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    The cognitive up- and down-regulation of positive emotion: Evidence from behavior, electrophysiology, and neuroimaging.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:
    Although numerous studies have investigated emotion regulation, the physiological responses and neural substrates of positive emotion regulation remain unclear. To address this question, we explored the effect of reappraisal on subjective experience, zygomatic electromyography (zEMG) response, and blood oxygen level response, using the same materials across three independent experiments. Behaviorally, up-regulating positive emotion increased the valence, arousal, and zEMG response, whereas down-regulating positive emotion decreased the valence, but not arousal or the zEMG response. Read More

    Underlying Neural Alpha Frequency Patterns Associated with Intra-hemispheric Inhibition During an Interhemispheric Transfer Task.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Ball State University, 2000 W University Ave, Muncie, IN 47303, United States.
    Interhemispheric transfer measured via differences in right- or left-handed motoric responses to lateralized visual stimuli, known as the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD), is one way of identifying patterns of processing that are vital for understanding the transfer of neural signals. Examination of interhemispheric transfer by means of the CUD is not entirely explained by simple measures of response time. Multiple processes contribute to wide variability observed in CUD reaction times. Read More

    Trainability of hemodynamic parameters: A near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback study.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Psychology, University of Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Austria.
    We investigated the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during one neurofeedback (NF) session. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four different groups that tried to either increase or decrease oxygenated (oxy-Hb) or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) over the inferior frontal gyrus during imagery of swallowing movements. Deoxy-Hb could be successfully up-regulated while oxy-Hb could be successfully down-regulated during NF. Read More

    The link between interoceptive processing and anxiety in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: Extending adult findings into a developmental sample.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 6;136:13-21. Epub 2018 May 6.
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK.
    Anxiety is a major associated feature of autism spectrum disorders. The incidence of anxiety symptoms in this population has been associated with altered interoceptive processing. Here, we investigated whether recent findings of impaired interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tasks) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires) in autistic adults, can be extended into a school-age sample of children and adolescents (n = 75). Read More

    Visual mismatch negativity indicates automatic, task-independent detection of artistic image composition in abstract artworks.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 6. Epub 2018 May 6.
    Experimental Aesthetics Group, Institute of Anatomy I, Jena University Hospital, University Jena School of Medicine, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    In complex abstract art, image composition (i.e., the artist's deliberate arrangement of pictorial elements) is an important aesthetic feature. Read More

    Spatiotemporal commonalities of fronto-parietal activation in attentional orienting triggered by supraliminal and subliminal gaze cues: An event-related potential study.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 4;136:29-38. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan; The Organization for Promoting Neurodevelopmental Disorder Research, 40 Shogoin Sanno-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8392, Japan.
    Eye gaze triggers attentional shifts with and without conscious awareness. It remains unclear whether the spatiotemporal patterns of electric neural activity are the same for conscious and unconscious attentional shifts. Thus, the present study recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) and evaluated the neural activation involved in attentional orienting induced by subliminal and supraliminal gaze cues. Read More

    Interactive effects of early life stress and CACNA1C genotype on cortisol awakening response.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 4;136:22-28. Epub 2018 May 4.
    School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Wharf, Lincoln, LN5 7AT, UK. Electronic address:
    The rs1006737 (A/G) single nucleotide polymorphism within the gene encoding the Ca1.2 subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (CACNA1C) has been strongly implicated in psychiatric disorders. In addition, calcium channels are sensitive to the effects of glucocorticoids and functional variation may contribute to altered stress responsivity. Read More

    Anxiety and feedback processing in a gambling task: Contributions of time-frequency theta and delta.
    Biol Psychol 2018 May 2;136:1-12. Epub 2018 May 2.
    University of Maryland, College Park, United States.
    The feedback negativity (FN) event-related potential (ERP) is widely studied during gambling feedback tasks. However, research on FN and anxiety is minimal and the findings are mixed. To clarify these discrepancies, the current study (N = 238) used time-frequency analysis to disentangle overlapping contributions of delta (0-3 Hz) and theta (3-7 Hz) to feedback processing in a clinically anxious sample, with severity assessed through general worry and physiological arousal scales. Read More

    Category-based attentional guidance can operate in parallel for multiple target objects.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 30;135:211-219. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK. Electronic address:
    The question whether the control of attention during visual search is always feature-based or can also be based on the category of objects remains unresolved. Here, we employed the N2pc component as an on-line marker for target selection processes to compare the efficiency of feature-based and category-based attentional guidance. Two successive displays containing pairs of real-world objects (line drawings of kitchen or clothing items) were separated by a 10 ms SOA. Read More

    Prime visibility moderates implicit anger and sadness effects on effort-related cardiac response.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 30;135:204-210. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Based on the Implicit-Affect-Primes-Effort (IAPE) model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015), an experiment investigated the effect of affect primes' visibility on effort mobilization during cognitive processing. Participants worked on a short-term memory task with integrated sadness vs. anger primes that were presented suboptimally (briefly and masked) vs. Read More

    A concealment-specific frontal negative slow wave is generated from the right prefrontal cortex in the Concealed Information Test.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 17;135:194-203. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
    Recent studies have shown that a memorized item in the Concealed Information Test elicits a frontal negative slow wave (500-1000 ms) of the event-related potential, the cortical source of which involves the right prefrontal cortex. To examine whether this negative slow wave reflects a process that is specific to concealment rather than a more general cognitive control process, we compared the event-related potentials of 24 participants in four conditions involving the presence or absence of memory and the intention to conceal. Results showed that right prefrontal activation during the frontal negative slow wave (estimated by Standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was only observed when participants attempted to conceal the memorized item, but not when they were motivated to reveal it or had no intention to conceal. Read More

    Moderate-intensity exercise boosts the N2 neural inhibition marker: A randomized and counterbalanced ERP study with precisely controlled exercise intensity.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 14;135:170-179. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Psychophysiology Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    A prior session of moderate intensity continuous exercise (MCE) benefits performance during tasks requiring conflict resolution but the specific cognitive process that underlies this improvement remains unknown. Many studies postulate that MCE increases inhibition, but ERP evidence is ambiguous due to significant differences across past procedures. Most importantly, exercise intensity, which modulates the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive processes, might have varied across past ERP studies. Read More

    Recognition memory and featural similarity between concepts: The pupil's point of view.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 14;135:159-169. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 5, 35128, Padua, Italy; Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Via Venezia 8, 35131, Padua, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 66100, Chieti, Italy.
    Differences in pupil dilation are observed for studied compared to new items in recognition memory. According to cognitive load theory, this effect reflects the greater cognitive demands of retrieving contextual information from study phase. Pupil dilation can also occur when new items conceptually related to old ones are erroneously recognized as old, but the aspects of similarity that modulate false memory and related pupil responses remain unclear. Read More

    Variability in cerebral blood flow velocity at rest and during mental stress in healthy individuals: Associations with cardiovascular parameters and cognitive performance.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 13;135:149-158. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Psychology, University of Jaén, Spain.
    This study analyzed variability in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and possible underlying physiological mechanisms during rest and a mental arithmetic task. Blood flow velocities were bilaterally recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries of 43 participants. Electrocardiography, continuous blood pressure (BP) and respiratory recordings were additionally obtained. Read More

    ERPs differentiate the sensitivity to statistical probabilities and the learning of sequential structures during procedural learning.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 7;135:180-193. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    MTA-ELTE NAP B Brain, Memory and Language Research Group, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudósok körútja 2, H-1117, Budapest, Hungary; Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Izabella utca 46, H-1064, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:
    Procedural learning facilitates the efficient processing of complex environmental stimuli and contributes to the acquisition of automatic behaviors. Although earlier findings suggest different temporal trajectories of the multiple learning processes within procedural learning, this has not been clarified at the level of neurocognitive correlates. Therefore, we investigated whether two prominent learning processes - statistical learning and sequence learning - can be distinguished using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) within the same experimental setting. Read More

    Suppression of no-longer relevant information in Working Memory: An alpha-power related mechanism?
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 27;135:112-116. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Departamento de Psicología Básica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. Read More

    Individual differences in infants' neural responses to their peers' cry and laughter.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 27;135:117-127. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    University of York, Department of Psychology, Heslington, York, UK.
    Infants' ability to process others' emotional expressions is fundamental for their social development. While infants' processing of emotions expressed by faces and speech has been more extensively investigated, less is known about how infants process non-verbal vocalizations of emotions. Here, we recorded frontal N100, P200, and LPC event-related potentials (ERPs) from 8-month-old infants listening to sounds of other infants crying, laughing, and coughing. Read More

    Alterations of complex mismatch negativity (cMMN) elicited by a two-tone pattern paradigm in early-phase psychosis.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 27;135:128-135. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Psychology, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Department of Psychology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Electronic address:
    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a change in auditory stimulation (e.g., the occurrence of a deviant sound that violates the rules or regularities of the preceding stimulus sequence) regardless of whether one is attending to the change or not. Read More

    Altered hair endocannabinoid levels in mothers with childhood maltreatment and their newborns.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 19;135:93-101. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Clinical & Biological Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany. Electronic address:
    The endocannabinoid (EC) system possesses anti-inflammatory properties and seems to be altered in trauma-exposed individuals. In an intergenerational approach, this study investigated the link between childhood maltreatment (CM) experiences and alterations in the EC system. Hair samples of N = 142 mothers and N = 91 newborns were analyzed, retrospectively assessing EC regulation during the last trimester of pregnancy with four ECs: 1-arachidonoylglycerol (1-AG), N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), N-stearoylethanolamide (SEA), and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Read More

    Attention biases in preoccupation with body image: An ERP study of the role of social comparison and automaticity when processing body size.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 17;135:136-148. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Institute of Psychology, University of Tartu, Näituse 2, 50409 Tartu, Estonia. Electronic address:
    Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Read More

    Large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity in resting-state and task fMRI: Cooperation between default network and frontal-parietal network.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 13;135:102-111. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715, China; School of Psychology, Southwest University (SWU), Chongqing 400715, China; Southwest University Branch,Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:
    Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition. Read More

    Dissociating meditation proficiency and experience dependent EEG changes during traditional Vipassana meditation practice.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 8;135:65-75. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru 560029, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:
    Meditation, as taught by most schools of practice, consists of a set of heterogeneous techniques. We wanted to assess if EEG profiles varied across different meditation techniques, proficiency levels and experience of the practitioners. We examined EEG dynamics in Vipassana meditators (Novice, Senior meditators and Teachers) while they engaged in their traditional meditation practice (concentration, mindfulness and loving kindness in a structured manner) as taught by S. Read More

    Is it about me? Time-course of self-relevance and valence effects on the perception of neutral faces with direct and averted gaze.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 7;135:47-64. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address:
    Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses. Read More

    Will they like me? Neural and behavioral responses to social-evaluative peer feedback in socially and non-socially anxious females.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 7;135:18-28. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to social-evaluative feedback processing in social anxiety. Twenty-two non-socially and 17 socially anxious females (mean age = 19.57 years) participated in a Social Judgment Paradigm in which they received peer acceptance/rejection feedback that was either congruent or incongruent with their prior predictions. Read More

    Associations of nocturnal sleep with experimental pain and pain catastrophizing in healthy volunteers.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 6;135:1-7. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Physiological Psychology, University of Bamberg, Markusplatz 3, 96047 Bamberg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Strong alterations of night sleep (e.g., sleep deprivation, insomnia) have appeared to affect pain in inducing hyperalgesic changes. Read More

    Do not look away! Spontaneous frontal EEG theta/beta ratio as a marker for cognitive control over attention to mild and high threat.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 5;135:8-17. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Background: Low spontaneous EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) is associated with greater executive control. Their role in regulation of attentional bias for stimuli of different threat-levels is unknown.

    Objectives: To provide the first relations between frontal TBR, trait anxiety and attentional bias to mildly and highly threatening stimuli at different processing-stages. Read More

    Don't judge me: Psychophysiological evidence of gender differences to social evaluative feedback.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 3;135:29-35. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Human beings have a basic need for esteemed social connections, and receiving negative self-evaluative feedback induces emotional distress. The aim of the current study is to measure eye movements (a physiological marker of attention allocation) and pupillary responses (a physiological marker of cognitive and emotional processing) as online and objective indices of participants' reaction to positive/negative social evaluations from the same or opposite sex. Following the paradigm, subjective mood ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) - as an objective index of regulatory effort- were measured. Read More

    Revealing the neural time-course of direct gaze processing via spatial frequency manipulation of faces.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 3;135:76-83. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, Henry Wellcome Building, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Direct gaze is a powerful social cue signalling the attention of another person toward oneself. Here we investigated the relevance of low spatial frequency (LSF) and high spatial frequency (HSF) in facial cues for direct gaze processing. We identified two distinct peaks in the ERP response, the N170 and N240 components. Read More

    Stress evokes stronger medial posterior cingulate deactivations during emotional distraction in slower paced aging.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 2;135:84-92. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Middle-aged offspring from long-lived families are thought to have a slower pace of aging, possibly related to HPA-axis function. Here, we investigated the neural and behavioral effects of social stress in offspring compared to their regular aging partners on emotional distraction during working memory (WM).

    Methods: 104 middle-aged participants (53 males) consisting of offspring and their partners underwent the Trier Social Stress Test or a control procedure. Read More

    Frightened by the perpetrator's voice: Startle responsivity and cognitive processing predict earwitness speaker identification.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 25;134:80-88. Epub 2018 Feb 25.
    Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    This study was inspired by the case of a robbery victim who was startled and reminded of the crime upon hearing a stranger's voice, while not clearly recognizing the speaker. To investigate whether specific voices can modulate startle reactions and thereby predict speaker identification, we presented an audio hijack scenario to 84 participants and afterwards asked them to identify the perpetrator among neutral and negative speech fragments, while measuring flash-evoked eye-blink startle responses. Furthermore, we addressed data-driven cognitive processing during the audio scenario as a potential moderator in voice discrimination. Read More

    Detached and distracted: ERP correlates of altered attentional function in depersonalisation.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 24;134:64-71. Epub 2018 Feb 24.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str.8, D-55131, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:
    Depersonalisation (DP) is a psychological condition marked by feelings of disembodiment. In everyday life, it is frequently associated with concentration problems. The present study used visual event-related potentials (ERPs) in a Posner-type spatial cueing task with valid, invalid and spatially neutral cues to delineate the potential neurophysiological correlates of these concentration problems. Read More

    Preliminary evidence for physiological markers of implicit memory.
    Biol Psychol 2018 05 7;135:220-235. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 15933, 1001 NK Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) aims to detect concealed knowledge and is known to be sensitive to explicit memory. In two experiments, we examined whether the CIT is also sensitive to implicit memory using skin conductance, respiration and heart rate measures. For each participant, previously studied items were either categorized as explicitly remembered, implicitly remembered or forgotten. Read More

    Methylphenidate selectively modulates one sub-component of the no-go P3 in pediatric ADHD medication responders.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 21;134:30-38. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Neuropsychology, Helgeland Hospital, Mosjøen, Norway.
    Methylphenidate (MPH) has been shown to modulate the amplitude of the no-go P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP; Øgrim, Aasen, & Brunner, 2016). Using group independent component analysis, the no-go P3 from a cued go/no-go task has been separated into two sub-components (Brunner et al., 2013). Read More

    Brain responses associated with different hierarchical effects on cues and targets during rule shifting.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 21;134:52-63. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    School of Psychology, JiangXi Normal University, Nanchang, 330022, China. Electronic address:
    Numerous studies have explored the neural mechanisms related to task switching or rule shifting, but few have revealed the neural substrates related to rule shifting at different hierarchical levels. The purpose of this study is to explore the different event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by higher and lower hierarchical levels of rule shifting in a cue-target task. In the task, participants were presented with Arabic digits (1-9, excluding 5), and performed a parity or magnitude judgment according to the preceding cues, a letter R. Read More

    Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents' externalizing problems: Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 19;134:20-29. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining these inconsistencies. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1914 subjects, obtained in three measurement waves (mean age 11, 13. Read More

    Biological profiling of plasma neuropeptide Y in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms in two combat cohorts.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 19;134:72-79. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Research Centre, Military Mental Healthcare, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Arq, Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands.
    In order to decrease the risk of developing stress-related disorders after military deployment, biological vulnerability factors should be identified. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide neurotransmitter that is associated with modulation of the stress response. Using the data of two longitudinal prospective cohort studies (N = 892 and N = 2427), plasma NPY (pNPY) was assessed as a possible susceptibility biomarker for the development of PTSD symptoms over time. Read More

    EEG phase states at stimulus onset in a variable-ISI Go/NoGo task: Effects on ERP components.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 17;134:89-102. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Brain & Behaviour Research Institute and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.
    Previous EEG-ERP dynamics studies found non-random "preferred" EEG phases at stimulus onset in a fixed interstimulus interval (ISI) equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo paradigm, with substantial effects on ERP components. Here we changed to a variable ISI task to prevent/reduce preferential phase occurrence. Discrete Fourier transforms decomposed prestimulus EEG at Cz for each trial to calculate the phase of different frequencies at stimulus onset; we combined these into the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands, and then sorted trials into phase quartiles for each. Read More

    Convergence of BOLD and ERP measures of neural reactivity to emotional faces in children and adolescents with and without anxiety disorders.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 17;134:9-19. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Departments of Psychology and Anatomy & Cell Biology, and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Chicago, IL, 6012, USA. Electronic address:
    The neural bases of emotion are commonly measured using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal and the late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) component, but rarely together in the same individuals. Despite evidence of developmental changes in processing socio-emotional signals (e.g. Read More

    Feature-guided attentional capture cannot be prevented by spatial filtering.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Apr 16;134:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK.
    Feature-based control processes guide attention towards objects with target features in visual search. While these processes are assumed to operate globally across the entire visual field, it remains controversial whether target-matching objects at task-irrelevant locations can be excluded from attentional selection, especially when spatial attention is already narrowly focused elsewhere. We investigated whether probe stimuli at irrelevant lateral locations capture attention when they precede search displays where targets are defined either by a specific feature (colour or orientation) or by a colour/orientation conjunction by measuring N2pc components (an electrophysiological marker of attentional target selection) to these probes. Read More

    Facial gender but not emotion distinguishes neural responses of 10- to 13-year-old children with social anxiety disorder from healthy and clinical controls.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Feb 13;135:36-46. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Leipzig University, Germany; Leipzig Research Center for Early Child Development, Leipzig University, Germany.
    Objective: The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to angry, happy and neutral faces in childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD).

    Method: Behavioral (reaction time and accuracy) and electrocortical measures (P100, N170, EPN, LPP) were assessed during a facial emotion identification task in children (age 10-13) with SAD (n = 32), clinical controls with mixed anxiety disorders (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 33).

    Results: Overall, there were no group differences in behavioral or neural responses to emotional faces. Read More

    High heart rate reactors display greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration following a novel acute stressor.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 7;133:85-88. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Extremes Research Group, College of Health and Behavioural Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.
    Tear secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA) is a putative biomarker of common-cold risk with potential utility in non-invasive diagnostics. As SIgA secretion at the ocular surface is under strong autonomic control, we investigated the relationship between HR reactivity and tear SIgA responses to novel experiential stress. Thirty-two healthy participants undertook a 60 s zip-line ride to evoke acute stress and a seated-rest control trial in a randomised-crossover design. Read More

    Abnormal rsFC and GMV changes in parahippocampal and DLPFC for high Déjà vu experienced subjects.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 6;133:72-78. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China. Electronic address:
    How déjà vu works has long been a mystery, partially because of its characteristics of unpredictable occurrences and quick disappearances, which make it difficult to be explored. Previous studies have described the anatomical structures underlying déjà vu in healthy subjects; however, the functional mechanism of déjà vu remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the brain structural and functional components underlying déjà vu by combining voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM) with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Read More

    Mismatch negativity and psychophysical detection of rising and falling intensity sounds.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 5;133:99-111. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    I.P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
    Human subjects demonstrate a perceptual priority for rising level sounds compared with falling level sounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the perceptual preference for rising intensity can be found in the preattentive processing indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN). Reversed oddball stimulation was used to produce MMNs and to test the behavioral discrimination of rising, falling and constant level sounds. Read More

    Regulation of threat in post-traumatic stress disorder: Associations between inhibitory control and dissociative symptoms.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 1;133:89-98. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Psychology, City College, City University of New York, North Academic Center (NAC), Room 7/120, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031, USA; Derner Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY 10530, USA.
    The current study investigated links between trauma exposure, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and inhibitory control assessed using a modified version of the visual flanker task. The study had three aims: (1) specifically confirm general non-affective deficits in sustained attention in PTSD; (2) probe the influence of threatening and trauma-related stimuli on inhibitory control; and (3) explore neural correlates connecting PTSD, facets of dissociation, and inhibitory control. Participants with PTSD (n = 16), trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE; n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 15) discriminated line orientations while ignoring temporally flanking lines and images depicting threatening or non-threatening scenes or faces. Read More

    Exercise reduces depression and inflammation but intensity matters.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 3;133:79-84. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Exercise may help to mitigate symptoms of depression by reducing inflammation; however, little is known about the influence of exercise intensity on depressed mood.

    Methods: In the present study, sixty-one university students were assigned to six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIT), moderate continuous training (MCT), or no exercise (CON) during their academic term. We measured changes in depression, anxiety and perceived stress along with pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Read More

    The late posterior negativity in episodic memory: A correlate of stimulus retrieval?
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 31;133:44-53. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Psychology, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    We investigated whether the late posterior negativity (LPN) is a component linked to stimulus retrieval or rather to complex, higher-order stimulus evaluation processes or response preparation processes. Participants performed three separate tasks across separate sessions: an encoding task, a memory recognition task, and a visual discrimination task. In the visual discrimination task, the difficulty of stimulus evaluation was manipulated via stimuli varying in complexity (easy vs. Read More

    The role of emotions and physiological arousal in modulating impulsive behaviour.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 31;133:30-43. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Impulsivity received considerable attention in the context of drug misuse and certain neuropsychiatric conditions. Because of its great health and well-being importance, it is crucial to understand factors which modulate impulsive behaviour. As a growing body of literature indicates the role of emotional and physiological states in guiding our actions and decisions, we argue that current affective state and physiological arousal exert a significant influence on behavioural impulsivity. Read More

    Coupling and segregation of large-scale brain networks predict individual differences in delay discounting.
    Biol Psychol 2018 Mar 31;133:63-71. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Ministry of Education, China. Electronic address:
    Decision-making about rewards, which requires us to choose between different time points, generally refers to intertemporal choice. Converging evidence suggests that some of the brain networks recruited in the delay discounting task have been well characterized for intertemporal choice. However, little is known about how the connectivity patterns of these large-scale brain networks are associated with delay discounting. Read More

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