4,807 results match your criteria Bioessays[Journal]


Neuronal Compartmentalization: A Means to Integrate Sensory Input at the Earliest Stage of Information Processing?

Bioessays 2020 Jul 1:e2000026. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

In numerous peripheral sense organs, external stimuli are detected by primary sensory neurons compartmentalized within specialized structures composed of cuticular or epithelial tissue. Beyond reflecting developmental constraints, such compartmentalization also provides opportunities for grouped neurons to functionally interact. Here, the authors review and illustrate the prevalence of these structural units, describe characteristics of compartmentalized neurons, and consider possible interactions between these cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000026DOI Listing

Eggshell Biliverdin as an Antioxidant Maternal Effect: Biliverdin as an Antioxidant Resource in Oviparous Animals.

Authors:
Judith Morales

Bioessays 2020 Jun 30:e2000010. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

National Museum of Natural Sciences, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), c/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid, 28006, Spain.

In this essay, the hypothesis that biliverdin pigment plays an antioxidant role in the avian eggshell is proposed. Due to its ability to scavenge free radical species and to reduce mutation, biliverdin potentially counteracts the oxidative action of pathogens that penetrate the eggshell and/or protects the shell membrane from oxidation, thus promoting the proven antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of the shell membrane itself. Additionally, biliverdin may be able to inhibit viral replication in the eggshell due to its ascribed antiviral properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000010DOI Listing

Competitive and Coordinative Interactions between Body Parts Produce Adaptive Developmental Outcomes.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 30:e1900245. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, Medford, MA, 02155.

Large-scale patterns of correlated growth in development are partially driven by competition for metabolic and informational resources. It is argued that competition between organs for limited resources is an important mesoscale morphogenetic mechanism that produces fitness-enhancing correlated growth. At the genetic level, the growth of individual characters appears independent, or "modular," because patterns of expression and transcription are often highly localized, mutations have trait-specific effects, and gene complexes can be co-opted as a unit to produce novel traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900245DOI Listing

Structural Basis of Nucleosome Recognition and Modulation.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 22:e1900234. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Macromolecular Crystallography, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, 751023, India.

Chromatin structure and dynamics regulate key cellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, remodeling, and gene expression, wherein different protein factors interact with the nucleosomes. In these events, DNA and RNA polymerases, chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors interact with nucleosomes, either in a DNA-sequence-specific manner and/or by recognizing different structural features on the nucleosome. The molecular details of the recognition of a nucleosome by different viral proteins, remodeling enzymes, histone post-translational modifiers, and RNA polymerase II, have been explored in the recent past. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900234DOI Listing

Emerging High-Level Tigecycline Resistance: Novel Tetracycline Destructases Spread via the Mobile Tet(X).

Bioessays 2020 Jun 22:e2000014. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a great threat to global public health. Tigecycline is a next-generation tetracycline that is the final line of defense against severe infections by pan-drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Unfortunately, this last-resort antibiotic has been challenged by the recent emergence of the mobile Tet(X) orthologs that can confer high-level tigecycline resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000014DOI Listing

Adapting with Microbial Help: Microbiome Flexibility Facilitates Rapid Responses to Environmental Change.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 16;42(7):e2000004. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, 35392, Germany.

Animals and plants are metaorganisms and associate with microbes that affect their physiology, stress tolerance, and fitness. Here the hypothesis that alteration of the microbiome may constitute a fast-response mechanism to environmental change is examined. This is supported by recent reciprocal transplant experiments with reef corals, which have shown that their microbiome adapts to thermally variable habitats and changes over time when transplanted into different environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000004DOI Listing

Scale-Free Biology: Integrating Evolutionary and Developmental Thinking.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 14:e1900228. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

When the history of life on earth is viewed as a history of cell division, all of life becomes a single cell lineage. The growth and differentiation of this lineage in reciprocal interaction with its environment can be viewed as a developmental process; hence the evolution of life on earth can also be seen as the development of life on earth. Here, in reviewing this field, some potentially fruitful research directions suggested by this change in perspective are highlighted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900228DOI Listing

Engulfment Genes Promote Neuronal Regeneration in Caenorhabditis Elegans: Two Divergent But Complementary Views.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 11:e1900185. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Dept. of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Aichi Prefecture, Nagoya, 464-8602, Japan.

Axon regeneration is a conserved process across the animal kingdom. Recent studies using the soil worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system revealed that machineries regulating engulfment of dying cells also control axon regeneration and axon debris removal. In this review, the relationships between the engulfment machinery and the biological processes triggered by axon injury and subsequent axon regeneration drawn from divergent views are examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900185DOI Listing

Trehalose against Alzheimer's Disease: Insights into a Potential Therapy.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 9:e1900195. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran.

Trehalose is a natural disaccharide with a remarkable ability to stabilize biomolecules. In recent years, trehalose has received growing attention as a neuroprotective molecule and has been tested in experimental models for different neurodegenerative diseases. Although the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of trehalose's action is unclear, one of the most important hypotheses is autophagy induction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900195DOI Listing

Specialized RSC: Substrate Specificities for a Conserved Chromatin Remodeler.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 3;42(7):e2000002. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260, USA.

The remodel the structure of chromatin (RSC) nucleosome remodeling complex is a conserved chromatin regulator with roles in chromatin organization, especially over nucleosome depleted regions therefore functioning in gene expression. Recent reports in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified specificities in RSC activity toward certain types of nucleosomes. RSC has now been shown to preferentially evict nucleosomes containing the histone variant H2A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329613PMC

KCTD10 Biology: An Adaptor for the Ubiquitin E3 Complex Meets Multiple Substrates: Emerging Divergent Roles of the cullin-3/KCTD10 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex in Various Cell Lines.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 2:e1900256. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Cell Growth and Tumor Regulation, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime, 791-0295, Japan.

Protein ubiquitination constitutes a post-translational modification mediated by ubiquitin ligases whereby ubiquitinated substrates are degraded through the proteasomal or lysosomal pathways, or acquire novel molecular functions according to their "ubiquitin codes." Dysfunction of the ubiquitination process in cells causes various diseases such as cancers along with neurodegenerative, auto-immune/inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. KCTD10 functions as a substrate recognition receptor for cullin-3 (CUL3), a scaffold protein in RING-type ubiquitin ligase complexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900256DOI Listing

Rethinking Causation for Data-intensive Biology: Constraints, Cancellations, and Quantized Organisms: Causality in complex organisms is sculpted by constraints rather than instigators, with outcomes perhaps better described by quantized patterns than rectilinear pathways.

Authors:
Douglas E Brash

Bioessays 2020 Jul 2;42(7):e1900135. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520-8040, USA.

Complex organisms thwart the simple rectilinear causality paradigm of "necessary and sufficient," with its experimental strategy of "knock down and overexpress." This Essay organizes the eccentricities of biology into four categories that call for new mathematical approaches; recaps for the biologist the philosopher's recent refinements to the causation concept and the mathematician's computational tools that handle some but not all of the biological eccentricities; and describes overlooked insights that make causal properties of physical hierarchies such as emergence and downward causation straightforward. Reviewing and extrapolating from similar situations in physics, it is suggested that new mathematical tools for causation analysis incorporating feedback, signal cancellation, nonlinear dependencies, physical hierarchies, and fixed constraints rather than instigative changes will reveal unconventional biological behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900135DOI Listing

The DNA Damage Response in Telophase: Challenging Dogmas.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 2;42(7):e2000085. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Arthur G. James Comprehensive Cancer Center and Richard L. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000085DOI Listing

Microbiome Flexibility Provides New Perspectives in Coral Research.

Authors:
Helena Villela

Bioessays 2020 Jul 2;42(7):e2000088. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000088DOI Listing

Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Activity of Immunophilins Could Be the Mere Consequence of Protein Complex Organization.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 28;42(7):e2000073. Epub 2020 May 28.

Instituto de Biología & Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, Buenos Aires (1428), Argentina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000073DOI Listing

Hyaluronan Degradation Promotes Cancer via Hippo-YAP Signaling: An Intervention Point for Cancer Therapy.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 25;42(7):e2000005. Epub 2020 May 25.

Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

High-molecular-weight hyaluronan acts as a ligand of the tumor-suppressive Hippo signal, whereas degradation of hyaluronan from a high-molecular-weight form to a low-molecular-weight forms by hyaluronidase 2 inhibits Hippo signal activation and thereby activates the pro-oncogenic transcriptional coactivator yes-associated protein (YAP), which creates a cancer-predisposing microenvironment and drives neoplastic transformation of cells through both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. In fact, accumulation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronan in tissue stroma is observed in many types of cancers. Since inhibition of YAP activity suppresses tumor growth in vivo, pharmacological intervention of the Hippo-YAP signal is an attractive approach for future drug development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000005DOI Listing

Genetic Causation in Complex Regulatory Systems: An Integrative Dynamic Perspective.

Bioessays 2020 Jun;42(6):e1900226

Complexity Science Hub (CSH) Vienna, Josefstädter Straße 39, Vienna, 1080, Austria.

The logic of genetic discovery has changed little over time, but the focus of biology is shifting from simple genotype-phenotype relationships to complex metabolic, physiological, developmental, and behavioral traits. In light of this, the traditional reductionist view of individual genes as privileged difference-making causes of phenotypes is re-examined. The scope and nature of genetic effects in complex regulatory systems, in which dynamics are driven by regulatory feedback and hierarchical interactions across levels of organization are considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900226DOI Listing

HIPPO and Hyaluronan: Partners in Tumor Resistance?

Authors:
Eva A Turley

Bioessays 2020 Jul 24;42(7):e2000090. Epub 2020 May 24.

Depts. Oncology, Biochemistry and Surger, University of Western Ontario, Lawson Health Research Institute, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000090DOI Listing

Resurrection of the Ghosts.

Authors:
Martin Kuhlwilm

Bioessays 2020 Jun 4;42(6):e2000057. Epub 2020 May 4.

Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), PRBB, Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona, 08003, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000057DOI Listing

Spatially Resolved Transcriptomes-Next Generation Tools for Tissue Exploration.

Bioessays 2020 May 4:e1900221. Epub 2020 May 4.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Department of Gene Technology, Science for Life Laboratory, Solna, 17165, Sweden.

Recent advances in spatially resolved transcriptomics have greatly expanded the knowledge of complex multicellular biological systems. The field has quickly expanded in recent years, and several new technologies have been developed that all aim to combine gene expression data with spatial information. The vast array of methodologies displays fundamental differences in their approach to obtain this information, and thus, demonstrate method-specific advantages and shortcomings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900221DOI Listing

The Fluidity of the Bacterial Outer Membrane Is Species Specific: Bacterial Lifestyles and the Emergence of a Fluid Outer Membrane.

Bioessays 2020 May 4:e1900246. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, 1000 E University Avenue, Laramie, WY, 82071, USA.

The outer membrane (OM) is an essential barrier that guards Gram-negative bacteria from diverse environmental insults. Besides functioning as a chemical gatekeeper, the OM also contributes towards the strength and stiffness of cells and allows them to sustain mechanical stress. Largely influenced by studies of Escherichia coli, the OM is viewed as a rigid barrier where OM proteins and lipopolysaccharides display restricted mobility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900246DOI Listing

Intrinsic Iron May Have Promoted Ancient Nervous Tissue Fossilization.

Authors:
Ross P Anderson

Bioessays 2020 Jun 4;42(6):e2000070. Epub 2020 May 4.

All Souls College, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 4AL, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000070DOI Listing

Lipophilic Environmental Chemical Mixtures Released During Weight-Loss: The Need to Consider Dynamics.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 4;42(6):e1900237. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 75185, Sweden.

Intentional weight loss can increase health risk in the long-term, despite short-term benefits, because human adipose tissue is widely contaminated with various lipophilic environmental contaminants, especially persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Recently, chronic exposure to low POPs has emerged as a new risk factor for common metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The amount of POPs released from adipocytes to the circulation increases during weight loss, thereby increasing POPs exposure of other critical organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900237DOI Listing

Are Anaphase Events Really Irreversible? The Endmost Stages of Cell Division and the Paradox of the DNA Double-Strand Break Repair.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 4;42(7):e2000021. Epub 2020 May 4.

Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 38010, Spain.

It has been recently demonstrated that yeast cells are able to partially regress chromosome segregation in telophase as a response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), likely to find a donor sequence for homology-directed repair (HDR). This regression challenges the traditional concept that establishes anaphase events as irreversible, hence opening a new field of research in cell biology. Here, the nature of this new behavior in yeast is summarized and the underlying mechanisms are speculated about. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000021DOI Listing

Weight Loss Strategies for Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Can Dietary Interventions That Reduce Circulating Persistent Organic Pollutants Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes?

Bioessays 2020 Jun 4;42(6):e2000069. Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Health Sciences, School of Applied Sciences, Kydd Building, Abertay University, Bell St., Dundee, DD1 1HG, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000069DOI Listing

The Vertebrate Tooth Row: Is It Initiated by a Single Organizing Tooth?

Bioessays 2020 Jun 29;42(6):e1900229. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

University of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Teeth are one of the most fascinating innovations of vertebrates. Their diversity of shape, size, location, and number in vertebrates is astonishing. If the molecular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of individual teeth are now relatively well understood, thanks to the detailed experimental work that has been performed in model organisms (mainly mouse and zebrafish), the mechanisms that control the organization of the dentition are still a mystery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900229DOI Listing

Palmitoylated Proteins in Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes: Investigation with Click Chemistry and Metabolic Labeling.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 28;42(6):e1900145. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520-8002, USA.

The examination of the complex cell biology of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum usually relies on the time-consuming generation of transgenic parasites. Here, metabolic labeling and click chemistry are employed as a fast transfection-independent method for the microscopic examination of protein S-palmitoylation, an important post-translational modification during the asexual intraerythrocytic replication of P. falciparum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900145DOI Listing

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 27;42(6):e1900202. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of populations worldwide with a grave disability and socioeconomic burden. Current antipsychotic medications are effective treatments for positive symptoms, but poorly address negative symptoms and cognitive symptoms, warranting the development of better treatment options. Further understanding of SCZ pathogenesis is critical in these endeavors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900202DOI Listing

Biogenic Iron Preserves Structures during Fossilization: A Hypothesis: Iron from Decaying Tissues May Stabilize Their Morphology in the Fossil Record.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 27;42(6):e1900243. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5276, LGL-TPE, Villeurbanne, 69622, France.

It is hypothesized that iron from biological tissues, liberated during decay, may have played a role in inhibiting loss of anatomical information during fossilization of extinct organisms. Most tissues in the animal kingdom contain iron in different forms. A widely distributed iron-bearing molecule is ferritin, a globular protein that contains iron crystallites in the form of ferrihydrite minerals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900243DOI Listing

AUG as the Translation Start Codon in Circular RNA Molecules: A Connection between Protein-Coding Genes and Transfer RNAs?

Bioessays 2020 Jun 27;42(6):e2000061. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wrocław, 14a Fryderyka Joliot-Curie Street, Wrocław, 50-383, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000061DOI Listing

Peptidylprolylisomerases, Protein Folders, or Scaffolders? The Example of FKBP51 and FKBP52.

Authors:
Theo Rein

Bioessays 2020 Jul 22;42(7):e1900250. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Translational Science in Psychiatry, Munich, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, 80804, Germany.

Peptidylprolyl-isomerases (PPIases) comprise of the protein families of FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), cyclophilins, and parvulins. Their common feature is their ability to expedite the transition of peptidylprolyl bonds between the cis and the trans conformation. Thus, it seemed highly plausible that PPIase enzymatic activity is crucial for protein folding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900250DOI Listing

Novel Insights into Tooth Row Development: From Old Ideas to New Concepts.

Authors:
Jürgen Kriwet

Bioessays 2020 Jun 22;42(6):e2000045. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Geozentrum, Vienna, 1090, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000045DOI Listing

Heritable Epigenetic Changes Alter Transgenerational Waveforms Maintained by Cycling Stores of Information.

Authors:
Antony M Jose

Bioessays 2020 Jul 22;42(7):e1900254. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

Our view of heredity can potentially be distorted by the ease of introducing heritable changes in the replicating gene sequences but not in the cycling assembly of regulators around gene sequences. Here, key experiments that have informed the understanding of heredity are reinterpreted to highlight this distortion and the possible variety of heritable changes are considered. Unlike heritable genetic changes, which are always associated with mutations in gene sequence, heritable epigenetic changes can be associated with physical or chemical changes in molecules or only changes in the system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900254DOI Listing

Understanding Human Lung Development through In Vitro Model Systems.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 20;42(6):e2000006. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104, USA.

An abundance of information about lung development in animal models exists; however, comparatively little is known about lung development in humans. Recent advances using primary human lung tissue combined with the use of human in vitro model systems, such as human pluripotent stem cell-derived tissue, have led to a growing understanding of the mechanisms governing human lung development. They have illuminated key differences between animal models and humans, underscoring the need for continued advancements in modeling human lung development and utilizing human tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000006DOI Listing

Microbiome Structure and Function: A New Framework for Interpreting Data.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 20;42(7):e1900255. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

University of Bordeaux and CNRS - ImmunoConcept, UMR5164, 146 rue Léo Saignat, Bordeaux, 33076, France.

A distinction between different notions of "structure" and "function" is suggested for interpreting the overwhelming amount of data on microbiome structure and function. Sequence data, biochemical agents, interaction networks, taxonomic communities, and their dynamics can be linked to potential or actual biochemical activities, causal roles, and selected effects, respectively. This conceptual clarification has important methodological consequences for how to interpret existing data and approach open questions in contemporary microbiome research practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900255DOI Listing

A Novel Eukaryote-Like CRISPR Activation Tool in Bacteria: Features and Capabilities.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 20;42(6):e1900252. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF, UK.

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) activation (CRISPRa) in bacteria is an attractive method for programmable gene activation. Recently, a eukaryote-like, σ -dependent CRISPRa system has been reported. It exhibits high dynamic ranges and permits flexible target site selection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900252DOI Listing

Sequencing Strategies for Fusion Gene Detection.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 19;42(7):e2000016. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

Fusion genes formed by chromosomal rearrangements are common drivers of cancer. Recent innovations in the field of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have seen a dynamic shift from traditional fusion detection approaches, such as visual characterization by fluorescence, to more precise multiplexed methods. There are many different NGS-based approaches to fusion gene detection and deciding on the most appropriate method can be difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000016DOI Listing

A Cryptic Alternative for the Evolution of Hyphae.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 19;42(6):e1900183. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

School of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, 6009, Australia.

A growing awareness of a subsurface fossil record of mostly hyphal fungi organisms stretching back through the Phanerozoic to ≈400 megaannum (Ma) and possibly earlier, provides an alternative view on hyphal development. Parallel with the emergence of hyphal fungi during Ordovician-Devonian times when plants colonized the land, which is the traditional notion of hyphal evolution, hyphae-based fungi existed in the deep biosphere. New insights suggest that the fundamental functions of hyphae may have evolved in response to an ancient subsurface endolithic life style and might have been in place before the colonization of land. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900183DOI Listing

Eustress and Distress: Neither Good Nor Bad, but Rather the Same?

Bioessays 2020 Jul 17;42(7):e1900238. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, building A29, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

The terms "eustress" and "distress" are widely used throughout the scientific literature. As of February 2020, 203 items in the Web of Science show up in a search for "eustress," however, there are almost 16 400 items found in a search for the term "distress." Based on the reasoning in this article, however, it is believed there is no such thing as eustress or distress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900238DOI Listing

Evolutionary Views of Tuberculosis: Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Catalyzed Nicotinamide Synthesis Reflects Shifts in Macrophage Metabolism: Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Reflects Altered Macrophage Metabolism During Tuberculosis Pathogenesis.

Bioessays 2020 May;42(5):e1900220

Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, 2192, South Africa.

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in conversion of tryptophan to kynurenines, feeding de novo nicotinamide synthesis. IDO orchestrates materno-foetal tolerance, increasing human reproductive fitness. IDO mediates immune suppression through depletion of tryptophan required by T lymphocytes and other mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900220DOI Listing

10th Royan Institute's International Summer School on "Molecular Biomedicine: From Diagnostics to Therapeutics".

Bioessays 2020 Jun 17;42(6):e2000042. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Cell Engineering, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, 141973317, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000042DOI Listing
June 2020
4.730 Impact Factor

The Mechanical Role of Microtubules in Tissue Remodeling.

Authors:
Maja Matis

Bioessays 2020 May 6;42(5):e1900244. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Institute of Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, University of Münster, Münster, 48149, Germany.

During morphogenesis, tissues undergo extensive remodeling to get their final shape. Such precise sculpting requires the application of forces generated within cells by the cytoskeleton and transmission of these forces through adhesion molecules within and between neighboring cells. Within individual cells, microtubules together with actomyosin filaments and intermediate filaments form the composite cytoskeleton that controls cell mechanics during tissue rearrangements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900244DOI Listing

Rhes Tunnels: A Radical New Way of Communication in the Brain's Striatum?

Bioessays 2020 Jun 1;42(6):e1900231. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL, 33458, USA.

Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) is a striatal enriched protein that promotes the formation of thin membranous tubes resembling tunneling nanotubes (TNT)-"Rhes tunnels"-that connect neighboring cell and transport cargoes: vesicles and proteins between the neuronal cells. Here the literature on TNT-like structures is reviewed, and the implications of Rhes-mediated TNT, the mechanisms of its formation, and its potential in novel cell-to-cell communication in regulating striatal biology and disease are emphasized. Thought-provoking ideas regarding how Rhes-mediated TNT, if it exists, in vivo, would radically change the way neurons communicate in the brain are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310467PMC

Repair and Reconstruction of Telomeric and Subtelomeric Regions and Genesis of New Telomeres: Implications for Chromosome Evolution.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 1;42(6):e1900177. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08827, Korea.

DNA damage repair within telomeres are suppressed to maintain the integrity of linear chromosomes, but the accidental activation of repairs can lead to genome instability. This review develops the concept that mechanisms to repair DNA damage in telomeres contribute to genetic variability and karyotype evolution, rather than catastrophe. Spontaneous breaks in telomeres can be repaired by telomerase, but in some cases DNA repair pathways are activated, and can cause chromosomal rearrangements or fusions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201900177DOI Listing

The Study That Made Rats Jump for Joy, and Then Killed Them: The Gap between Knowledge and Practice Widens When Scientists Fail to Engage with the Ethical Implications of Their Own Work.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 1;42(6):e2000030. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Institut des Sciences de l'Évolution, Université de Montpellier, CC 065, Montpellier 05, 34095, France.

Much contemporary behavioral science stops short of considering the ethical implications of its own findings. This generates a contradiction between methods and discoveries, and hinders translation between updated scientific evidence for animal sentience and corresponding political and legal changes. A recent and particularly illustrative example in rodents is described here. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000030DOI Listing

Introducing the 21st Century's New Four Horsemen of the Coronapocalypse.

Bioessays 2020 Jul 4;42(7):e2000063. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Science, Mathematics, and Technology Cluster, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Rd, Singapore, 487372, Singapore.

As the world struggles through the COVID-19 pandemic, we should also be asking what systems-level measures will be needed to prevent this or even worse disasters from happening in the future. We argue that the pandemic is merely one of potentially myriad and pleiomorphic future global disasters generated by the same underlying dynamical system. We explain that there are four broad but easily identifiable systemic, pathologically networked conditions that are hurtling civilization toward potential self-destruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000063DOI Listing

Ghost Introgression: Spooky Gene Flow in the Distant Past.

Bioessays 2020 Jun 29;42(6):e2000012. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, Uppsala, SE-752 36, Sweden.

Evolution is a continuous trial and error process in which most lineages go extinct without leaving fossil remains. Many of these lineages would be closely related and occasionally hybridized with lineages that gave rise to extant species. Hence, it is likely that one can find genetic signatures of these ancient introgression events in present-day genomes, so-called ghost introgression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000012DOI Listing
June 2020
4.730 Impact Factor