterns and drivers of infectious disease dynamics across multiple scales is a fundamental challenge for modern science. There is growing awareness that it is necessary to incorporate multi-host and/or multi-parasite interactions to understand and predict current and future disease threats better, and new tools are needed to help address this task. Eco-phylogenetics (phylogenetic community ecology) provides one avenue for exploring multi-host multi-parasite systems, yet the incorporation of eco-phylogenetic concepts and methods into studies of host pathogen dynamics has lagged behind. Read More

    The function and mechanism of vocal accommodation in humans and other primates.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Anthropology, University of Zurich, 8057, Zürich, Switzerland.
    The study of non-human animals, in particular primates, can provide essential insights into language evolution. A critical element of language is vocal production learning, i.e. Read More

    Ediacaran developmental biology.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, U.K.
    Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta). Read More

    Structure, function, and regulation of mitofusin-2 in health and disease.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, and Neuroscience Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly migrate, fuse, and divide to regulate their shape, size, number, and bioenergetic function. Mitofusins (Mfn1/2), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), are key regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mutations in these molecules are associated with severe neurodegenerative and non-neurological diseases pointing to the importance of functional mitochondrial dynamics in normal cell physiology. Read More

    Innovation not recovery: dynamic redox promotes metazoan radiations.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, U.S.A.
    Environmental fluctuations in redox may reinforce rather than hinder evolutionary transitions, such that variability in near-surface oceanic oxygenation can promote morphological evolution and novelty. Modern, low-oxygen regions are heterogeneous and dynamic habitats that support low diversity and are inhabited by opportunistic and non-skeletal metazoans. We note that several major radiation episodes follow protracted or repeating intervals (>1 million years) of persistent and dynamic shallow marine redox (oceanic anoxic events). Read More

    Tethyan changes shaped aquatic diversification.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
    The Tethys Ocean existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia from the Triassic to the Pliocene. Analyses of multiple biogeographic and phylogenetic histories reveal that the subsequent breakup of the Tethys greatly influenced the distributions of many species. The ancestral Tethyan realm broke into five biogeographic provinces, including the present-day East Pacific, West Atlantic, East Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Indo-West Pacific. Read More

    How intraspecific variation in seed-dispersing animals matters for plants.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Systematic Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland.
    Seed dispersal by animals is a complex phenomenon, characterized by multiple mechanisms and variable outcomes. Most researchers approach this complexity by analysing context-dependency in seed dispersal and investigating extrinsic factors that might influence interactions between plants and seed dispersers. Intrinsic traits of seed dispersers provide an alternative way of making sense of the enormous variation in seed fates. Read More

    Ecological and evolutionary legacy of megafauna extinctions.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Section for Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    For hundreds of millions of years, large vertebrates (megafauna) have inhabited most of the ecosystems on our planet. During the late Quaternary, notably during the Late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, Earth experienced a rapid extinction of large, terrestrial vertebrates. While much attention has been paid to understanding the causes of this massive megafauna extinction, less attention has been given to understanding the impacts of loss of megafauna on other organisms with whom they interacted. Read More

    Mitochondrial VDAC2 and cell homeostasis: highlighting hidden structural features and unique functionalities.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 7;92(4):1843-1858. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Molecular Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, 462066, India.
    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the gateway to mitochondrial processes, interlinking the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments. The mitochondrion acts as a storehouse for cytochrome c, the effector of apoptosis, and hence VDACs become intricately involved in the apoptotic pathway. Isoform 1 of VDAC is abundant in the outer mitochondrial membrane of many cell types, while isoform 2 is the preferred channel in specialized cells including brain and some cancer cells. Read More

    Behavioural effects of temperature on ectothermic animals: unifying thermal physiology and behavioural plasticity.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Nov 7;92(4):1859-1876. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
    Temperature imposes significant constraints on ectothermic animals, and these organisms have evolved numerous adaptations to respond to these constraints. While the impacts of temperature on the physiology of ectotherms have been extensively studied, there are currently no frameworks available that outline the multiple and often simultaneous pathways by which temperature can affect behaviour. Drawing from the literature on insects, we propose a unified framework that should apply to all ectothermic animals, generalizing temperature's behavioural effects into: (1) kinetic effects, resulting from temperature's bottom-up constraining influence on metabolism and neurophysiology over a range of timescales (from short to long term), and (2) integrated effects, where the top-down integration of thermal information intentionally initiates or modifies a behaviour (behavioural thermoregulation, thermal orientation, thermosensory behavioural adjustments). Read More

    Reappraising the early evidence of durophagy and drilling predation in the fossil record: implications for escalation and the Cambrian Explosion.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Palaeoscience Research Centre, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia.
    The Cambrian Explosion is arguably the most extreme example of a biological radiation preserved in the fossil record, and studies of Cambrian Lagerstätten have facilitated the exploration of many facets of this key evolutionary event. As predation was a major ecological driver behind the Explosion - particularly the radiation of biomineralising metazoans - the evidence for shell crushing (durophagy), drilling and puncturing predation in the Cambrian (and possibly the Ediacaran) is considered. Examples of durophagous predation on biomineralised taxa other than trilobites are apparently rare, reflecting predator preference, taphonomic and sampling biases, or simply lack of documentation. Read More

    Biological hierarchies and the nature of extinction.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 24. Epub 2017 Sep 24.
    Department of Geology and Geography, 98 Beechurst Avenure, Brooks Hall, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, U.S.A.
    Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate. Read More

    Comparing species interaction networks along environmental gradients.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences, Canada Research Chair in Integrative Ecology, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500, boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1, Québec, Canada.
    Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions. Read More

    ATAD3 proteins: brokers of a mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum connection in mammalian cells.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IBDM, 13284, Marseille Cedex 07, France.
    In yeast, a sequence of physical and genetic interactions termed the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) controls mitochondria-ER interactions and mitochondrial biogenesis. Several functions that characterize ERMIONE complexes are conserved in mammalian cells, suggesting that a similar tethering complex must exist in metazoans. Recent studies have identified a new family of nuclear-encoded ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+-ATPase) mitochondrial membrane proteins specific to multicellular eukaryotes, called the ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3 (ATAD3) proteins (ATAD3A and ATAD3B). Read More

    Impacts of human-induced environmental change in wetlands on aquatic animals.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
    Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. Read More

    The evolution of gonad expenditure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male and female broadcast-spawning invertebrates.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, 2601, Canberra, Australia.
    Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring. Read More

    New-age ideas about age-old sex: separating meiosis from mating could solve a century-old conundrum.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    The Department of Genetics, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Jerusalem, 9190401, Israel.
    Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. Read More

    The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants - new insights on an ancient subject.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides. Read More

    A hot lunch for herbivores: physiological effects of elevated temperatures on mammalian feeding ecology.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales 2751, Australia.
    Mammals maintain specific body temperatures (Tb ) across a broad range of ambient temperatures. The energy required for thermoregulation ultimately comes from the diet, and so what animals eat is inextricably linked to thermoregulation. Endothermic herbivores must balance energy requirements and expenditure with complicated thermoregulatory challenges from changing thermal, nutritional and toxicological environments. Read More

    Aphid specialism as an example of ecological-evolutionary divergence.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Faculty of Technical and Human Science, Department of Horticulture, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, 540485, Tirgu-Mures, Romania.
    Debate still continues around the definition of generalism and specialism in nature. To some, generalism is equated solely with polyphagy, but this cannot be readily divorced from other essential biological factors, such as morphology, behaviour, genetics, biochemistry, chemistry and ecology, including chemical ecology. Viewed in this light, and accepting that when living organisms evolve to fill new ecological-evolutionary niches, this is the primal act of specialisation, then perhaps all living organisms are specialist in the broadest sense. Read More

    The effects of hydropeaking on riverine plants: a review.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Landscape Ecology Group, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hydropeaking refers to frequent, rapid and short-term fluctuations in water flow and water levels downstream and upstream of hydropower stations. Such fluctuations are becoming increasingly common worldwide and are known to have far-reaching effects on riverine vegetation. Novel hydrology caused by hydropeaking has no natural correspondence in freshwater systems, and hence few species have adaptations to all its aspects. Read More

    Understanding processes at the origin of species flocks with a focus on the marine Antarctic fauna.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Marine Zoology, Bremen Marine Ecology (BreMarE), University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany.
    Species flocks (SFs) fascinate evolutionary biologists who wonder whether such striking diversification can be driven by normal evolutionary processes. Multiple definitions of SFs have hindered the study of their origins. Previous studies identified a monophyletic taxon as a SF if it displays high speciosity in an area in which it is endemic (criterion 1), high ecological diversity among species (criterion 2), and if it dominates the habitat in terms of biomass (criterion 3); we used these criteria in our analyses. Read More

    Coupling factors and exosomal packaging microRNAs involved in the regulation of bone remodelling.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China.
    Bone remodelling is a continuous process by which bone resorption by osteoclasts is followed by bone formation by osteoblasts to maintain skeletal homeostasis. These two forces must be tightly coordinated not only quantitatively, but also in time and space, and its malfunction leads to diseases such as osteoporosis. Recent research focusing on the cross-talk and coupling mechanisms associated with the sequential recruitment of osteoblasts to areas where osteoclasts have removed bone matrix have identified a number of osteogenic factors produced by the osteoclasts themselves. Read More

    Endocrine disruption in aquatic systems: up-scaling research to address ecological consequences.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4PS, U.K.
    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter biological function in organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations and are a significant threat to aquatic biodiversity, but there is little understanding of exposure consequences for populations, communities and ecosystems. The pervasive nature of EDCs within aquatic environments and their multiple sub-lethal effects make assessments of their impact especially important but also highly challenging. Herein, we review the data on EDC effects in aquatic systems focusing on studies assessing populations and ecosystems, and including how biotic and abiotic processes may affect, and be affected by, responses to EDCs. Read More

    Genetics of dispersal.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Research Unit of Biodiversity (UO-CSIC-PA), Oviedo University, 33600 Mieres, Spain.
    Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) review the empirical literature on the genetic basis of dispersal, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations of the evolution of dispersal have represented the genetics of dispersal, and (iii) discuss how the genetic basis of dispersal influences theoretical predictions of the evolution of dispersal and potential consequences. Dispersal has a detectable genetic basis in many organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. Read More

    Building essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) of species distribution and abundance at a global scale.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    School of Computer Science & Informatics, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, U.K.
    Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to capture a minimum set of critical variables required to study, report and manage biodiversity change. Here, we assess the challenges of a 'Big Data' approach to building global EBV data products across taxa and spatiotemporal scales, focusing on species distribution and abundance. Read More

    Comparative analyses of basal rate of metabolism in mammals: data selection does matter.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Integrative Research Center, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL, 60605-2496, U.S.A.
    Basal rate of metabolism (BMR) is a physiological parameter that should be measured under strictly defined experimental conditions. In comparative analyses among mammals BMR is widely used as an index of the intensity of the metabolic machinery or as a proxy for energy expenditure. Many databases with BMR values for mammals are available, but the criteria used to select metabolic data as BMR estimates have often varied and the potential effect of this variability has rarely been questioned. Read More

    An evolutionary perspective on the systems of adaptive immunity.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Parmenides Center for the Conceptual Foundations of Science, 82049 Pullach/Munich, Germany.
    We propose an evolutionary perspective to classify and characterize the diverse systems of adaptive immunity that have been discovered across all major domains of life. We put forward a new function-based classification according to the way information is acquired by the immune systems: Darwinian immunity (currently known from, but not necessarily limited to, vertebrates) relies on the Darwinian process of clonal selection to 'learn' by cumulative trial-and-error feedback; Lamarckian immunity uses templated targeting (guided adaptation) to internalize heritable information on potential threats; finally, shotgun immunity operates through somatic mechanisms of variable targeting without feedback. We argue that the origin of Darwinian (but not Lamarckian or shotgun) immunity represents a radical innovation in the evolution of individuality and complexity, and propose to add it to the list of major evolutionary transitions. Read More

    The concepts of asymmetric and symmetric power can help resolve the puzzle of altruistic and cooperative behaviour.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Birmingham, B23 5YT, U.K.
    Evolutionary theory predicts competition in nature yet altruistic and cooperative behaviour appears to reduce the ability to compete in order to help others compete better. This evolutionary puzzle is usually explained by kin selection where close relatives perform altruistic and cooperative acts to help each other and by reciprocity theory (i.e. Read More

    Biodiversity as a solution to mitigate climate change impacts on the functioning of forest ecosystems.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, P7B 5E1, Canada.
    Forest ecosystems are critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through carbon sequestration. However, climate change has affected forest ecosystem functioning in both negative and positive ways, and has led to shifts in species/functional diversity and losses in plant species diversity which may impair the positive effects of diversity on ecosystem functioning. Biodiversity may mitigate climate change impacts on (I) biodiversity itself, as more-diverse systems could be more resilient to climate change impacts, and (II) ecosystem functioning through the positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning. Read More

    The multiple functions of male song within the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mating system: review, evaluation, and synthesis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Aug 7;92(3):1795-1818. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa and The Dolphin Institute.
    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are seasonal breeders, annually migrating from high-latitude summer feeding grounds to low-latitude winter breeding grounds. The social matrix on the winter grounds is a loose network of interacting individuals and groups and notably includes lone males that produce long bouts of complex song that collectively yield an asynchronous chorus. Occasionally, a male will sing while accompanying other whales. Read More

    Disruptive physiology: olfaction and the microbiome-gut-brain axis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    McMaster Brain-Body Institute at St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 50 Charlton Ave. E. Room T3304 Hamilton, L8N 4A6, Canada.
    This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems. Read More

    Pathways governing development of stem cell-derived pancreatic β cells: lessons from embryogenesis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Diabetes Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar.
    The loss of functional β cells leads to development of diabetes. Several studies have shown that β cells are specified through several stages of progenitors during pancreas development, each stage defined by the expression of specific transcription factors (TFs). Understanding signalling pathways that control the differentiation and specification processes during embryogenesis will facilitate efforts to obtain functional β cells in vitro. Read More

    The mechanism of coupling between oxido-reduction and proton translocation in respiratory chain enzymes.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs (BMSNSO), Section of Medical Biochemistry, University of Bari 'Aldo Moro', Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    The respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria is made up of a set of membrane-associated enzyme complexes which catalyse sequential, stepwise transfer of reducing equivalents from substrates to oxygen and convert redox energy into a transmembrane protonmotive force (PMF) by proton translocation from a negative (N) to a positive (P) aqueous phase separated by the coupling membrane. There are three basic mechanisms by which a membrane-associated redox enzyme can generate a PMF. These are membrane anisotropic arrangement of the primary redox catalysis with: (i) vectorial electron transfer by redox metal centres from the P to the N side of the membrane; (ii) hydrogen transfer by movement of quinones across the membrane, from a reduction site at the N side to an oxidation site at the P side; (iii) a different type of mechanism based on co-operative allosteric linkage between electron transfer at the metal redox centres and transmembrane electrogenic proton translocation by apoproteins. Read More

    Osteoblast migration in vertebrate bone.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Bone Cell and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Straße 22, Technical University Munich, 81675 München, Germany.
    Bone formation, for example during bone remodelling or fracture repair, requires mature osteoblasts to deposit bone with remarkable spatial precision. As osteoblast precursors derive either from circulation or resident stem cell pools, they and their progeny are required to migrate within the three-dimensional bone space and to navigate to their destination, i.e. Read More

    Managing biological control services through multi-trophic trait interactions: review and guidelines for implementation at local and landscape scales.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    INRA (French National Institute for Agricultural Research), Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, UMR 1355-7254, 06903, Sophia Antipolis, France.
    Ecological studies are increasingly moving towards trait-based approaches, as the evidence mounts that functions, as opposed to taxonomy, drive ecosystem service delivery. Among ecosystem services, biological control has been somewhat overlooked in functional ecological studies. This is surprising given that, over recent decades, much of biological control research has been focused on identifying the multiple characteristics (traits) of species that influence trophic interactions. Read More

    Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 Jun 1. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia.
    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. Read More

    An Amazonian rainforest and its fragments as a laboratory of global change.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, 4878, Australia.
    We synthesize findings from one of the world's largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km(2) in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation. Read More

    Cephalopod embryonic shells as a tool to reconstruct reproductive strategies in extinct taxa.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Stratigraphy Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017, Russia.
    An exhaustive study of existing data on the relationship between egg size and maximum size of embryonic shells in 42 species of extant cephalopods demonstrated that these values are approximately equal regardless of taxonomy and shell morphology. Egg size is also approximately equal to mantle length of hatchlings in 45 cephalopod species with rudimentary shells. Paired data on the size of the initial chamber versus embryonic shell in 235 species of Ammonoidea, 46 Bactritida, 13 Nautilida, 22 Orthocerida, 8 Tarphycerida, 4 Oncocerida, 1 Belemnoidea, 4 Sepiida and 1 Spirulida demonstrated that, although there is a positive relationship between these parameters in some taxa, initial chamber size cannot be used to predict egg size in extinct cephalopods; the size of the embryonic shell may be more appropriate for this task. Read More

    The comparative study of empathy: sympathetic concern and empathic perspective-taking in non-human animals.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Psychology, Human Evolution and Cognition Group (EvoCog), UIB, IFISC, Associated Unit to CSIC, 07122, Palma, Spain.
    While empathy is a century-old psychological concept, its study in non-human animals has become the focus of much recent scientific interest, as it promises to provide the clues to understand the evolutionary origins of our social and moral nature. A review of the comparative study of empathy is thus timely to complement and constrain anthropocentric views, and to integrate current findings. However, this is not an easy task. Read More

    Did some red alga-derived plastids evolve via kleptoplastidy? A hypothesis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Laboratory of Evolutionary Protistology, Department of Invertebrate Biology, Evolution and Conservation, Institute of Environmental Biology, University of Wrocław, ul. Przybyszewskiego 65, 51-148, Wrocław, Poland.
    The evolution of plastids has a complex and still unresolved history. These organelles originated from a cyanobacterium via primary endosymbiosis, resulting in three eukaryotic lineages: glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants. The red and green algal plastids then spread via eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbioses, known as secondary and tertiary symbioses, to numerous heterotrophic protist lineages. Read More

    Superorganismality and caste differentiation as points of no return: how the major evolutionary transitions were lost in translation.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies. Read More

    Beyond chemoreception: diverse tasks of soluble olfactory proteins in insects.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 7. Epub 2017 May 7.
    Department of Biology, University of Firenze, 50019, Firenze, Italy.
    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are regarded as carriers of pheromones and odorants in insect chemoreception. These proteins are typically located in antennae, mouth organs and other chemosensory structures; however, members of both classes of proteins have been detected recently in other parts of the body and various functions have been proposed. The best studied of these non-sensory tasks is performed in pheromone glands, where OBPs and CSPs solubilise hydrophobic semiochemicals and assist their controlled release into the environment. Read More

    The long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages in aquatic 'seed banks'.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Glaciology and Climate Department, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. Read More

    Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish functional traits.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, U.S.A.
    Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Read More

    The interplay between autophagy and tumorigenesis: exploiting autophagy as a means of anticancer therapy.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Biomedical Research in Cancer Stem Cell Group, Pathology Department, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.
    In wild-type cells, autophagy represents a tumour-suppressor mechanism, and dysfunction of the autophagy machinery increases genomic instability, DNA damage, oxidative stress and stem/progenitor expansion, which are events associated with cancer onset. Autophagy occurs at a basal level in all cells depending on cell type and cellular microenvironment. However, the role of autophagy in cancer is diverse and can promote different outcomes even in a single tumour. Read More

    Developmental temperatures and phenotypic plasticity in reptiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ecology and Evolution Research Centre, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Early environments can profoundly influence an organism in ways that persist over its life. In reptiles, early thermal environments (nest temperatures) can impact offspring phenotype and survival in important ways, yet we still lack an understanding of whether general trends exist and the magnitude of impact. Understanding these patterns is important in predicting how climate change will affect reptile populations and the role of phenotypic plasticity in buffering populations. Read More

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