1,397 results match your criteria Biological Reviews [Journal]


Amphicarpic plants: definition, ecology, geographic distribution, systematics, life history, evolution and use in agriculture.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, P.R. China.

Although most plants produce all of their fruits (seeds) aboveground, amphicarpic species produce fruits (seeds) both above- and belowground. Our primary aims were to determine the number of reported amphicarpic species and their taxonomic, geographic, life form and phylogenetic distribution, to evaluate differences in the life history of plants derived from aerial and subterranean seeds, to discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of amphicarpy, to explore the use of amphicarpic plants in agriculture, and to suggest future research directions for studies on amphicarpy. Amphicarpy occurs in at least 67 herbaceous species (31 in Fabaceae) in 39 genera and 13 families of angiosperms distributed in various geographical regions of the world and in various habitats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12623DOI Listing

The 'biomineralization toolkit' and the origin of animal skeletons.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PW, U.K.

Biomineralized skeletons are widespread in animals, and their origins can be traced to the latest Ediacaran or early Cambrian fossil record, in virtually all animal groups. The origin of animal skeletons is inextricably linked with the diversification of animal body plans and the dramatic changes in ecology and geosphere-biosphere interactions across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. This apparent independent acquisition of skeletons across diverse animal clades has been proposed to have been driven by co-option of a conserved ancestral genetic toolkit in different lineages at the same time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12614DOI Listing

Relaxed predation theory: size, sex and brains matter.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, 4343, Queensland, Australia.

Australia's wildlife is being considerably impacted by introduced mammalian predators such as cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). This is often attributed to native wildlife being naïve to these introduced predators. A systematic review of the literature reveals that native metatherians (body mass range 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12611DOI Listing

Exosome-mediated effects and applications in inflammatory bowel disease.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013, China.

Gut mucosal barriers, including chemical and physical barriers, spatially separate the gut microbiota from the host immune system to prevent unwanted immune responses that could lead to intestinal inflammation. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is mucosal barrier dysfunction coupled with immune dysregulation and dysbiosis. The discovery of exosomes as regulators of vital functions in both physiological and pathological processes has generated much research interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12608DOI Listing

Camouflage in predators.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Dyers Brae House, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TH, U.K.

Camouflage - adaptations that prevent detection and/or recognition - is a key example of evolution by natural selection, making it a primary focus in evolutionary ecology and animal behaviour. Most work has focused on camouflage as an anti-predator adaptation. However, predators also display specific colours, patterns and behaviours that reduce visual detection or recognition to facilitate predation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12612DOI Listing

A comprehensive hypothesis on the migration of European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla).

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL, 33149-1098, U.S.A.

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish that spawns in the Sargasso Sea. As larvae, eels cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach the continental slope of Europe, where they metamorphose into post-larval glass eels. These reach the continent, where some enter fresh water, some remain in marine waters, and others move between fresh and marine waters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12609DOI Listing

A part-dependent account of biological individuality: why holobionts are individuals and ecosystems simultaneously.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 31-044, Poland.

Given one conception of biological individuality (evolutionary, physiological, etc.), can a holobiont - that is the host + its symbiotic (mutualistic, commensalist and parasitic) microbiome - be simultaneously a biological individual and an ecological community? Herein, we support this possibility by arguing that the notion of biological individuality is part-dependent. In our account, the individuality of a biological ensemble should not only be determined by the conception of biological individuality in use, but also by the biological characteristics of the part of the ensemble under investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12610DOI Listing

The role of the microbiome in the neurobiology of social behaviour.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7JX, U.K.

Microbes colonise all multicellular life, and the gut microbiome has been shown to influence a range of host physiological and behavioural phenotypes. One of the most intriguing and least understood of these influences lies in the domain of the microbiome's interactions with host social behaviour, with new evidence revealing that the gut microbiome makes important contributions to animal sociality. However, little is known about the biological processes through which the microbiome might influence host social behaviour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12603DOI Listing

The evolution and physiology of male pregnancy in syngnathid fishes.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

The University of Wollongong, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522, Australia.

The seahorses, pipefishes and seadragons (Syngnathidae) are among the few vertebrates in which pregnant males incubate developing embryos. Syngnathids are popular in studies of sexual selection, sex-role reversal, and reproductive trade-offs, and are now emerging as valuable comparative models for the study of the biology and evolution of reproductive complexity. These fish offer the opportunity to examine the physiology, behavioural implications, and evolutionary origins of embryo incubation, independent of the female reproductive tract and female hormonal milieu. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12607DOI Listing

Magnitude and direction of parasite-induced phenotypic alterations: a meta-analysis in acanthocephalans.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

UMR CNRS 6282 Biogéosciences, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000, Dijon, France.

Several parasite species have the ability to modify their host's phenotype to their own advantage thereby increasing the probability of transmission from one host to another. This phenomenon of host manipulation is interpreted as the expression of a parasite extended phenotype. Manipulative parasites generally affect multiple phenotypic traits in their hosts, although both the extent and adaptive significance of such multidimensionality in host manipulation is still poorly documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12606DOI Listing

Formation, structure, and function of extra-skeletal bones in mammals.

Authors:
Alireza Nasoori

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0818, Japan.

This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra-skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co-development of the bone and skin in these structures. During foetal stages, primordial cells for the bony compartments arise in subcutaneous tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12597DOI Listing

Innovation in chimpanzees.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The study of innovation in non-human animals (henceforth: animals) has recently gained momentum across fields including primatology, animal behaviour and cultural evolution. Examining the rate of innovations, and the cognitive mechanisms driving these innovations across species, can provide insights into the evolution of human culture. Especially relevant to the study of human culture is one of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12604DOI Listing

Minimizing animal welfare harms associated with predation management in agro-ecosystems.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia.

The impacts of wild predators on livestock are a common source of human-wildlife conflict globally, and predators are subject to population control for this reason in many situations. Animal welfare is one of many important considerations affecting decisions about predation management. Recent studies discussing animal welfare in this context have presented arguments emphasizing the importance of avoiding intentional harm to predators, but they have not usually considered harms imposed by predators on livestock and other animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12601DOI Listing

Using value of information to prioritize research needs for migratory bird management under climate change: a case study using federal land acquisition in the United States.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Laurel, MD, 20708, U.S.A.

In response to global habitat loss, many governmental and non-governmental organizations have implemented land acquisition programs to protect critical habitats permanently for priority species. The ability of these protected areas to meet future management objectives may be compromised if the effects of climate change are not considered in acquisition decisions. Unfortunately, the effects of climate change on ecological systems are complex and plagued by uncertainty, making it difficult for organizations to prioritize research needs to improve decision-making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12602DOI Listing

Fungal evolution: cellular, genomic and metabolic complexity.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Dr. Aiguader 88, Barcelona, 08003, Spain.

The question of how phenotypic and genomic complexity are inter-related and how they are shaped through evolution is a central question in biology that historically has been approached from the perspective of animals and plants. In recent years, however, fungi have emerged as a promising alternative system to address such questions. Key to their ecological success, fungi present a broad and diverse range of phenotypic traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12605DOI Listing

Infrasonic hearing in birds: a review of audiometry and hypothesized structure-function relationships.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Mar 31. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7600, South Africa.

The perception of airborne infrasound (sounds below 20 Hz, inaudible to humans except at very high levels) has been documented in a handful of mammals and birds. While animals that produce vocalizations with infrasonic components (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12596DOI Listing

A multilevel analytical framework for studying cultural evolution in prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Arqueología y Patrimonio Histórico (INAPH), Universidad de Alicante, Edificio Institutos Universitarios, 03690, San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain.

Over the past decade, a major debate has taken place on the underpinnings of cultural changes in human societies. A growing array of evidence in behavioural and evolutionary biology has revealed that social connectivity among populations and within them affects, and is affected by, culture. Yet the interplay between prehistoric hunter-gatherer social structure and cultural transmission has typically been overlooked. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12599DOI Listing

The genetics of evolutionary radiations.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Mar 31. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, CH-8008, Zurich, Switzerland.

With the realization that much of the biological diversity on Earth has been generated by discrete evolutionary radiations, there has been a rapid increase in research into the biotic (key innovations) and abiotic (key environments) circumstances in which such radiations took place. Here we focus on the potential importance of population genetic structure and trait genetic architecture in explaining radiations. We propose a verbal model describing the stages of an evolutionary radiation: first invading a suitable adaptive zone and expanding both spatially and ecologically through this zone; secondly, diverging genetically into numerous distinct populations; and, finally, speciating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12598DOI Listing

Pathological calcification in osteoarthritis: an outcome or a disease initiator?

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Mar 24. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Oral Mucosal Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 145 changle xi road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710032, China.

In the progression of osteoarthritis, pathological calcification in the affected joint is an important feature. The role of these crystallites in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis is controversial; it remains unclear whether they act as a disease initiator or are present as a result of joint damage. Recent studies reported that the molecular mechanisms regulating physiological calcification of skeletal tissues are similar to those regulating pathological or ectopic calcification of soft tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12595DOI Listing

The ecological importance of crocodylians: towards evidence-based justification for their conservation.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Mar 10. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Floreat, WA, 6014, Australia.

Large-bodied predators are well represented among the world's threatened and endangered species. A significant body of literature shows that in terrestrial and marine ecosystems large predators can play important roles in ecosystem structure and functioning. By contrast, the ecological roles and importance of large predators within freshwater ecosystems are poorly understood, constraining the design and implementation of optimal conservation strategies for freshwater ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12594DOI Listing

Mixed company: a framework for understanding the composition and organization of mixed-species animal groups.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Feb 25. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 560012, India.

Mixed-species animal groups (MSGs) are widely acknowledged to increase predator avoidance and foraging efficiency, among other benefits, and thereby increase participants' fitness. Diversity in MSG composition ranges from two to 70 species of very similar or completely different phenotypes. Yet consistency in organization is also observable in that one or a few species usually have disproportionate importance for MSG formation and/or maintenance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12591DOI Listing
February 2020

Songs versus colours versus horns: what explains the diversity of sexually selected traits?

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Feb 24. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0088, U.S.A.

Papers on sexual selection often highlight the incredible diversity of sexually selected traits across animals. Yet, few studies have tried to explain why this diversity evolved. Animals use many different types of traits to attract mates and outcompete rivals, including colours, songs, and horns, but it remains unclear why, for example, some taxa have songs, others have colours, and others horns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12593DOI Listing
February 2020

Phospholipase D as a key modulator of cancer progression.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Detection Technology and Medicinal Effectiveness Appraisal, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The phospholipase D (PLD) family has a ubiquitous expression in cells. PLD isoforms (PLDs) and their hydrolysate phosphatidic acid (PA) have been demonstrated to engage in multiple stages of cancer progression. Aberrant expression of PLDs, especially PLD1 and PLD2, has been detected in various cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12592DOI Listing
February 2020

Estuarine fish and tetrapod evolution: insights from a Late Devonian (Famennian) Gondwanan estuarine lake and a southern African Holocene equivalent.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Feb 14. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Private Bag 1015, Makhanda/Grahamstown, South Africa.

The Waterloo Farm lagerstätte in South Africa provides a uniquely well-preserved record of a Latest Devonian estuarine ecosystem. Ecological evidence from it is reviewed, contextualised, and compared with that available from the analogous Swartvlei estuarine lake, with a particular emphasis on their piscean inhabitants. Although the taxonomic affinities of the estuarine species are temporally very different, the overall patterns of utilisation prove to be remarkably congruent, with similar trophic structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12590DOI Listing
February 2020

Prospects for incorporation of epigenetic biomarkers in human health and environmental risk assessment of chemicals.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 11;95(3):822-846. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit - GhEnToxLab, Ghent University, 9000, Gent, Belgium.

Epigenetic mechanisms have gained relevance in human health and environmental studies, due to their pivotal role in disease, gene × environment interactions and adaptation to environmental change and/or contamination. Epigenetic mechanisms are highly responsive to external stimuli and a wide range of chemicals has been shown to determine specific epigenetic patterns in several organisms. Furthermore, the mitotic/meiotic inheritance of such epigenetic marks as well as the resulting changes in gene expression and cell/organismal phenotypes has now been demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12589DOI Listing

Deer, wolves, and people: costs, benefits and challenges of living together.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 11;95(3):782-801. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Human-driven species annihilations loom as a major crisis. However the recovery of deer and wolf populations in many parts of the northern hemisphere has resulted in conflicts and controversies rather than in relief. Both species interact in complex ways with their environment, each other, and humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12587DOI Listing

Insect responses to heat: physiological mechanisms, evolution and ecological implications in a warming world.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 8;95(3):802-821. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Red de Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología A. C, Xalapa, 91073, Mexico.

Surviving changing climate conditions is particularly difficult for organisms such as insects that depend on environmental temperature to regulate their physiological functions. Insects are extremely threatened by global warming, since many do not have enough physiological tolerance even to survive continuous exposure to the current maximum temperatures experienced in their habitats. Here, we review literature on the physiological mechanisms that regulate responses to heat and provide heat tolerance in insects: (i) neuronal mechanisms to detect and respond to heat; (ii) metabolic responses to heat; (iii) thermoregulation; (iv) stress responses to tolerate heat; and (v) hormones that coordinate developmental and behavioural responses at warm temperatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12588DOI Listing

Key novelties in the evolution of the aquatic colonial phylum Bryozoa: evidence from soft body morphology.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 7;95(3):696-729. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, 1090, Austria.

Molecular techniques are currently the leading tools for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, but our understanding of ancestral, plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters requires the study of the morphology of extant forms for testing these phylogenies and for reconstructing character evolution. This review highlights the potential of soft body morphology for inferring the evolution and phylogeny of the lophotrochozoan phylum Bryozoa. This colonial taxon comprises aquatic coelomate filter-feeders that dominate many benthic communities, both marine and freshwater. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12583DOI Listing

The Zn and Ca -binding S100B and S100A1 proteins: beyond the myths.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 6;95(3):738-758. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A5C1, Canada.

The S100 genes encode a conserved group of 21 vertebrate-specific EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. Since their discovery in 1965, S100 proteins have remained enigmatic in terms of their cellular functions. In this review, we summarize the calcium- and zinc-binding properties of the dimeric S100B and S100A1 proteins and highlight data that shed new light on the extracellular and intracellular regulation and functions of S100B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12585DOI Listing

Cellular calcium and redox regulation: the mediator of vertebrate environmental sex determination?

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 6;95(3):680-695. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

CSIRO, Australian National Wildlife Collection, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, 2601, Australia.

Many reptiles and some fish determine offspring sex by environmental cues such as incubation temperature. The mechanism by which environmental signals are captured and transduced into specific sexual phenotypes has remained unexplained for over 50 years. Indeed, environmental sex determination (ESD) has been viewed as an intractable problem because sex determination is influenced by a myriad of genes that may be subject to environmental influence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12582DOI Listing

Mitochondrial behaviour, morphology, and animal performance.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 5;95(3):730-737. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, 101 Rouse Life Sciences Building, Auburn, AL, 36849, U.S.A.

We have a limited understanding of the proximate mechanisms that are responsible for the development of variation in animal performance and life-history strategies. Provided that components of an organism's successful life history - for example, mate competition, gestation, lactation, etc. - are energetically demanding, increased energy production within mitochondria is likely the foundation from which organisms are able to perform these tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12584DOI Listing

Designing mate choice experiments.

Authors:
Liam R Dougherty

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 5;95(3):759-781. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7RB, UK.

The important role that mate choice plays in the lives of animals is matched by the large and active research field dedicated to studying it. Researchers work on a wide range of species and behaviours, and so the experimental approaches used to measure animal mate choice are highly variable. Importantly, these differences are often not purely cosmetic; they can strongly influence the measurement of choice, for example by varying the behaviour of animals during tests, the aspects of choice actually measured, and statistical power. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12586DOI Listing

Identifying mechanisms of genetic differentiation among populations in vagile species: historical factors dominate genetic differentiation in seabirds.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 5;95(3):625-651. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.

Elucidating the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of genetic variation among populations is crucial for our understanding of their ecology and evolution, and also to help identify conservation priorities. While intrinsic movement has been hypothesized as the major determinant of population genetic structuring in abundant vagile species, growing evidence indicates that vagility does not always predict genetic differentiation. However, identifying the determinants of genetic structuring can be challenging, and these are largely unknown for most vagile species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12580DOI Listing

Are we overestimating risk of enteric pathogen spillover from wild birds to humans?

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 31;95(3):652-679. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Entomology, Washington State University, 100 Dairy Road, P.O. Box 646382, Pullman, WA, 99164, U.S.A.

Enteric illnesses remain the second largest source of communicable diseases worldwide, and wild birds are suspected sources for human infection. This has led to efforts to reduce pathogen spillover through deterrence of wildlife and removal of wildlife habitat, particularly within farming systems, which can compromise conservation efforts and the ecosystem services wild birds provide. Further, Salmonella spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12581DOI Listing

Neuroendocrinology and neurobiology of sebaceous glands.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 22;95(3):592-624. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Centre for Dermatology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, and NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, U.K.

The nervous system communicates with peripheral tissues through nerve fibres and the systemic release of hypothalamic and pituitary neurohormones. Communication between the nervous system and the largest human organ, skin, has traditionally received little attention. In particular, the neuro-regulation of sebaceous glands (SGs), a major skin appendage, is rarely considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12579DOI Listing

Development and evolution of the tetrapod skull-neck boundary.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 7;95(3):573-591. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, U.S.A.

The origin and evolution of the vertebrate skull have been topics of intense study for more than two centuries. Whereas early theories of skull origin, such as the influential vertebral theory, have been largely refuted with respect to the anterior (pre-otic) region of the skull, the posterior (post-otic) region is known to be derived from the anteriormost paraxial segments, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12578DOI Listing

Ant-termite interactions: an important but under-explored ecological linkage.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 25;95(3):555-572. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Entomology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Animal interactions play an important role in understanding ecological processes. The nature and intensity of these interactions can shape the impacts of organisms on their environment. Because ants and termites, with their high biomass and range of ecological functions, have considerable effects on their environment, the interaction between them is important for ecosystem processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12577DOI Listing

5' untranslated regions: the next regulatory sequence in yeast synthetic biology.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 20;95(2):517-529. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Centre for Industrial Biotechnology and Biocatalysis (InBio.be), Department Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

When developing industrial biotechnology processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or brewer's yeast) is a popular choice as a microbial host. Many tools have been developed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to introduce heterologous pathways and tune their expression in yeast. Such tools mainly focus on controlling transcription, whereas post-transcriptional regulation is often overlooked. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12575DOI Listing

Cardiovascular shunting in vertebrates: a practical integration of competing hypotheses.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 20;95(2):449-471. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, 8000, Denmark.

This review explores the long-standing question: 'Why do cardiovascular shunts occur?' An historical perspective is provided on previous research into cardiac shunts in vertebrates that continues to shape current views. Cardiac shunts and when they occur is then described for vertebrates. Nearly 20 different functional reasons have been proposed as specific causes of shunts, ranging from energy conservation to improved gas exchange, and including a plethora of functions related to thermoregulation, digestion and haemodynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12572DOI Listing

The origins of gestures and language: history, current advances and proposed theories.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 18;95(3):531-554. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Univ Rennes, Normandie Univ, CNRS, EthoS (Ethologie animale et humaine) - UMR 6552, F-35380, Paimpont, France.

Investigating in depth the mechanisms underlying human and non-human primate intentional communication systems (involving gestures, vocalisations, facial expressions and eye behaviours) can shed light on the evolutionary roots of language. Reports on non-human primates, particularly great apes, suggest that gestural communication would have been a crucial prerequisite for the emergence of language, mainly based on the evidence of large communication repertoires and their associated multifaceted nature of intentionality that are key properties of language. Such research fuels important debates on the origins of gestures and language. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12576DOI Listing

A niche perspective on the range expansion of symbionts.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 5;95(2):491-516. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Biogeography and Global Change, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), C/José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

Range expansion results from complex eco-evolutionary processes where range dynamics and niche shifts interact in a novel physical space and/or environment, with scale playing a major role. Obligate symbionts (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12574DOI Listing

Calmodulin-mediated events during the life cycle of the amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 26;95(2):472-490. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, K9L 0G2, Canada.

This review focusses on the functions of intracellular and extracellular calmodulin, its target proteins and their binding proteins during the asexual life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum. Calmodulin is a primary regulatory protein of calcium signal transduction that functions throughout all stages. During growth, it mediates autophagy, the cell cycle, folic acid chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and other functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079120PMC

Fungal functional ecology: bringing a trait-based approach to plant-associated fungi.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 25;95(2):409-433. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, U.S.A.

Fungi play many essential roles in ecosystems. They facilitate plant access to nutrients and water, serve as decay agents that cycle carbon and nutrients through the soil, water and atmosphere, and are major regulators of macro-organismal populations. Although technological advances are improving the detection and identification of fungi, there still exist key gaps in our ecological knowledge of this kingdom, especially related to function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12570DOI Listing

The ecology of chronic wasting disease in wildlife.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 21;95(2):393-408. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, 77030, U.S.A.

Prions are misfolded infectious proteins responsible for a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is the prion disease with the highest spillover potential, affecting at least seven Cervidae (deer) species. The zoonotic potential of CWD is inconclusive and cannot be ruled out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085120PMC

How do herbivorous insects respond to drought stress in trees?

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 21;95(2):434-448. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, 4111, Australia.

Increased frequency and severity of drought, as a result of climate change, is expected to drive critical changes in plant-insect interactions that may elevate rates of tree mortality. The mechanisms that link water stress in plants to insect performance are not well understood. Here, we build on previous reviews and develop a framework that incorporates the severity and longevity of drought and captures the plant physiological adjustments that follow moderate and severe drought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12571DOI Listing

Post-ejaculatory modifications to sperm (PEMS).

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 18;95(2):365-392. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Biology, Center for Reproductive Evolution, Syacuse University, Syracuse, NY, 13244, USA.

Mammalian sperm must spend a minimum period of time within a female reproductive tract to achieve the capacity to fertilize oocytes. This phenomenon, termed sperm 'capacitation', was discovered nearly seven decades ago and opened a window into the complexities of sperm-female interaction. Capacitation is most commonly used to refer to a specific combination of processes that are believed to be widespread in mammals and includes modifications to the sperm plasma membrane, elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels, induction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, increased intracellular Ca levels, hyperactivation of motility, and, eventually, the acrosome reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12569DOI Listing

The palaeobiology of belemnites - foundation for the interpretation of rostrum geochemistry.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019 Nov 15. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801, Germany.

Belemnites are an extinct group of Mesozoic coleoid cephalopods with a fossil record ranging from the early Late Triassic [about 240 million years ago (Mya)] to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary (65 Mya). Belemnites were widely distributed, highly abundant and diverse, and an important component of Mesozoic marine food webs. Their internal shells, specifically their low-Mg calcite rostra, have been used as palaeoenvironmental carbonate archives for the last 70 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12557DOI Listing
November 2019

Towards an integrative understanding of soil biodiversity.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 15;95(2):350-364. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.

Soil is one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats. Yet, we lack an integrative conceptual framework for understanding the patterns and mechanisms driving soil biodiversity. One of the underlying reasons for our poor understanding of soil biodiversity patterns relates to whether key biodiversity theories (historically developed for aboveground and aquatic organisms) are applicable to patterns of soil biodiversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078968PMC

The fossil record of spiders revisited: implications for calibrating trees and evidence for a major faunal turnover since the Mesozoic.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019 Nov 12. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

División Aracnología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" - CONICET, Av. Ángel Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires, C1405DJR, Argentina.

Studies in evolutionary biology and biogeography increasingly rely on the estimation of dated phylogenetic trees using molecular clocks. In turn, the calibration of such clocks is critically dependent on external evidence (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12559DOI Listing
November 2019

The transportome of the malaria parasite.

Authors:
Rowena E Martin

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 04 7;95(2):305-332. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Membrane transport proteins, also known as transporters, control the movement of ions, nutrients, metabolites, and waste products across the membranes of a cell and are central to its biology. Proteins of this type also serve as drug targets and are key players in the phenomenon of drug resistance. The malaria parasite has a relatively reduced transportome, with only approximately 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12565DOI Listing