4,044 results match your criteria Biological Bulletin[Journal]


Larvae of Caribbean Echinoids Have Small Warming Tolerances for Chronic Stress in Panama.

Biol Bull 2019 04 29;236(2):115-129. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

In species with complex life cycles, early developmental stages are often less thermally tolerant than adults, suggesting that they are key to predicting organismal response to environmental warming. Here we document the optimal and lethal temperatures of larval sea urchins, and we use those to calculate the warming tolerance and the thermal safety margin of early larval stages of seven tropical species. Larvae of Echinometra viridis, Echinometra lucunter, Lytechinus williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus, and Clypeaster subdepressus were reared at 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C for 6 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701666DOI Listing

Erratum: The Biological Bulletin, Volume 234, Number 2, pp. 116-129.

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Biol Bull 2019 04 27;236(2):158. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702853DOI Listing

Seasonal and Daily Patterns of the Mating Calls of the Oyster Toadfish, Opsanus tau.

Biol Bull 2019 04 8;236(2):97-107. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Acoustic communication is vital across many taxa for mating behavior, defense, and social interactions. Male oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, produce courtship calls, or "boatwhistles," characterized by an initial broadband segment (30-50 ms) and a longer tone-like second part (200-650 ms) during mating season. Male calls were monitored continuously with an in situ SoundTrap hydrophone that was deployed in Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, during the 2015 mating season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701754DOI Listing

Algal Sources of Sequestered Chloroplasts in the Sacoglossan Sea Slug Elysia crispata Vary by Location and Ecotype.

Biol Bull 2019 04 13;236(2):88-96. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Sacoglossan sea slugs feed by suctorially consuming siphonaceous green algae. Most sacoglossan species are feeding specialists, but the Caribbean coral reef-dwelling Elysia crispata is polyphagous and sequesters chloroplasts from multiple algal species into cells lining its digestive diverticulum for use in photosynthesis. We have used sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene to compare the chloroplast donor algae in five populations of E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701732DOI Listing

Erratum: The Biological Bulletin, Volume 231, Number 3, pp. 199-206.

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Biol Bull 2019 04 8;236(2):157. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703262DOI Listing

Abbreviated Development of the Brooding Brittle Star Ophioplocus esmarki.

Biol Bull 2019 04 12;236(2):75-87. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

The bilaterally symmetrical, feeding larval stage is an ancestral condition in echinoderms. However, many echinoderms have evolved abbreviated development and form a pentamerous juvenile without a feeding larva. Abbreviated development with a non-feeding vitellaria larva is found in five families of brittle stars, but very little is known about this type of development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701916DOI Listing

Light-Dependent Electrical Activity in Sea Urchin Tube Feet Cells.

Biol Bull 2019 04 25;236(2):108-114. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Sea urchins can detect and respond to light, and many species of sea urchins are negatively phototaxic. Light detection is hypothesized to occur via photoreceptors located on sea urchin tube feet, and opsins have been detected in tube feet, spines, and the test. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying light detection are, for the most part, unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701770DOI Listing

Contrasting Metatrochal Behavior of Mollusc and Annelid Larvae and the Regulation of Feeding While Swimming.

Biol Bull 2019 04 13;236(2):130-143. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Molluscan veliger larvae and some annelid larvae capture particulate food between a preoral prototrochal band of long cilia that create a current for both swimming and feeding and a postoral metatrochal band of shorter cilia that beat toward the prototroch. Larvae encountering satiating or noxious particles must somehow swim without capturing particles or else reject large numbers of captured particles. Because high rates of particle capture are inferred to depend on the beat of both ciliary bands, arrest of the metatroch could be one way to swim while reducing captures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701730DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

GABA as a Neurotransmitter in Gastropod Molluscs.

Authors:
Mark W Miller

Biol Bull 2019 04 16;236(2):144-156. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system, where it acts as a major mediator of synaptic inhibition. GABA also serves as a neurotransmitter in a range of invertebrate phyla, including arthropods, echinoderms, annelids, nematodes, and platyhelminthes. This article reviews evidence supporting the neurotransmitter role of GABA in gastropod molluscs, with an emphasis on its presence in identified neurons and well-characterized neural circuits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701377DOI Listing

Cryptic Male Phenotypes in the Mangrove Rivulus Fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus.

Biol Bull 2019 02 19;236(1):13-28. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Alternative male phenotypes exist in many species and impact mating system dynamics, population genetics, and mechanisms of natural and sexual selection that operate within a population. We report on the discovery of a cryptic male phenotype in the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), one of only two self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates. In this androdiecious species, males are infrequent, often making up less than 5% of a population; and they have historically been described as having an orange color and lacking or having a very faded outline of the well-defined caudal eyespot (ocellus) that is obvious in hermaphrodites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700697DOI Listing
February 2019

Hemoglobin Polymerization in Red Blood Cells of Marine Fishes: A Case of Adaptive Phenotypic Plasticity?

Biol Bull 2019 02 14;236(1):29-42. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

We investigated the occurrence of the unusual phenomenon of hemoglobin polymerization in a 10-year survey of 47 species of fishes. Similar to human sickle cell disease, hemoglobin polymers in fish red blood cells can cause distortion or sickling under low oxygen and low pH. We sampled fish from three geographic areas, including the east and west coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700832DOI Listing
February 2019

A New Species of Orthonectida That Parasitizes Xenoturbella bocki: Implications for Studies on Xenoturbella.

Biol Bull 2019 02 4;236(1):66-73. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Orthonectida is a phylum of marine invertebrates known to parasitize many invertebrate animals. Because of its simple body plan, it was suggested that it belong to Mesozoa, together with Dicyemida, and that it represent the evolutionary step between unicellular organisms and multicellular animals. Recent studies, including analyses of its genomes, have clarified its phylogenetic position as a member of the Protostomia, but details such as the species diversity within the phylum and how it infects the host remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700834DOI Listing
February 2019

Meral-Spot Reflectance Signals Weapon Performance in the Mantis Shrimp Neogonodactylus oerstedii (Stomatopoda).

Biol Bull 2019 02 28;236(1):43-54. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

During animal contests over resources, opponents often signal their fighting ability in an attempt to avoid escalating to physical attack. A reliable signal is beneficial to receivers because it allows them to avoid injuries from engaging in contests they are unlikely to win. However, a signaler could benefit from deceiving an opponent by signaling greater fighting ability or greater aggressive intent than the signaler possesses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700836DOI Listing
February 2019

Somatic Mutation Is a Function of Clone Size and Depth in Orbicella Reef-Building Corals.

Biol Bull 2019 02 28;236(1):1-12. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

In modular organisms, the propagation of genetic variability within a clonal unit can alter the scale at which ecological and evolutionary processes operate. Genetic variation within an individual primarily arises through the accretion of somatic mutations over time, leading to genetic mosaicism. Here, we assess the prevalence of intraorganismal genetic variation and potential mechanisms influencing the degree of genetic mosaicism in the reef corals Orbicella franksi and Orbicella annularis. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/700261
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700261DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Catecholic Compounds in Ctenophore Colloblast and Nerve Net Proteins Suggest a Structural Role for DOPA-Like Molecules in an Early-Diverging Animal Lineage.

Biol Bull 2019 02 10;236(1):55-65. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Ctenophores, or comb jellies, are among the earliest-diverging extant animal lineages. Several recent phylogenomic studies suggest that they may even be the sister group to all other animals. This unexpected finding remains difficult to contextualize, particularly given ctenophores' unique and sometimes poorly understood physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700695DOI Listing
February 2019

Discovery of Novel Hemocyanin-Like Genes in Metazoans.

Biol Bull 2018 12 5;235(3):134-151. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Among animals, two major groups of oxygen-binding proteins are found: proteins that use iron to bind oxygen (hemoglobins and hemerythrins) and two non-homologous hemocyanins that use copper. Although arthropod and mollusc hemocyanins bind oxygen in the same manner, they are distinct in their molecular structures. In order to better understand the range of natural variation in hemocyanins, we searched for them in a diverse array of metazoan transcriptomes by using bioinformatics tools to examine hemocyanin evolutionary history and to consequently revive the discussion about whether all metazoan hemocyanins shared a common origin with frequent losses or whether they originated separately after the divergence of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700181DOI Listing
December 2018

Observations on the Life History and Geographic Range of the Giant Chemosymbiotic Shipworm Kuphus polythalamius (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).

Biol Bull 2018 12 5;235(3):167-177. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Kuphus polythalamius (Teredinidae) is one of the world's largest, most rarely observed, and least understood bivalves. Kuphus polythalamius is also among the few shallow-water marine species and the only teredinid species determined to harbor sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic (thioautotrophic) symbionts. Until the recent discovery of living specimens in the Philippines, this species was known only from calcareous hard parts, fossils, and the preserved soft tissues of a single large specimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700278DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Morphological Variability Among Broods of First-Stage Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Zoeae.

Biol Bull 2018 12 17;235(3):123-133. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

External morphology has been shown to influence predation and locomotion of decapod larvae and is, therefore, directly related to their ability to survive and disperse. The first goal of this study was to characterize first-stage blue crab zoeal morphology and its variability across larval broods to test whether inter-brood differences in morphology exist. The second was to identify possible correlations between maternal characteristics and zoeal morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699922DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Sand Dollar Larvae Show Within-Population Variation in Their Settlement Induction by Turbulence.

Biol Bull 2018 12 4;235(3):152-166. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Settlement-the generally irreversible transition from a planktonic phase to a benthic phase-is a critical stage in the life history of many shoreline organisms. It is reasonable to expect that larvae are under intense selection pressure to identify appropriate settlement habitat. Several decades of studies have focused mainly on local indicators that larvae use to identify suitable habitat, such as olfactory cues that indicate the presence of conspecifics or a favored food source. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699827DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Permanently Fused Setules Create Unusual Folding Fans Used for Swimming in Cyprid Larvae of Barnacles.

Biol Bull 2018 12 19;235(3):185-194. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Many crustacean swimming appendages carry arrays of plumose setae-exoskeletal, feather-like structures of long bristles (setae) with short branches (setules) distributed along two sides. Although closely spaced, setae are not physically interconnected. Setal arrays function during swimming as drag-based leaky paddles that push the organism through water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700084DOI Listing
December 2018

Shifting the Balance: Heat Stress Challenges the Symbiotic Interactions of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Liviidae).

Biol Bull 2018 12 1;235(3):195-203. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Global warming may impact biodiversity by disrupting biological interactions, including long-term insect-microbe mutualistic associations. Symbiont-mediated insect tolerance to high temperatures is an ecologically important trait that significantly influences an insect's life history. Disruption of microbial symbionts that are required by insects would substantially impact their pest status. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/699755
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699755DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Temperature and Salinity Effects on Shell Selection by the Hermit Crab Pagurus longicarpus.

Biol Bull 2018 12 9;235(3):178-184. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

The widespread coastal hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus relies on empty gastropod shells for shelter. At low tide, these hermit crabs often become stranded in tide pools, where changes in temperature and salinity can occur rapidly. We tested how changes in temperature and salinity affected the sizes of the shells chosen by hermit crabs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/700188DOI Listing
December 2018

Tentacle Musculature in the Cubozoan Jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis.

Biol Bull 2018 10 24;235(2):91-101. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

The diploblastic cnidarian body plan comprising the epidermis and gastrodermis has remained largely unchanged since it evolved roughly 600 Ma. The origin of muscle from the mesoderm in triploblastic lineages is a central evolutionary question in higher animals. Triploblasts have three embryonic germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, which develop into organs, muscle, and skin, respectively. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/699325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699325DOI Listing
October 2018
18 Reads

Self/Non-Self Recognition Affects Cnida Discharge and Tentacle Contraction in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae.

Biol Bull 2018 10 3;235(2):83-90. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Certain species of sea anemone live in tightly packed communities, among clonemates and non-clonemates. Competition for space leads to intraspecific and interspecific aggressive interactions among anemones. The initial aggressive interactions appear to involve reciprocal discharge of cnidae triggered by contact with non-self feeding tentacles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699564DOI Listing
October 2018

The Role of Male Variation in Fertilization Success in Determining the Costs and Benefits of Polyandry in the Broadcast Spawning Urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

Biol Bull 2018 10 27;235(2):63-70. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Although the benefits to males mating with multiple females have been well documented, the benefits to females mating with multiple males (polyandry) are less studied, particularly the mechanism that might drive these potential benefits. Benefits of polyandry might stem from increasing the chance of mating with a high-quality or compatible male or stem from the ability of multiple males to fertilize more eggs than any single male. We examine the fertilization consequences of polyandry in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/699406
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699406DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Social Status-Related Differences in Motor Activity Between Wild-Type and Mutant Zebrafish.

Biol Bull 2018 10 19;235(2):71-82. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Use of zebrafish as a model organism in biomedical research has led to the generation of many genetically modified mutant lines to investigate various aspects of developmental and cellular processes. However, the broader effects of the underlying mutations on social and motor behavior remain poorly examined. Here, we compared the dynamics of social interactions in the Tüpfel long-fin nacre mutant line, which lacks skin pigmentation, to wild-type zebrafish; and we determined whether status-dependent differences in escape and swimming behavior existed within each strain. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/699514
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699514DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Comparative Oxygen Consumption of Gastropod Holobionts from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Indian Ocean.

Biol Bull 2018 10 12;235(2):102-112. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Physiological traits are the foundation of an organism's success in a dynamic environment, yet basic measurements are unavailable for many taxa and even ecosystems. We measured routine metabolism in two hydrothermal vent gastropods, Alviniconcha marisindica (n = 40) and the scaly-foot gastropod Chrysomallon squamiferum (n = 18), from Kairei and Edmond vent fields on the Central Indian Ridge (23-25°S, about 3000 meter depth). No previous studies have measured metabolism in any Indian Ocean vent animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699326DOI Listing
October 2018

Horizontal Transmission of Symbiotic Green Algae Between Hydra Strains.

Biol Bull 2018 10 21;235(2):113-122. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Some hydra strains belonging to the vulgaris group show a symbiotic relationship with green algae Chlorococcum sp. The symbiotic green algae can escape from the host polyps and can form swimming zoospores (which have two flagella) in culture solution. We observed that co-culture with the symbiotic polyps caused horizontal transmission of the symbionts into some non-symbiotic hydra strains that have no symbionts in nature and that belong not only to the vulgaris group but also to other hydra species groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699705DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Brood Reduction, Not Poecilogony, in a Vermetid Gastropod with Two Developmental Outcomes within Egg Capsules.

Biol Bull 2018 08 17;235(1):12-23. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

A small vermetid gastropod broods capsules containing nurse eggs and embryos that develop into small veligers. A few of these veligers continue development and growth while nurse eggs and developmentally arrested sibling veligers disappear. Survivors hatch as crawling pediveligers and juveniles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699324DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Variations in Copepod Proteome and Respiration Rate in Association with Diel Vertical Migration and Circadian Cycle.

Biol Bull 2018 08 16;235(1):30-42. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

The diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a process during which individuals spend the night in surface waters and retreat to depth during the daytime, with substantial implications for carbon transport and the ecology of midwater ecosystems. The physiological consequences of this daily pattern have, however, been poorly studied beyond investigations of speed and the energetic cost of swimming. Many other processes are likely influenced, such as fuel use, energetic trade-offs, underlying diel (circadian) rhythms, and antioxidant responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699219DOI Listing
August 2018
9 Reads

Lamellose Axial Shell Sculpture Reduces Gastropod Vulnerability to Sea Star Predation.

Biol Bull 2018 08 23;235(1):24-29. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Marine gastropods exhibit a stunning diversity of shell sculpture, but the functional significance of many sculpture types remains unknown. Unfortunately, experimental tests of the functional significance of differences between species are complicated by other morphological differences, such as shell microstructure, aperture shape, and shell thickness, that may confound interpretation. The most robust experimental tests are therefore performed using different shell forms within a species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698972DOI Listing

Physiology of the Apple Snail Pomacea maculata: Aestivation and Overland Dispersal.

Biol Bull 2018 08 17;235(1):43-51. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Apple snails, in the genus Pomacea, have gained considerable notoriety for their impact on invaded habitats. Louisiana is currently under invasion by Pomacea maculata, which represents a potential threat to the state's valuable plants and cash crops. Insight into the physiology of the invasive snail may assist in developing control measures and enhance our understanding of the processes of adaptation and coevolution that accompany introductions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698817DOI Listing

Biosynthesis in the Albumen Gland-Capsule Gland Complex Limits Reproductive Effort in the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata.

Biol Bull 2018 08 10;235(1):1-11. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

High fecundity often contributes to successful invasives. In molluscs, this may be facilitated by the albumen gland-capsule gland complex, which in gastropods secretes the egg perivitelline fluid that nourishes and protects embryos. The biochemistry of the albumen gland-capsule gland complex and its relationship with fecundity remain largely unknown. Read More

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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/699200
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699200DOI Listing
August 2018
11 Reads

Molecules and Mechanisms Underlying the Antimicrobial Activity of Escapin, an l-Amino Acid Oxidase from the Ink of Sea Hares.

Biol Bull 2018 08 30;235(1):52-61. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Many marine animals use chemicals to defend themselves and their eggs from predators. Beyond their ecologically relevant functions, these chemicals may also have properties that make them beneficial for humans, including biomedical and industrial applications. For example, some chemical defenses are also powerful antimicrobial or antitumor agents with relevance to human health and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699175DOI Listing

Embryonic Development in the Peppermint Shrimp, Lysmata boggessi (Caridea: Lysmatidae).

Biol Bull 2018 06 23;234(3):165-179. Epub 2018 May 23.

There are a limited number of model species for decapod experimental embryology. To improve our understanding of developmental pattern evolution in the Decapoda, here we describe the early embryonic development of the caridean shrimp Lysmata boggessi, from immediately after fertilization to the hatching of the zoea larva, using fluorescence microscopy and whole-mount nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Lysmata boggessi follows the standard caridean pattern of early development, with early holoblastic cleavage that will later become superficial, to form a blastoderm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698468DOI Listing

Losing Reproduction: Effect of High Temperature on Female Biochemical Composition and Egg Quality in a Freshwater Crustacean with Direct Development, the Red Cherry Shrimp, Neocaridina davidi (Decapoda, Atyidae).

Biol Bull 2018 06 1;234(3):139-151. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Maternal provisioning is particularly important in invertebrates with abbreviated development because large energy reserves must be provided for the developing embryo. In this context, the objective of the present study was to analyze in an aquatic invertebrate with direct development the effect of temperature on female biochemical composition and reserve allocation to maturing ovaries, which determine egg quality. A decapod crustacean, the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi, was used as experimental model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698266DOI Listing

Getting a Head with Ptychodera flava Larval Regeneration.

Biol Bull 2018 06 15;234(3):152-164. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Severe injury to the central nervous system of chordates often results in permanent and irreversible mental and physical challenges. While some chordates are able to repair and/or regenerate portions of their nervous system, no chordate has been shown to be able to regenerate all regions of its central nervous system after catastrophic injury or amputation. Some hemichordates, on the other hand, are able to efficiently regenerate all neural structures, including their dorsal, hollow neural tube after complete ablation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698510DOI Listing
June 2018
11 Reads
1.640 Impact Factor

Sequences of Circadian Clock Proteins in the Nudibranch Molluscs Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea.

Biol Bull 2018 06 5;234(3):207-218. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

While much is known about the genes and proteins that make up the circadian clocks in vertebrates and several arthropod species, much less is known about the clock genes in many other invertebrates, including nudibranchs. The goal of this project was to identify the RNA and protein products of putative clock genes in the central nervous system of three nudibranchs, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea. Using previously published transcriptomes (Hermissenda and Tritonia) and a new transcriptome (Melibe), we identified nudibranch orthologs for the products of five canonical clock genes: brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator like protein 1, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, non-photoreceptive cryptochrome, period, and timeless. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180908PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Neuronal Development in the Larvae of the Invasive Biofouler Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia), with Special Attention to Sensory Elements and Swimming Behavior.

Biol Bull 2018 06 18;234(3):192-206. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Although understanding of the neuronal development of Trochozoa has progressed recently, little attention has been paid to freshwater bivalves, including species with a strong ecological impact, such as the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Therefore, an important question might concern how the developing nervous system is involved in the formation of the rapid and successful invasive behavior of this species. Our aim was to reveal the neuronal development of trochophore and veliger larvae of Dreissena, with special attention to the organization of sensory structures and their possible involvement in detecting environmental cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698511DOI Listing
June 2018
24 Reads

Population Genomics of Nymphon australe Hodgson, 1902 (Pycnogonida, Nymphonidae) in the Western Antarctic.

Biol Bull 2018 06 4;234(3):180-191. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Within the Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is hypothesized to facilitate a circumpolar distribution for many taxa, even though some, such as pycnogonids, are assumed to have limited ability to disperse, based on brooding life histories and adult ambulatory capabilities. With a number of contradictions to circumpolarity reported in the literature for other pycnogonids, alternative hypotheses have been explored, particularly for Nymphon australe, the most common species of Pycnogonida (sea spider) in the Southern Ocean. Glacial events have been hypothesized to impact the capacity of organisms to colonize suitable areas without ice coverage as refuge and without the eurybathic capacity to colonize deeper areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698691DOI Listing

Visual Stimuli for the Induction of Hunting Behavior in Cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis.

Biol Bull 2018 04 2;234(2):106-115. Epub 2018 May 2.

Cuttlefish exhibit typical hunting behavior, including elongating tentacles against specific prey such as prawn and mysid shrimp. Cuttlefish hunting behavior involves three different actions: attention, positioning, and seizure. Hunting behavior is innate and stereotypic behavior, and it is present in newly hatched juveniles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/697522DOI Listing

Possible Mechanisms of Hatching from Egg Capsules in the Gastropods Crepipatella dilatata and Crepipatella peruviana, Species with Different Modes of Early Development.

Biol Bull 2018 04 2;234(2):69-84. Epub 2018 May 2.

Many invertebrates enclose their embryos within egg capsules, from which the offspring hatch. In marine gastropods that brood their egg capsules, hatching could involve radular activity by the mother or by unhatched stages, increased osmotic concentration of the intracapsular fluid, or production of hatching enzymes. The present research sought to determine whether mechanical action by the brooding female or by the encapsulated embryos was involved in the hatching for two sympatric and closely related species of calyptraeid: Crepipatella dilatata, which exhibits direct development without free-living larvae, and Crepipatella peruviana, which releases free-living veliger larvae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/697641DOI Listing

Pharmacological Disruption of Sea Urchin Tube Foot Motility and Behavior.

Biol Bull 2018 04 11;234(2):96-105. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

The understanding of the molecular basis of sea urchin behavior and sensory and motor systems lags far behind that of many other animal species. To investigate whole-animal behavior pharmacologically, we first demonstrated that immersion in drug solution is an effective drug administration route for sea urchins, whereas oral drug administration was found to be ineffective. Although intracoelomic injection was found to be effective at administering drugs, it was also found that injection itself can disrupt normal sea urchin behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/697378DOI Listing
April 2018
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Sparkling Reflective Stacks of Purine Crystals in the Nudibranch Flabellina iodinea.

Biol Bull 2018 04 22;234(2):116-129. Epub 2018 May 22.

Although pigments contribute to much of the brilliant purple and orange coloration of the aeolid nudibranch Flabellina iodinea, the optical appearance of the animal was found to be augmented by dynamically sparkling, brightly reflective material in cells located throughout its epidermis. Electron microscopy revealed that specialized cells most abundant near the epithelial basal lamina contain numerous multilayer stacks of crystals, each within a fragile membrane capsule. High-resolution light microscopy of tissue sections showed that these crystalline stacks intermittently reflect light, with a temporally dynamic, sparkling appearance, suggesting that they are free to move-a phenomenon also observed in the live, intact whole animal and in the purified crystal stacks as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698012DOI Listing
April 2018
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Effects of Symbiodinium Colonization on Growth and Cell Proliferation in the Giant Clam Hippopus hippopus.

Biol Bull 2018 04 22;234(2):130-138. Epub 2018 May 22.

Giant clams (subfamily Tridacnidae) house their obligate symbionts, Symbiodinium sp., in a specialized tubular system. Rapid uptake of Symbiodinium has been shown to increase early clam survival, suggesting that symbionts play an essential role in host growth and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/698265DOI Listing

Discriminating Eaters: Sea Stars Asterias rubens L. Feed Preferably on Mytilus trossulus Gould in Mixed Stocks of Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus edulis L.

Biol Bull 2018 04 7;234(2):85-95. Epub 2018 May 7.

Sea stars Asterias rubens are important natural enemies of the blue mussel Mytilus in the North Atlantic. We asked whether these predators distinguish between the cryptic species M. edulis and M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/697944DOI Listing
April 2018
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Shifting Balance of Protein Synthesis and Degradation Sets a Threshold for Larval Growth Under Environmental Stress.

Biol Bull 2018 02 2;234(1):45-57. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Exogenous environmental factors alter growth rates, yet information remains scant on the biochemical mechanisms and energy trade-offs that underlie variability in the growth of marine invertebrates. Here we study the biochemical bases for differential growth and energy utilization (as adenosine triphosphate [ATP] equivalents) during larval growth of the bivalve Crassostrea gigas exposed to increasing levels of experimental ocean acidification (control, middle, and high pCO, corresponding to ∼400, ∼800, and ∼1100 µatm, respectively). Elevated pCO hindered larval ability to accrete both shell and whole-body protein content. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/696830DOI Listing
February 2018

Stolonial Movement: A New Type of Whole-Organism Behavior in Porifera.

Biol Bull 2018 02 5;234(1):58-67. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Sponges (phylum Porifera) traditionally are represented as inactive, sessile filter-feeding animals devoid of any behavior except filtering activity. However, different time-lapse techniques demonstrate that sponges are able to show a wide range of coordinated but slow whole-organism behavior. The present study concerns a peculiar type of such behavior in the psychrophilic demosponge Amphilectus lobatus: stolonial movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/697113DOI Listing
February 2018
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Symbiont Identity Influences Patterns of Symbiosis Establishment, Host Growth, and Asexual Reproduction in a Model Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis.

Biol Bull 2018 02 21;234(1):1-10. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

The genus Symbiodinium is physiologically diverse and so may differentially influence symbiosis establishment and function. To explore this, we inoculated aposymbiotic individuals of the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (commonly referred to as "Aiptasia"), a model for coral symbiosis, with one of five Symbiodinium species or types (S. microadriaticum, S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/696365DOI Listing
February 2018

Combining Factors That Individually Enhance Memory in Lymnaea.

Biol Bull 2018 02 26;234(1):37-44. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

When applied individually, thermal stress (1 hour at 30 °C) and (-)epicatechin (a flavonol found in green tea, e.g.) each enhance long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of Lymnaea aerial respiratory behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/697197DOI Listing
February 2018
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