4,086 results match your criteria Biological Bulletin[Journal]


Seasonally Driven Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Temperate Species.

Biol Bull 2020 Apr 21;238(2):89-105. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Marine organisms that rely on environmental cues for reproduction are likely to experience shifts in reproductive phenology and output due to global climate change. To assess the role that the environment may play in the reproductive timing for temperate sponges, this study examined sexual and asexual reproduction in New Zealand sponge species ( and the complex) and correlated reproductive output with temperature, chlorophyll- concentration, and rainfall. Histological analyses of sponges collected monthly (from February 2015 to February 2017) revealed that these sponges are oviparous and gonochoristic and that they sexually reproduce annually during the austral summer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/708624DOI Listing

Red Coloration in an Anchialine Shrimp: Carotenoids, Genetic Variation, and Candidate Genes.

Biol Bull 2020 Apr 15;238(2):119-130. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Red coloration is a widely distributed phenotype among animals, yet the pigmentary and genetic bases for this phenotype have been described in relatively few taxa. Here we show that the Hawaiian endemic anchialine shrimp is red because of the accumulation of astaxanthin. Laboratory colonies of phylogenetically distinct lineages of have colony-specific amounts of astaxanthin that are developmentally, and likely genetically, fixed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/708625DOI Listing

Shift of the Vegetal Pole Area of Full-Grown Oocytes Toward the Ovulatory Site of the Ovary in the Medaka Fish, (Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae).

Biol Bull 2020 Apr 27;238(2):80-88. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

This study presents novel findings on the dynamics of growing oocytes in the ovary of the medaka fish, . In the ovary of mature females, all follicles are anchored tightly to the abdominal ovarian rete fibrous follicular stalks on the follicle surface. The follicular stalks lie at the end of the follicle opposite the site of its attachment to the ovarian wall. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/708304DOI Listing

Phenotypic Variation in Growth and Gene Expression Under Different Photoperiods in Allopatric Populations of the Copepod .

Biol Bull 2020 Apr 17;238(2):106-118. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Daylength is a major environmental condition that varies seasonally and predictably along a latitudinal cline, where higher latitudes exhibit greater ranges in total daylengths. Generally, the circadian clock acts as a network of genes whose expression dynamics are known to control daily rhythms in response to daylength, and it enables the control of many physiological processes such as growth and development. While well studied in many model animals, the influence of daylength variation on phenotypic evolution is poorly examined in marine species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/708678DOI Listing

Thermal Range and Physiological Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Shark Species from the Northwest Atlantic.

Biol Bull 2020 Apr 14;238(2):131-144. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Spiny dogfish () and smoothhound () sharks in the northwest Atlantic undergo seasonal migrations driven by changes in water temperature. However, the recognized thermal habitats of these regional populations are poorly described. Here, we report the thermal range, catch frequency with bottom temperature, and catch frequency with time of year for both shark species in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/708718DOI Listing

Ontogeny of Cheliped Laterality and Mechanisms of Reversal of Handedness in the Durophagous Gazami Crab, .

Biol Bull 2020 02 21;238(1):25-40. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

The paired claws in Gazami crabs, , are bilaterally asymmetrical, and asymmetry is remarkable on the distal two segments of the first pereiopod, that is, the dactylus and propodus. Shells are exclusively cracked by use of the right chela, representing handedness. In Gazami crabs, handedness is reversed after autotomy of the right chela. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/707648DOI Listing
February 2020

Changes in Food Selection through Ontogeny in Larvae.

Biol Bull 2020 02 14;238(1):54-63. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Bivalves are some of the most important suspension feeders in aquatic systems. Much research has been conducted on the feeding mechanisms of adult molluscan suspension feeders, but less is known about the feeding mechanisms of their larval stages. To date, the general consensus is that veligers are restricted to collecting particles 4-20 m in size and that food selection is indiscriminate within this size range, but this hypothesis remains to be directly tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/706821DOI Listing
February 2020

Tropical Octopus Can Learn to Recognize Real and Virtual Symbolic Objects.

Biol Bull 2020 02 20;238(1):12-24. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

We used three consecutive operant conditioning tasks to determine whether the tropical octopus is able to learn to recognize a symbolic object, in either real or virtual forms. In Experiment 1, we examined whether octopuses can be conditioned to a real object (a white ball) and whether such trained individuals can select the conditioned object when they are presented with an unconditioned object. We show that octopuses learned to respond to and select the conditioned white ball in preference to the unconditioned object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/707420DOI Listing
February 2020

Coccidian Parasite in Sea Cucumber () Ovaries.

Biol Bull 2020 02 14;238(1):64-71. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

We investigated an unknown ellipsoidal body that is sometimes found in the ovaries of the sea cucumber . Its external morphology, comprising an ellipsoidal dark central body (about 150 m in length) and a surrounding transparent layer (about 50 m in thickness), resembled that of a protozoan cyst, particularly an oocyst. Histological observations of the developing ovaries clarified that a small mass of organisms appeared in the cytoplasm of young oocytes, proliferated in these cells through budding, became rod shaped and arranged radially, and, finally, formed an outer layer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/707807DOI Listing
February 2020

Particle Selection in Suspension-Feeding Bivalves: Does One Model Fit All?

Biol Bull 2020 02 11;238(1):41-53. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Suspension-feeding bivalves are known to discriminate among a complex mixture of particles present in their environments. The exact mechanism that allows bivalves to ingest some particles and reject others as pseudofeces has yet to be fully elucidated. Recent studies have shown that interactions between lectins found in the mucus covering oyster and mussel feeding organs and carbohydrates found on the microalga cell surface play a central role in this selection process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/707718DOI Listing
February 2020

Electrophysiological and Motor Responses to Chemosensory Stimuli in Isolated Cephalopod Arms.

Biol Bull 2020 02 17;238(1):1-11. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

While there is behavioral and anatomical evidence that coleoid cephalopods use their arms to "taste" substances in the environment, the neurophysiology of chemosensation has been largely unexamined. The range and sensitivity of detectable chemosensory stimuli, and the processing of chemosensory information, are unknown. To begin to address these issues, we developed a technique for recording neurophysiological responses from isolated arms, allowing us to test responses to biologically relevant stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/707837DOI Listing
February 2020

Equalization of Cleavage Is Not Causally Responsible for Specification of Cell Lineage.

Authors:
Allison Edgar

Biol Bull 2019 12 22;237(3):250-253. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

An unequal cleavage gives rise to a dedicated population of larval skeletogenic cells in sea urchins. The timing of this unequal cleavage, associated localization of key lineage markers, and loss of this lineage when embryos are treated with cleavage-equalizing reagents have all suggested that the asymmetry of the daughter cells is causal to the specification of this cell lineage. However, the mechanism by which asymmetric cleavage specifies this cell type remains unidentified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705358DOI Listing
December 2019

Myoanatomy of the Lophophore in Adult Phoronids and the Evolution of the Phoronid Lophophore.

Authors:
Elena N Temereva

Biol Bull 2019 12 6;237(3):270-282. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to study the myoanatomy of the lophophore of three phoronids with different types of lophophore: , , and . A four-part ground plan of the lophophoral musculature was detected in all three species and was previously reported for . The ground plan includes (i) a circular muscle, (ii) longitudinal muscles of the tentacular lamina, (iii) groups of paired distal muscles of the tentacular lamina, and (iv) frontal and abfrontal muscles of the tentacles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705424DOI Listing
December 2019

Foregut Development and Metamorphosis in a Pyramidellid Gastropod: Modularity and Constraint within a Complex Life Cycle.

Biol Bull 2019 12 22;237(3):254-269. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Pyramidellids are tiny ectoparasitic gastropods with highly derived feeding structures for piercing and sucking. We attempted to resolve homology controversies about unique pyramidellid feeding structures by examining foregut development through larval and metamorphic stages, using sections for light and electron microscopy. We anticipated that, like many marine invertebrate larvae, post-metamorphic structures would differentiate extensively in late larvae to speed metamorphic transition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705357DOI Listing
December 2019

Arrested Sexual Development in Queen Conch () Linked to Abnormalities in the Cerebral Ganglia.

Biol Bull 2019 12 10;237(3):241-249. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

In the Florida Keys, queen conchs () occur in two spatially distinct regions: nearshore in habitats immediately adjacent to the shoreline and offshore in habitats along the reef tract south of the islands. Our previous research demonstrated that adult conchs nearshore are not reproductively active, showing deficiencies in their gonadal condition compared to their offshore counterparts. Because sexual development in gastropods is controlled by hormones secreted by the cerebral ganglia, we hypothesized that the reproductive deficiencies seen in nearshore queen conchs involved the cerebral ganglia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/706494DOI Listing
December 2019

Developmental Consequences of Temperature and Salinity Stress in the Sand Dollar .

Biol Bull 2019 12 16;237(3):227-240. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Animals that reside, reproduce, and develop in nearshore habitats are often exposed to strong fluctuations in abiotic conditions, including temperature and salinity. We studied the developmental response of the sand dollar to increased temperature and reduced salinity at levels comparable to those induced by summer freshwater input into the San Juan Archipelago, Washington. We observed that embryos exposed to temperature and salinity stress exhibited polyembryony (the splitting of one embryo into multiple independent individuals), and we subsequently tested the competency of twin and normal embryos to reach metamorphosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/706607DOI Listing
December 2019

Out of the Blue: The Failure of the Introduced Sea Anemone (Dalyell, 1848) in Salem Harbor, Massachusetts.

Biol Bull 2019 12 9;237(3):283-291. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Failed invasions can be a key component for understanding and controlling introduced populations because understanding mechanisms behind failures can improve effective controls. In 2000, the non-native sea anemone was first found in Salem, Massachusetts, and it recolonized each summer. No individuals of have been found after 2010, despite intensive search efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705515DOI Listing
December 2019

Facing Adversity: Dormant Embryos in Rotifers.

Biol Bull 2019 10 25;237(2):119-144. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

An in-depth look at the basic aspects of dormancy in cyclic parthenogenetic organisms is now possible thanks to research efforts conducted over the past two decades with rotifer dormant embryos. In this review, we assemble and compose the current knowledge on four central themes: (1) distribution of dormancy in animals, with an overview on the phylogenetic distribution of embryo dormancy in metazoans, and (2) physiological and cellular processes involved in dormancy, with a strong emphasis on the dormant embryos of cyclically parthenogenetic monogonont rotifers; and discussions of (3) the selective pressures and (4) the evolutionary and population implications of dormancy in these animals. Dormancy in metazoans is a widespread phenomenon with taxon-specific features, and rotifers are among the animals in which dormancy is an intrinsic feature of their life cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705701DOI Listing
October 2019

Copepod Embryonic Dormancy: "An Egg Is Not Just an Egg".

Biol Bull 2019 10 16;237(2):145-169. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Long-lasting embryonic dormancy in invertebrates defies our understanding of what constitutes life because, for example, eggs of some copepods can delay hatching for decades or even centuries. Copepods, often millimeter-sized crustaceans, are some of the most numerous multicellular organisms on earth and are key organisms in most aquatic food webs. Some important free-living marine and estuarine species overwinter or oversummer by arrested embryogenesis in dormancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705546DOI Listing
October 2019

A Crude Awakening: Effects of Crude Oil on Lipid Metabolism in Calanoid Copepods Terminating Diapause.

Biol Bull 2019 10 4;237(2):90-110. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

and are keystone zooplankton species in North Atlantic and Arctic marine ecosystems because they form a link in the trophic transfer of nutritious lipids from phytoplankton to predators on higher trophic levels. These calanoid copepods spend several months of the year in deep waters in a dormant state called diapause, after which they emerge in surface waters to feed and reproduce during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Disruption of diapause timing could have dramatic consequences for marine ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705234DOI Listing
October 2019

Ecology and Physiology of Dormancy in a Changing World: Introduction to a Virtual Symposium in .

Authors:
Ann M Tarrant

Biol Bull 2019 10 14;237(2):73-75. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/706563DOI Listing
October 2019

Noncoding RNA Regulation of Dormant States in Evolutionarily Diverse Animals.

Authors:
Julie A Reynolds

Biol Bull 2019 10 4;237(2):192-209. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Dormancy is evolutionarily widespread and can take many forms, including diapause, dauer formation, estivation, and hibernation. Each type of dormancy is characterized by distinct features; but accumulating evidence suggests that each is regulated by some common processes, often referred to as a common "toolkit" of regulatory mechanisms, that likely include noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs, are well-known regulators of biological processes associated with numerous dormancy-related processes, including cell cycle progression, cell growth and proliferation, developmental timing, metabolism, and environmental stress tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705484DOI Listing
October 2019

Animal-Microbe Interactions in the Context of Diapause.

Biol Bull 2019 10 23;237(2):180-191. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Dormancy and diapause are key adaptations in many organisms, enabling survival of temporarily or seasonally unsuitable environmental conditions. In this review, we examine how our understanding of programmed developmental and metabolic arrest during diapause intersects with the increasing body of knowledge about animal co-development and co-evolution with microorganisms. Host-microbe interactions are increasingly understood to affect a number of metabolic, physiological, developmental, and behavioral traits and to mediate adaptations to various environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/706078DOI Listing
October 2019

Pan-Arctic Depth Distribution of Diapausing Copepods.

Biol Bull 2019 10 17;237(2):76-89. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Diapause at depth is considered an integral part of the life cycle of copepods, but few studies have focused on the Arctic species and . By analyzing a large set of pan-arctic observational data compiled from multiple sources, we show that Arctic has a broad depth distribution in winter, indicating that diapause at depth is a facultative strategy. Both species' vertical distributions tend to deepen in winter and to be deeper and broader with increasing bottom depth, while individuals are aggregated closer to the sea floor in shallow areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/704694DOI Listing
October 2019

Reproductive Bet-Hedging and Existence in Vernal Pools as Components of Life History.

Biol Bull 2019 10 15;237(2):111-118. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Despite the fact that has been studied for more than 200 years, we know surprisingly little about its life history. We show that embryos hatch sporadically over a period ranging from a few days to nine months. We also report, for what seems to be the first time, the presence of in a vernal pool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705161DOI Listing
October 2019

Diapause within the Context of Life-History Strategies in Calanid Copepods (Calanoida: Crustacea).

Biol Bull 2019 10 24;237(2):170-179. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Post-embryonic diapause in copepods is an adaptation that allows species in the copepod family Calanidae to thrive in high-latitude environments by transforming a short spring phytoplankton bloom into large numbers of lipid-rich individuals capable of surviving a long period of starvation. The copepods, with their high-energy lipid reservoirs, are a critical food source for higher trophic levels, making the Calanidae a key component of high-latitude marine ecosystems. The physiological ecology of the developmental program remains poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705160DOI Listing
October 2019

Organization of Buccal Cone Musculature in the Pteropod Mollusc .

Biol Bull 2019 08 7;237(1):36-47. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

The pteropod mollusc is a feeding specialist, preying on shelled pteropods of the genus . Specialized prey-capture structures, called buccal cones, are hydraulically everted from within the mouth to capture the prey. Once captured, the prey is manipulated so the shell opening is over the mouth of . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/704737DOI Listing

Construction and Composition of the Squid Pen from .

Biol Bull 2019 08 8;237(1):1-15. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

The pen, or gladius, of the squid is an internalized shell. It serves as a site of attachment for important muscle groups and as a protective barrier for the visceral organs. The pen's durability and flexibility are derived from its unique composition of chitin and protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/704209DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

Venom Composition Does Not Vary Greatly Between Different Nematocyst Types Isolated from the Primary Tentacles of (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

Biol Bull 2019 08 7;237(1):26-35. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

In this quantitative proteomics study we determined the variety and relative abundance of toxins present in enriched preparations of two nematocyst types isolated from the primary tentacles of the adult medusa stage of the hydrozoan . The two nematocyst types were microbasic mastigophores and microbasic euryteles, and these were recovered from the macerated tentacle tissues by using a differential centrifugation approach. Soluble protein extracts from these nematocysts were tagged with tandem mass tag isobaric labels and putative toxins identified using tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stringent bioinformatics annotation pipeline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705113DOI Listing

Instant Ocean Natural Seawater: Impacts on Aspects of Reproduction and Development in Three Marine Invertebrates.

Biol Bull 2019 08 24;237(1):16-25. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Marine invertebrate larvae have often been reared in artificial rather than natural seawater, either for convenience or to avoid potentially confounding effects of unknown contaminants. This study sought to determine the impact of artificial seawater on various aspects of development for three marine invertebrate species. We examined the impact of Instant Ocean on growth, survival, and fecundity of the deposit-feeding polychaete at 2 salinities: 24 and 34 ppt; the impact on survival, growth rate, and time to metamorphic competence for the slipper limpet ; and the impact on larval growth for the sea star . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705134DOI Listing
August 2019
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Metabolic Activation and Scaling in Two Species of Colonial Cnidarians.

Biol Bull 2019 08 24;237(1):63-72. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Metabolic activation can have a profound impact, for instance, by more than compensating for the lower resting metabolic rates of large organisms compared to smaller ones. In some animals, activity can easily be judged by the rate of muscle-driven movement. In sessile organisms, however, judging activity is less straightforward, although feeding often results in metabolic activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703791DOI Listing

Hypoxia Has a Lasting Effect on Fast-Startle Behavior of the Tropical Fish .

Biol Bull 2019 08 16;237(1):48-62. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Anthropogenic activities and climate change have resulted in an increase of hypoxic conditions in nearshore ecosystems worldwide. Depending on the persistence of a hypoxic event, the survival of aquatic animals can be compromised. Temperate fish exposed to hypoxia display a reduction in the probability of eliciting startle responses thought to be important for escape from predation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/704337DOI Listing

Food Restrictions Affect the Larval Metamorphosis and Early Juvenile Performance in a Neotropical Mangrove Fiddler Crab ().

Biol Bull 2019 06 19;236(3):186-198. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Sporadic fluctuations in food availability may affect larval biology and post-metamorphic development in many marine invertebrates. In an experimental study in the laboratory, we investigated whether different regimes (1, 3, and 5 days) of initial starvation or feeding affect the survival and duration of the last planktotrophic larval stage (, megalopa) of the neotropical mangrove fiddler crab . Newly metamorphosed crabs originating from megalopae starved for 1 and 3 days were cultured through the first 5 juvenile stages to further evaluate whether prior nutritional experience affects the post-larval performance of this species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701965DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Maintenance of a Genetic Cline in the Barnacle .

Biol Bull 2019 06 14;236(3):199-206. Epub 2019 May 14.

The barnacle is a broadly distributed species in the temperate northeastern Pacific that is notable for a robust genetic cline between about 36° and 40° N latitude. Prior work established the evolutionary origins of this pattern and proposed that it is maintained by environmental selection. In recent years, "climate velocity" studies in marine habitats have shown dramatic distributional shifts for many species as they track their preferred temperature range in a warming ocean. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703516DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Impacts of Salt Stress on Locomotor and Transcriptomic Responses in the Intertidal Gastropod .

Biol Bull 2019 06 13;236(3):224-241. Epub 2019 May 13.

Salinity is one of the most crucial environmental factors that structures biogeographic boundaries of aquatic organisms, affecting distribution, abundance, and behavior. However, the association between behavior and gene regulation underlying acclimation to changes in salinity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity stress on behavior (movement distance) and patterns of gene expression (using RNA sequencing) of the intertidal gastropod . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703186DOI Listing
June 2019
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Effects of the Biomedical Bleeding Process on the Behavior of the American Horseshoe Crab, , in Its Natural Habitat.

Biol Bull 2019 06 15;236(3):207-223. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Horseshoe crabs are harvested by the biomedical industry in order to create amebocyte lysate to test medical devices and pharmaceutical drugs for endotoxins. Most previous studies on the impacts of the biomedical bleeding process on horseshoe crabs have focused on mortality rates and sublethal impacts in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the effects of the bleeding process on the behavior of horseshoe crabs after they had been released back into their natural environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702917DOI Listing

Discovery of Adults Linked to Cloning Oceanic Starfish Larvae (, Asteroidea: Echinodermata).

Biol Bull 2019 06 20;236(3):174-185. Epub 2019 May 20.

Two juvenile specimens of a new species of were collected at Parque Nacional Arrecife Alacranes and Triángulos Oeste in the southern Gulf of Mexico. DNA of mitochondrial loci identifies them as members of the same clade as cloning larvae of found abundantly in waters of the Florida Current-Gulf Stream system, and distinct from and , the two known Oreasteridae species in the North Atlantic. Larvae from the new species of persist as clones but also metamorphose and settle to the benthos with typical asteroid morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703233DOI Listing
June 2019
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Legacy of Multiple Stressors: Responses of Gastropod Larvae and Juveniles to Ocean Acidification and Nutrition.

Biol Bull 2019 06 29;236(3):159-173. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Ocean acidification poses a significant threat to calcifying invertebrates by negatively influencing shell deposition and growth. An organism's performance under ocean acidification is not determined by the susceptibility of one single life-history stage, nor is it solely controlled by the direct physical consequences of ocean acidification. Shell development by one life-history stage is sometimes a function of the pH or CO levels experienced during earlier developmental stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702993DOI Listing
June 2019
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Larvae of Caribbean Echinoids Have Small Warming Tolerances for Chronic Stress in Panama.

Biol Bull 2019 04 29;236(2):115-129. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

In species with complex life cycles, early developmental stages are often less thermally tolerant than adults, suggesting that they are key to predicting organismal response to environmental warming. Here we document the optimal and lethal temperatures of larval sea urchins, and we use those to calculate the warming tolerance and the thermal safety margin of early larval stages of seven tropical species. Larvae of Echinometra viridis, Echinometra lucunter, Lytechinus williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus, and Clypeaster subdepressus were reared at 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C for 6 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701666DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Erratum: The Biological Bulletin, Volume 234, Number 2, pp. 116-129.

Authors:

Biol Bull 2019 04 27;236(2):158. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702853DOI Listing
April 2019
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Seasonal and Daily Patterns of the Mating Calls of the Oyster Toadfish, Opsanus tau.

Biol Bull 2019 04 8;236(2):97-107. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Acoustic communication is vital across many taxa for mating behavior, defense, and social interactions. Male oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, produce courtship calls, or "boatwhistles," characterized by an initial broadband segment (30-50 ms) and a longer tone-like second part (200-650 ms) during mating season. Male calls were monitored continuously with an in situ SoundTrap hydrophone that was deployed in Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, during the 2015 mating season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701754DOI Listing
April 2019
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Algal Sources of Sequestered Chloroplasts in the Sacoglossan Sea Slug Elysia crispata Vary by Location and Ecotype.

Biol Bull 2019 04 13;236(2):88-96. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Sacoglossan sea slugs feed by suctorially consuming siphonaceous green algae. Most sacoglossan species are feeding specialists, but the Caribbean coral reef-dwelling Elysia crispata is polyphagous and sequesters chloroplasts from multiple algal species into cells lining its digestive diverticulum for use in photosynthesis. We have used sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene to compare the chloroplast donor algae in five populations of E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701732DOI Listing
April 2019
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Erratum: The Biological Bulletin, Volume 231, Number 3, pp. 199-206.

Authors:

Biol Bull 2019 04 8;236(2):157. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703262DOI Listing
April 2019
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Abbreviated Development of the Brooding Brittle Star Ophioplocus esmarki.

Biol Bull 2019 04 12;236(2):75-87. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

The bilaterally symmetrical, feeding larval stage is an ancestral condition in echinoderms. However, many echinoderms have evolved abbreviated development and form a pentamerous juvenile without a feeding larva. Abbreviated development with a non-feeding vitellaria larva is found in five families of brittle stars, but very little is known about this type of development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701916DOI Listing
April 2019
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Light-Dependent Electrical Activity in Sea Urchin Tube Feet Cells.

Biol Bull 2019 04 25;236(2):108-114. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Sea urchins can detect and respond to light, and many species of sea urchins are negatively phototaxic. Light detection is hypothesized to occur via photoreceptors located on sea urchin tube feet, and opsins have been detected in tube feet, spines, and the test. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying light detection are, for the most part, unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701770DOI Listing
April 2019
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Contrasting Metatrochal Behavior of Mollusc and Annelid Larvae and the Regulation of Feeding While Swimming.

Biol Bull 2019 04 13;236(2):130-143. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Molluscan veliger larvae and some annelid larvae capture particulate food between a preoral prototrochal band of long cilia that create a current for both swimming and feeding and a postoral metatrochal band of shorter cilia that beat toward the prototroch. Larvae encountering satiating or noxious particles must somehow swim without capturing particles or else reject large numbers of captured particles. Because high rates of particle capture are inferred to depend on the beat of both ciliary bands, arrest of the metatroch could be one way to swim while reducing captures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701730DOI Listing
April 2019
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GABA as a Neurotransmitter in Gastropod Molluscs.

Authors:
Mark W Miller

Biol Bull 2019 04 16;236(2):144-156. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system, where it acts as a major mediator of synaptic inhibition. GABA also serves as a neurotransmitter in a range of invertebrate phyla, including arthropods, echinoderms, annelids, nematodes, and platyhelminthes. This article reviews evidence supporting the neurotransmitter role of GABA in gastropod molluscs, with an emphasis on its presence in identified neurons and well-characterized neural circuits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701377DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads