Biol Res Nurs 2017 Jan 1:1099800417724901. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
1 School of Nursing, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
Background: To report the complexity and richness of study variables within biological nursing research, authors often use tables; however, the ease with which consumers understand, synthesize, evaluate, and build upon findings depends partly upon table design.
Objectives: To assess and compare table characteristics within research and review articles published in Biological Research for Nursing and Nursing Research.
Method: A total of 10 elements in tables from 48 biobehavioral or biological research or review articles were analyzed. Read More
As nurses begin to incorporate genetic and genomic sciences into clinical practice, education, and research, it is essential that they have a working knowledge of the terms foundational to the science. The first article in this primer series provided brief definitions of the basic terms (e.g. Read More
Sickness behaviors, adaptive responses to infections, include lethargy, depression, reduced eating and grooming, and concentration problems resulting from interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Detecting these responses is especially critical in the elderly, as the infections that cause them can lead to cognitive impairment. While deficits in spatial learning, a hippocampal-dependent form of learning, are part of the sickness response, directional heading errors (DHEs; an indicator of spatial-learning deficits) and their time trajectories need further examination. Read More
Background: Actigraphy plus single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) has a high agreement with polysomnography and is considered a simple method for monitoring sleep at home. No studies, however, have evaluated its agreement with sleep logs.
Purpose: A sleep log was compared to a single-channel EEG in adults with sleep disturbances. Read More
While incident elevations in blood pressure (BP) are apparent in preschool years, factors influencing BP in this population have received little attention. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility of collecting data from preschoolers and their mothers and to determine effect sizes of relationships between BP and sex, race, birth status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), geographic location, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and salivary cortisol (morning, afternoon). A hypothesis-generating correlational design was used; 56 children, aged 3-5 years, were enrolled from six rural and urban Head Start programs in a southeastern state. Read More
Problem: To address the complex phenomenon of pediatric obesity, one must understand the physiological mechanisms regulating energy intake and inflammation. The peptide hormones leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin are involved in both, but their functions are dysregulated in obesity. The purpose of this systematic review is (1) to characterize studies of nutrition interventions for weight management in children who measure these peptides as outcomes, (2) to assess risk of bias in the studies, and (3) to determine the relationships between these peptides and body mass index (BMI). Read More
Biol Res Nurs 2017 Jan 1:1099800417718955. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
3 Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
This study examined the effects of prematurity, cumulative medical risk, and proximal and distal social forces on individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in young adulthood. A prospective sample of 149 infants born healthy preterm (PT; n = 22), sick PT ( n = 93, medical illness, neurological illness, small for gestational age), and full term ( n = 34) was recruited from a Level III neonatal intensive care unit in southern New England between 1985 and 1989 and followed to age 23 years. Cumulative medical risk was indexed across seven assessment waves (spanning 17 years) using medical and neurological health status at birth, toddlerhood (ages 18 and 30 months), childhood (ages 4 and 8 years), and adolescence (ages 12 and 17 years). Read More
Biol Res Nurs 2017 Jan 1:1099800417720725. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
3 School of Nursing, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Background: Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg.
Purpose: To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. Read More
Biol Res Nurs 2017 Oct 17;19(5):491-498. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
1 School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Donated blood can be broken down into blood components for use in patient care. This article focuses primarily on packed red blood cells (PRBCs), as they experience breakdown during storage that may adversely impact patient outcomes. Patients require PRBC transfusions for a number of clinical reasons. Read More
Extremely premature infants are at great risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, in part because neurologic structures designed to mature in the womb must now do so in the extrauterine environment. Reliable biomarkers of neurodevelopment are especially critical in this population, as behavioral measures can be unreliable due to immaturity of the premature infant nervous system. Oxytocin (OT) has the potential to be a marker of neurobiological processes that offer infant neuroprotection. Read More
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, the genetic etiology of which has been well established. Yet despite significant advances in genetics research, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder largely remain unknown. This gap has been attributed to the complexity of the polygenic disorder, which has a heterogeneous clinical profile. Read More
Cognitive impairment in older Latinos is of concern due to the rapid growth of this population and their increased risk for dementia due to chronic disease. Evidence, primarily from studies of non-Latino Whites, suggests that physical activity (PA) may reduce cognitive decline. Few longitudinal studies have included older Latinos, objective measures of PA, or neurocognitive tests that assess domains of cognition. Read More
Shift work, especially that involving rotating and night shifts, is associated with an increased risk of diseases, including cancer. Attempts to explain the association between shift work and cancer in particular have focused on the processes of melatonin production and suppression. One hypothesis postulates that exposure to light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin, whose production is known to slow the development of cancerous cells, while another proposes that circadian disruption associated with shift work, and not just LAN, increases health risks. Read More
Objectives: Difficult breastfeeding in the first weeks after birth may result in muscle tension in infants and activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Our primary objective was to examine the feasibility of collecting neuroendocrine markers of maternal HPA axis and SNS activation (salivary cortisol and α-amylase [sAA]) and electromyographic (EMG) markers of infant distress during feeding in the first 2 weeks after birth. We also examined the relationships of these indices to each other and to mother-infant interactive behaviors during feeding. Read More
Introduction: Neurocardiac injury, a type of myocardial dysfunction associated with neurological insult to the brain, occurs in 31-48% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is commonly used to diagnose neurocardiac injury. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), another cardiac marker, is more often used to evaluate degree of heart failure. Read More
Extensive literature suggests that adverse experiences in early childhood may deleteriously impact later health. These effects are thought to be related to the impact of persistent or chronic stress on various biological processes, mediated by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and ultimately irregularities in cortisol levels. Ameliorating persistent stress in young children requires accurately measuring the chronicity of physiologic stress, which is difficult in young children because of unreliable self-report and the burden and inaccuracy associated with using invasive acute-stress biomeasures. Read More
Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, much has been uncovered about inheritance of various illnesses and disorders. There are two main types of inheritance: Mendelian and non-Mendelian. Mendelian inheritance includes autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and Y-linked inheritance. Read More
Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and symptom management interventions over the last decade, patients continue to struggle with cancer-related symptoms. Adequate baseline and longitudinal data are crucial for designing interventions to improve patient quality of life and reduce symptom burden; however, recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in longitudinal research is difficult. Our purpose is to describe challenges and solutions to recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in two biobehavioral research studies examining cancer-related symptoms. Read More
Purpose: The purpose of this substudy of a large randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (Breast Cancer) (MBSR[BC]) program compared to usual care (UC) in normalizing blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines among breast cancer survivors (BCS).
Method: A total of 322 BCS were randomized to either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program or a UC. At baseline and 6 and 12 weeks, 10 ml of venous blood and demographic and clinical data were collected and/or updated. Read More
Introduction: Epidural analgesia (EA) is the most widespread pharmacologic method of labor pain relief. There remains disagreement, however, regarding its adverse effects. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of EA administration on the risk of cesarean delivery and its causes (e. Read More
Background: Breastfeeding duration has been associated with less low-grade inflammation in healthy adolescents, but there is scarce information regarding obese subjects. This study aimed to evaluate whether exclusive breastfeeding is related to serum concentrations of inflammatory markers in a population of Spanish adolescents.
Method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,001 adolescents (13. Read More
Genetic variation lays the foundation for diversity and enables humans to adapt to changing environments. The order of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules of the nuclear chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays an important role in normal cell division, tissue development, and reproduction but is susceptible to alteration from a large number of random, inherited, or environmental events. Variations can range from a change in a single nucleotide to duplication of entire chromosomes. Read More
Background: Glucose variations are common throughout sleep and wakefulness in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objective of this investigation was to characterize the time-varying coupling between glucose and unstructured physical activity over a 60-hr period in young adults with T1DM. The hypothesis was that coupling would differ during sleep versus wakefulness and would exhibit circadian variations. Read More
Objective: This study used a candidate gene approach to examine genomic variation associated with pain, anxiety, and distress in children undergoing a medical procedure.
Study Design: Children aged 4-10 years having an IV catheter insertion were recruited from three Midwestern children's hospitals. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and distress were obtained as well as an observed measure of distress. Read More
Objective: Although the roles of testosterone and cortisol in various health problems have been extensively investigated, little is known about their associations with health outcomes in mothers and their very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants when maternal testosterone and cortisol are examined together during the postpartum period.
Method: The 101 mother-VLBW infant pairs were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center in the southeastern United States. Demographic information, pregnancy and labor complications of mothers, and health and growth outcomes of infants were obtained from medical records and interviews with mothers. Read More
Objective: To investigate associations between components of cumulative risk (CR) and physiological stress responses in African American adolescents and evaluate emotion regulation as a mediator and sex as a moderator of these associations.
Methods: Cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) were collected in adolescents ( N = 205; 55% female; 12.1 ± 1. Read More
Background: Stress from multiple sources is inherent in law enforcement. However, it is possible to modify responses to stress with resilience training that includes teaching techniques to modify emotional and physical responses to stress, interface with mental health professionals, and practice sessions to improve self-regulation of responses to stress including coherence, a measure of heart rate variability. A gap exists in the research, however, regarding evaluation of the duration of effects after the initial resilience training. Read More
Background: Synthetic oxytocin, the primary tool for labor augmentation, is less effective among obese women, leading to more unplanned cesarean deliveries for slow labor progress. It is not known if obese women require higher doses of oxytocin due to maternal, fetal, or labor factors related to maternal obesity.
Objectives: This study had two main objectives: (1) examine the influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) on hourly doses of oxytocin from augmentation initiation until vaginal delivery in obese women; and (2) examine the influence of other maternal, fetal, and labor factors on hourly doses of oxytocin in obese women. Read More
Women with breast cancer frequently report distressing symptoms during and after treatment that can significantly erode quality of life (QOL). Symptom burden among women with breast cancer is of complex etiology and is likely influenced by disease, treatment, and environmental factors as well as individual genetic differences. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between genetic polymorphisms within Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (NTRK2), and catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT) and patient symptom burden of QOL, pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance before, during, and after treatment for breast cancer in a subset of participants ( N = 51) in a randomized clinical trial of a novel symptom-management modality for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Read More
Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the gold standard for gastric bypass, displaying better results for metabolic disorders than other surgical procedures over the long term. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bariatric surgery, in particular the RYGB technique, on metabolic syndrome (MS) and other biochemical parameters implicit in the comorbid conditions associated with obesity, as well as to explore the influence of this surgical procedure on psychiatric comorbidity in the study population.
Method: An observational retrospective cohort study based on 146 clinical records of patients having undergone RYGB between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2014, was performed. Read More
Background: Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols.
Objectives: To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. Read More
Objective: The association between iron and neurocognition remains underexplored in adolescents, and the neurocognitive effects of low and high iron levels have yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of low and high iron levels with neurocognitive domains in early adolescents.
Method: The sample comprised 428 adolescents (12. Read More
Background: Genetic influences on self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) drugs merit investigation. For example, patients frequently use OTC nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat inflammation, but the inflammatory response is also affected by endogenous cytokines whose production varies across polymorphisms of their encoding genes. In the case of interleukin 10 (IL-10), literature suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the cytokine's gene (-1082 A > G [rs1800896]) influences production with higher levels associated with G variant alleles. Read More
Purpose: Nurses investigate reasons for variable patient symptoms and responses to treatments to inform how best to improve outcomes. Genomics has the potential to guide nursing research exploring contributions to individual variability. This article is meant to serve as an introduction to the novel methods available through genomics for addressing this critical issue and includes a review of methodological considerations for selected genomic approaches. Read More
Purpose: To define and describe the processes underlying the successful neonatal transition to extrauterine life and methods to assess the transition.
Method: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using a combination of the key words neonate, neonatal, newborn, transition, respiratory OR pulmonary, cardiac, metabolic, pH, umbilical cord, and assessment. Articles in English and German were reviewed. Read More
Preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks' gestation) is one of the leading obstetrical problems in the United States, affecting approximately one of every nine births. Even more concerning are the persistent racial disparities in PTB, with particularly high rates among African Americans. There are several recognized pathophysiologic pathways to PTB, including infection and/or exaggerated systemic or local inflammation. Read More
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common cause of dementia. It occurs when the cerebral blood supply is reduced by disarrangement of the circulatory system. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been associated with cognitive improvement, motor function recovery, and anxiety relief with respect to various neurodegenerative diseases and emotional stress models. Read More
Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy. However, only a small number of studies have been conducted in Taiwan to determine the efficacy of acupressure in treating these side effects in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. In this quasi-experimental study, we aimed to explore the effects of acupressure on meridian energy as well as nausea and vomiting in 70 lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Read More
Introduction: Frailty, a clinical syndrome of decreased physiologic reserve and dysregulation in multiple physiologic systems, is associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes.
Purpose: The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional, correlational study was to characterize frailty in older adults admitted to a tertiary-care hospital using a biopsychosocial frailty assessment and to determine associations between frailty and time to in-hospital mortality and 30-day rehospitalization.
Methods: The sample included 278 patients ≥55 years old admitted to medicine units. Read More
Background: mu-opioid receptor ( OPRM1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT) contribute to the neurotransmission pathway of pain. COMT affects mu receptor expression and density in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the OPRM1 and COMT interaction effects on postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Read More
Precision medicine refers to the practice of determining a patient's unique genetic, biomarker, and other characteristics for the purpose of improving his or her clinical outcomes. Not all patients with the same clinical diagnosis respond equally to identical treatment regimens. By examining patients at the molecular level, health-care providers will be better able to apply the most effective therapies that each individual requires. Read More
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a strength training program (STP) using free weights (FW) versus elastic tubing (ET) in 62 premenopausal, sedentary women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants were randomly assigned to the FW or ET experimental group (EG) or a control group whose members remained sedentary. Members of each EG followed their assigned STP for 12 weeks, and biomarkers (BMs) related to MS and motor function (MF) parameters were evaluated. Read More
Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. Read More
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based (HB) exercise program on anxiety levels and metabolic functions in patients with anxiety disorders in Taiwan. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 86 participants for this randomized, experimental study. Participants were asked to complete a pretest before the 3-month exercise program, a posttest at 1 week, and a follow-up test at 3 months after the exercise program. Read More
Biol Res Nurs 2017 Mar 28;19(2):198-205. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
3 Department of Hematology and Clinical Oncology, Hospital Universitario Morales Meseguer, University of Murcia, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.
Introduction: Treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is classically based on oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Due to the disadvantages and side effects of these drugs, monitoring the quality of anticoagulation by assessing time within therapeutic range (TTR) is recommended. Variables altering the TTR in patients with VTE are yet to be determined. Read More
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) often experience stress and anxiety. Although stress and anxiety can be pharmacologically attenuated, some drugs cause adverse side effects such as bradycardia, immobility, and delirium. There is thus a need for an alternative treatment with no substantial adverse effects. Read More