249,886 results match your criteria Bioengineering & translational medicine[Journal]


Ultrasound multiple scattering with microbubbles can differentiate between tumor and healthy tissue in vivo.

Phys Med Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, UNITED STATES.

Most solid tumors are characterized by highly dense, isotropic vessel networks. Characterization of such features has shown promise for early cancer diagnosis. Ultrasound diffusion has been used to characterize the micro-architecture of complex media, such as bone and the lungs. Read More

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http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6560/ab1a44
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab1a44DOI Listing
April 2019
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Recognition of silver cations by multifarene[2,2] chemosensors with unexpected fluorescence response.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Apr 9;218:213-220. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Biomedical & Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1068 Xueyuan Avenue, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Fluorescent chemosensors based on a new macrocyclic compound, multifarene[2,2], with modification by triazole-linked pyrene or anthracene were synthesized. These macrocyclic sensors exhibited high affinity and selectivity toward Ag over other metal ions, with ratiometric or enhanced response of their fluorescence emissions depending upon the substituent species for coordination to Ag, and an unexpected response to a concentration threshold of the metal cations was discovered. The experimental evidences of fluorescence spectra, H NMR titration, IR spectra, and high-resolution mass spectra suggested the coordination behaviors of the sensors with Ag, that is, the 1:1 complexes were formed with moderate association constants of about 10 L·mol, and the sulfur atoms on macrocyclic ligand should affinite to the metal cations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Determinants of structural segregation and patterning in the human cortex.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, USA.

This study aimed at uncovering mechanisms that govern the spatio-temporal patterning of the human cortex and its structural variability, and drawing links between fetal brain development and variability in adult brains. A data-driven analytic approach based on structural MR images revealed the following findings: (1) The cortical surface can be subdivided into 13 independent regions ("communities") based on macroscopic features. (2) Thirty centers of low inter-subject variability were found in major sulci on the cortical surface. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10538119193031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.031DOI Listing
April 2019
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A Comprehensive Drosophila melanogaster Transcription Factor Interactome.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):955-970.e7

Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Systems Biology Graduate Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Bioinformatics and Integrative Genomics Ph.D. Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Combinatorial interactions among transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in generating gene expression specificity and diversity in metazoans. Using yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) assays on nearly all sequence-specific Drosophila TFs, we identified 1,983 protein-protein interactions (PPIs), more than doubling the number of currently known PPIs among Drosophila TFs. For quality assessment, we validated a subset of our interactions using MITOMI and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.071DOI Listing

Quantitative Characterization of α-Synuclein Aggregation in Living Cells through Automated Microfluidics Feedback Control.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):916-927.e5

Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (NA), Italy; Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Aggregation of α-synuclein and formation of inclusions are hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Aggregate formation is affected by cellular environment, but it has been studied almost exclusively in cell-free systems. We quantitatively analyzed α-synuclein inclusion formation and clearance in a yeast cell model of PD expressing either wild-type (WT) α-synuclein or the disease-associated A53T mutant from the galactose (Gal)-inducible promoter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.081DOI Listing

The Influenza A Virus Endoribonuclease PA-X Usurps Host mRNA Processing Machinery to Limit Host Gene Expression.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):776-792.e7

Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Many viruses shut off host gene expression to inhibit antiviral responses. Viral proteins and host proteins required for viral replication are typically spared in this process, but the mechanisms of target selectivity during host shutoff remain poorly understood. Using transcriptome-wide and targeted reporter experiments, we demonstrate that the influenza A virus endoribonuclease PA-X usurps RNA splicing to selectively target host RNAs for destruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.063DOI Listing

Potential Technologies Review - A hybrid information retrieval framework to accelerate demand-pull innovation in biomedical engineering.

Res Synth Methods 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Science Management, Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Launching biomedical innovations based on clinical demands instead of translating basic research findings to practice reduces the risk that the results will not fit the clinical routine. To realize this type of innovation, a meta-analysis of the body of research is necessary to reveal demand-matching concepts. However, both the data deluge and the narrow time constraints for innovation make it impossible to perform such reviews manually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1350DOI Listing

Large cortical bone pores in the tibia are associated with proximal femur strength.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215405. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Alterations of structure and density of cortical bone are associated with fragility fractures and can be assessed in vivo in humans at the tibia. Bone remodeling deficits in aging women have been recently linked to an increase in size of cortical pores. In this ex vivo study, we characterized the cortical microarchitecture of 19 tibiae from human donors (aged 69 to 94 years) to address, whether this can reflect impairments of the mechanical competence of the proximal femur, i. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215405PLOS

The long-term effects of an implantable drop foot stimulator on gait in hemiparetic patients.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214991. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Drop foot is a frequent abnormality in gait after central nervous system lesions. Different treatment strategies are available to functionally restore dorsal extension during swing phase in gait. Orthoses as well as surface and implantable devices for electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve may be used in patients who do not regain good dorsal extension. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214991PLOS
April 2019
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Interactive biomedical ontology matching.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215147. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

College of Information Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Due to continuous evolution of biomedical data, biomedical ontologies are becoming larger and more complex, which leads to the existence of many overlapping information. To support semantic inter-operability between ontology-based biomedical systems, it is necessary to identify the correspondences between these information, which is commonly known as biomedical ontology matching. However, it is a challenge to match biomedical ontologies, which dues to: (1) biomedical ontologies often possess tens of thousands of entities, (2) biomedical terminologies are complex and ambiguous. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215147PLOS

Selective colony area method for heterogeneous patient-derived tumor cell lines in anti-cancer drug screening system.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215080. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

We aimed to establish a fluorescence intensity-based colony area sweeping method by selecting the area of highest viability among patient-derived cancer cells (PDC) which has high tumor heterogeneity. Five gastric cancer cell lines and PDCs were screened with 24 small molecule compounds using a 3D micropillar/microwell chip. 100 tumor cells per well were immobilized in alginate, treated with the compounds, and then stained and scanned for viable cells. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215080PLOS
April 2019
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Cognitive fatigue and cortical-striatal network in old age.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

School of Nursing, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14623, USA.

Cognitive fatigue (CF) is among the most common and disturbing aging symptoms, and substantially interferes with activities demanding sustained mental effort. Here we examined the relationship between the cortical-striatal network and CF (assessed by the 18-item visual analogue scale) when a group of cognitively and physically healthy older adults participated in a 30-minute cognitively fatiguing task-related fMRI experiment. We also explored whether CF would interfere with the "Posterior-Anterior Shifting in Aging" (PASA) phenomenon, an aging-associated neural reliance on frontal regions to support cognitive capacity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101915DOI Listing

Role of KASH domain lengths in the regulation of LINC complexes.

Mol Biol Cell 2019 Apr 17:mbcE19020079. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Molecular Cell Biomechanics Laboratory, Departments of Bioengineering and Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States.

The LINC complex is formed by the conserved interactions between SUN and KASH domain proteins, providing a physical coupling between the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton that mediates the transfer of physical forces across the nuclear envelope. The LINC complex can perform distinct cellular functions by pairing various KASH domain proteins with the same SUN domain protein. For example, In , SUN protein UNC-84 binds to two KASH proteins UNC-83 and ANC-1 to mediate nuclear migration and anchorage, respectively. Read More

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https://www.molbiolcell.org/doi/10.1091/mbc.E19-02-0079
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E19-02-0079DOI Listing
April 2019
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Non-Human Primate Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Responses to Prosthetic Vestibular Stimulation are Robust to Pulse Timing Errors Caused by Temporal Discretization.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Otolaryngolgoy - Head & Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, United States.

Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent neurons to partially restore semicircular canal sensation of head rotation and the stabilizing reflexes that sensation supports has potential to effectively treat individuals disabled by bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Ideally, a vestibular implant system using this approach would be integrated with a cochlear implant, which would provide clinicians with a means to simultaneously treat loss of both vestibular and auditory sensation. Despite obvious similarities, merging these technologies poses several challenges, including stimulus pulse timing errors that arise when a system must implement a pulse-frequency-modulation encoding scheme (as is used in vestibular implants to mimic normal vestibular nerve encoding of head movement) within fixed-rate continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategies used in cochlear implants. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00887.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00887.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
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Supplemental vibrotactile feedback of real-time limb position enhances precision of goal-directed reaching.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, United States.

We examined vibrotactile stimulation as a form of supplemental limb state feedback to enhance planning and ongoing control of goal-directed movements. Subjects wore a two-dimensional vibrotactile display on their non-dominant arm while performing horizontal planar reaching with the dominant arm. The vibrotactile display provided feedback of hand position such that small hand displacements were more easily discriminable using vibrotactile feedback than with intrinsic proprioceptive feedback. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00337.2018DOI Listing

Multi-scale modeling of mechanotransduction in the utricle.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biological Sciences, Ohio University, United States.

We review recent progress in using numerical models to relate utricular hair bundle and otoconial membrane structure to the functional requirements imposed by natural behavior in turtles. Section I reviews the evolution of experimental attempts to understand vestibular system function with emphasis on turtles, including data showing that accelerations occurring during natural head movements achieve higher magnitudes and frequencies than previously assumed. Section 2 reviews quantitative anatomical data documenting topographical variation in the structures underlying macromechanical and micromechanical responses of the turtle utricle to head movement: hair bundles, otoconial membrane (OM), and bundle-OM coupling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00068.2019DOI Listing

Activation of K7 channels with the anticonvulsant retigabine alleviates neuropathic pain behaviour in the streptozotocin rat model of diabetic neuropathy.

J Drug Target 2019 Apr 17:1-25. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

b Medical Physics & Biomedical Engineering, University College London , Gower, Street , London , UK.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most incapacitating complication of diabetes mellitus. Up to 50% of patients with DPN develop peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP). The underlying ionic and molecular mechanisms of diabetic PNP (DPNP) are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2019.1608552DOI Listing

Influence of Axial Length on Parafoveal and Peripapillary Metrics from Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Curr Eye Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

a Department of Ophthalmology , 1st affiliated hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an , Shaanxi , China .

Purpose: To assess the effect of axial length (AL) on the quantification of superficial vessel density of both macular and disc region using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional clinical study. Seventy-five eyes from 75 Chinese healthy participants (56 females) with a mean age of 26. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1607393DOI Listing

Optimizing the Diagnosis of Parkinsonian Syndromes With I-Ioflupane Brain SPECT.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

The purpose of this article is to provide a review of I-ioflupane SPECT in the evaluation of suspected parkinsonian syndromes (PSs). This collection of diseases presents frequent diagnostic challenges, even by movement disorder and dementia specialists. The I-ioflupane scan serves as an imaging biomarker of the status of presynaptic dopamine transporters (DATs) in the striatum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21088DOI Listing

Heterologous Prime-Boost Enhances the Antitumor Immune Response Elicited by Plant-Virus-Based Cancer Vaccine.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering , Case Western Reserve University , 10900 Euclid Avenue , Cleveland , Ohio 44106 , United States.

New cancer vaccine strategies are required to vanquish the self-tolerance and elicit robust immune responses against tumor-associated antigens and/or neoantigens. Contemporary approaches in nanomedicine center on the use of a single nanocarrier modified with multiple copies of multiple different functional domains, e.g. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.9b01523
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b01523DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fabella prevalence rate increases over 150 years, and rates of other sesamoid bones remain constant: a systematic review.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The fabella is a sesamoid bone located behind the lateral femoral condyle. It is common in non-human mammals, but the prevalence rates in humans vary from 3 to 87%. Here, we calculate the prevalence of the fabella in a Korean population and investigate possible temporal shifts in prevalence rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12994DOI Listing

Polydopamine nanosphere@silver nanoclusters for fluorescence detection of multiplex tumor markers.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163, P. R. China. and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P. R. China and Jinan Guokeyigong Science and Technology Development Co., Ltd, Jinan 250103, P. R. China.

There is an increasing demand to establish a convenient and stable analytical methodology for screening multiplex tumor markers in early diagnosis of cancers. In this work, an innovative fluorescence method is proposed for simultaneous detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A polydopamine nanosphere@silver nanocluster (PDAN@AgNC) system is introduced for fluorescence quenching and recovery. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9NR01307E
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr01307eDOI Listing
April 2019
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A visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical molecularly imprinted sensor based on titanium dioxide nanotube arrays loaded with silver iodide nanoparticles for the sensitive detection of benzoyl peroxide.

Analyst 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Function Materials, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Food Safety and Detection, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

A novel ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical sensor for benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was constructed under visible light irradiation. A novel nanostructured material made of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-modified silver iodide nanoparticle-titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (AgINPs-TiO2 NTs) was designed as a photoactive electrode (denoted as MIP@AgINPs-TiO2 NTs). AgI-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by a simple dissolution-precipitation-calcination process and then employed as a matrix to graft the MIP recognition element. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9an00234kDOI Listing

[Prospects and peculiarities of the procedure of ultrasound ablation of subcutaneous veins of the lower limbs].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2019 ;25(1):59-65

Department of Vascular Surgery, Russian Research Centre of Surgery named after Academician B.V. Petrovsky, Moscow, Russia.

The last decade has seen active development of minimally invasive (endovenous) methods of surgical removal of lower limb varicose veins (LLVV); however, the problem of increasing efficacy of these methods and improving long-term results still remains of current importance. The authors of this work propose a method of ultrasound ablation of subcutaneous veins of lower extremities. Our experimental study was aimed at determining the pattern of venous wall damage after ultrasound exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33529/angio2019108DOI Listing
January 2019

Mechanical Performance of Posterior Spinal Instrumentation and Growing Rod Implants: Experimental and Computational Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

MINI: This study compared mechanical performance of posterior spinal instrumentation and growing rods instrumentation using vertebrectomy model methodology. Growing rods were stiffer and stronger. Mechanical was within 10% of computational simulations for both models with 76 mm active lengths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003061DOI Listing
March 2019
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Academic Metrics Do Not Explain the Underrepresentation of Women in Orthopaedic Training Programs.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Apr;101(8):e32

Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Background: Among medical specialties, orthopaedic surgery persistently has one of the lowest representations of women in residency programs. This study examined whether differences exist in the academic metrics of the orthopaedic residency applicants and enrolled candidates by sex, which may be contributing to the persistent underrepresentation of women. Differences in enrollment rate in orthopaedic residency programs also were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01372DOI Listing

Polygenic risk scores in coronary artery disease.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants accounting for a substantial portion of the heritable risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). These studies have not only catalyzed drug discovery but also have opened the possibility of improved risk prediction and stratification. Here we review the current state-of-the art in polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and look to the future, as these scores move towards clinical application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000629DOI Listing

Predictive Estimates of Risks Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the Basis of Biochemical Biomarkers and Derived Time-Dependent Parameters.

J Comput Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Genetics, Cytology and Bioengineering, Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russian Federation.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2019.0028DOI Listing

Alternative Management of Oil and Gas Produced Water Requires More Research on its Hazards and Risks.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Environmental Defense Fund, Austin, TX, USA.

Produced water is the largest waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production operations. Most produced water generated on-shore is managed by permitted injection in deep underground wells but alternative disposal options including reuse are increasingly being considered. However, insufficient understanding of the composition and toxicity of produced water imposes significant constraints on effective management of potential short-term and long-term risks associated with such alternative uses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4160DOI Listing

Three-dimensional Therapy Needle Applicator Segmentation for Ultrasound-guided Focal Liver Ablation.

Med Phys 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Biophysics.

Purpose: Minimally invasive procedures, such as microwave ablation, are becoming first-line treatment options for early-stage liver cancer due to lower complication rates and shorter recovery times than conventional surgical techniques. Although these procedures are promising, one reason preventing widespread adoption is inadequate local tumour ablation leading to observations of higher local cancer recurrence compared to conventional procedures. Poor ablation coverage has been associated with two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) guidance of the therapy needle applicators and has stimulated investigation into the use of three-dimensional (3D) US imaging for these procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.13548DOI Listing

Oropharyngeal dysphagia in early stages of myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Muscle Nerve 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Laboratory of Genomic Medicine, Department of Genetics, National Rehabilitation Institute (INR-LGII), Mexico City, Mexico.

Introduction: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder characterized mainly by skeletal muscle alterations. Althought oropharyngeal dysphagia is a prominent clinical feature of DM1, it remains poorly studied in its early disease stages.

Methods: Dysphagia was investigated in 11 pre-symptomatic DM1-carriers, 14 DM1 patients, and 12 age-matched healthy controls, using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and clinical scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26485DOI Listing
April 2019
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Who Owns the Data in a Medical Information Commons?

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):62-69

Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors. She received a B.A. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania, a J.D. from the University of Houston, and a Ph.D. from the Institute for Medical Humanities at the University of Texas Medical Branch. Jessica L. Roberts, J.D., is the Alumnae College Professor in Law at the University of Houston Law Center and a past recipient of a Greenwall Faculty Scholar grant. She earned a B.A. in Political Science from the University of Southern California and a J.D. from Yale Law School. Sean Aas, Ph.D., M.A., is a Senior Research Scholar at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics and an Assistant Professor in the Philosophy Department at Georgetown. He is also, presently, a Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholar. He earned a B.A. and B.S. in Philosophy and Mathematics at The Evergreen State College, a M.A. in Philosophy from Georgia State University, and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from Brown University. Barbara J. Evans, MS, Ph.D., J.D., LL.M., is the Mary Ann and Lawrence E. Faust Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Biotechnology & Law at the University of Houston Law Center and holds a joint appointment as Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UH Cullen College of Engineering. She holds a B.S.E.E. from the University of Texas at Austin, M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University, a J.D. from Yale Law School, and an LL.M. in Health Law from University of Houston.

In this paper, we explore the perspectives of expert stakeholders about who owns data in a medical information commons (MIC) and what rights and interests ought to be recognized when developing a governance structure for an MIC. We then examine the legitimacy of these claims based on legal and ethical analysis and explore an alternative framework for thinking about participants' rights and interests in an MIC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840485DOI Listing

Importance of Participant-Centricity and Trust for a Sustainable Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):12-20

Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Jessica Bardill, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Indigenous Canadian Literatures and Cultures at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. Juli M. Bollinger, M.S., is a Research Associate in the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the Baylor College of Medicine and a Research Associate and Associate Faculty at the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University. Eric Boerwinkle, Ph.D., is the Dean of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health and the Associate Director, Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Tania Bubela, Ph.D., J.D., is the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Patricia Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses systems and policymakers. Barbara Evans, MS, Ph.D., J.D., LL.M., is the Mary Ann and Lawrence E. Faust Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Biotechnology & Law at the University of Houston Law Center and holds a joint appointment as Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UH Cullen College of Engineering. Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Ph.D. (Navajo), is an Assistant Professor at the Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics at Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Institute and at the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. David Glazer is an engineering director at Verily Life Sciences, where he helps life science organizations use cloud computing to accelerate and scale their work with big data. Melissa M. Goldstein, J.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University. Henry T. Greely, J.D., is the Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and a professor (by courtesy) of Genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Center for Law and the Biosciences. He is President of the International Neuroethics Society, co-chair of the Neuroethics Work Group of the NIH BRAIN Initiative, and a member of the National Academies' Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Scott D. Kahn, Ph.D., is the Chief Information Officer at LunaDNA where he is responsible for all informatics and data science strategy. Bartha M. Knoppers, Ph.D., (Comparative Medical Law), is a Full Professor, Canada Research Chair in Law and Medicine and Director of the Centre of Genomics and Policy of the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She also serve as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. J. Mark Lambright, M.B.A., is the Chairman, Trident Advisors, LLC - CEO (Interim), Private Access, Inc. Mark Lambright has been a senior executive of a number of healthcare and technology companies ranging in size from startup to multi-billion in revenue. John Mattison, M.D., is Assistant Medical Director, KP, SCAL, Chief Health Information Officer. Founder of CDA/CCD (XML standard for healthcare interoperability). Co-Editor of Healthcare Information Technology (2017 McGraw Hill). Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H., is Chief, Cardiology Section and Director, Center for Population Genomics, of the Boston VA Healthcare System and co-Principal Investigator (Chief Scientist) of the national VA Million Veteran Program; and is VA Contact Principal Investigator of the NIH All of Us Research Program. He is also a faculty member of the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Arti K. Rai, J.D., is the Elvin R. Latty Professor of Law and co-Director of the Center for Innovation Policy at Duke Law. Laura L. Rodriguez, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of Policy, Communications, and Education at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Tania Simoncelli, M.S., is the Director of Science Policy at the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. Formerly Executive Director, Count Me In at the Broad Institute, Assistant Director of Forensic Science and Biomedical Innovation, White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, and Science Advisor to the American Civil Liberties Union. Sharon F. Terry, M.A., is the president and CEO of Genetic Alliance. Adrian Thorogood, B.C.L./LL.B., is a lawyer and Academic Associate at the Centre of Genomics and Policy at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He manages the Regulatory and Ethics Work Stream of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. Michael S. Watson, M.S., Ph.D., is the Executive Director, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ACMG Foundation for Genetic and Genomic Medicine and an Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. John T. Wilbanks is the Chief Commons Officer at Sage Bionetworks, and co-PI on awards for AllofUs Research Program, ELSI Issues in Unregulated Mobile Research, CTSA Center for Data To Health. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University.

Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons (MIC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840480DOI Listing

Automatic stratification of prostate tumour aggressiveness using multiparametric MRI: a horizontal comparison of texture features.

Acta Oncol 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

a The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology , The University of Melbourne , Melbourne , Australia.

Background: Previous studies have identified apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can stratify prostate cancer into high- and low-grade disease (HG and LG, respectively). In this study, we consider the improvement of incorporating texture features (TFs) from T2-weighted (T2w) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) relative to mpMRI alone to predict HG and LG disease.

Material And Methods: In vivo mpMRI was acquired from 30 patients prior to radical prostatectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2019.1598576DOI Listing

Iridium-Catalyzed α-Methylation of α-Aryl Esters Using Methanol as the C1 Source.

Org Lett 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering , Kansai University , Suita , Osaka 564-8680 , Japan.

IrCl(cod)]/dppe-catalyzed α-methylation of aryl esters using methanol as the C1 source was developed. This methylation process is useful in several fields including organic chemistry, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry. Readily available methanol as methylation reagent was successfully adapted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.9b01025DOI Listing

Mouse Extraocular Muscles and the Musculotopic Organization of their Innervation.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Departments of Neurobiology & Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, U.S.A.

The organization of extraocular muscles and their motor nuclei was investigated in the mouse due to the increased importance of this model for oculomotor research. Mice showed a standard extraocular muscle organization pattern, although their eyes are set at the side of the head. They do have more prominent oblique muscles, whose insertion points differ from those of frontal-eyed species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24141DOI Listing

Preparation and Characterization of Curcumin-Loaded Polymeric Nanomicelles to Interference with Amyloidogenesis through Glycation Method.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Bioengineering Research Group, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran, Iran.

Amyloid fibrils, including β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrils, are protein aggregates that form under certain conditions, associated with neurodegeneration that interfere with neural synaptic transmission resulting in some neural disorders, such as Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study is to inhibit amyloidogenesis by using preparatory polymeric nanomicelles as therapeutic agents and also as nano carriers for curcumin to target Aβ fibrils through the glycation method of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the presence of Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS). Polymeric nanomicelles were prepared from Phosphatidylethanolamine-distearoyl methoxypolyethylene glycol conjugates in the presence and absence of Curcumin and then the morphological and structural characteristics of the nanomicelles were characterized in detail. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bab.1751
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1751DOI Listing
April 2019
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Transcranial Magneto-Acoustic Stimulation Improves Neuroplasticity in Hippocampus of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

Neurotherapeutics 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

College of Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Neurovascular Regulation, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

In this study, we have, for the first time, demonstrated the beneficial effects of transcranial magneto-acoustic stimulation (TMAS), a technique based on focused ultrasound stimulation within static magnetic field, on the learning and memory abilities and neuroplasticity of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our results showed that chronic TMAS treatment (2 weeks) improved the outcome of Morris water maze, long-term potentiation (LTP), and dendritic spine densities in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus of PD model mice. To further investigate into the underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects by TMAS, we quantified the proteins in the hippocampus that regulated neuroplasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-019-00732-5DOI Listing
April 2019
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Correction to: PyPNS: Multiscale Simulation of a Peripheral Nerve in Python.

Neuroinformatics 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The following text: "This project has received funding from European Research Council (ERC) Synergy Grant no. 319818. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12021-019-09421-2DOI Listing

Quantitative and Qualitative Improvement of Low-Count [Ga]Citrate and [Y]Microspheres PET Image Reconstructions Using Block Sequential Regularized Expectation Maximization Algorithm.

Mol Imaging Biol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0946, USA.

Purpose: There are several important positron emission tomography (PET) imaging scenarios that require imaging with very low photon statistics, for which both quantitative accuracy and visual quality should not be neglected. For example, PET imaging with the low photon statistics is closely related to active efforts to significantly reduce radiation exposure from radiopharmaceuticals. We investigated two examples of low-count PET imaging: (a) imaging [Y]microsphere radioembolization that suffers the very small positron emission fraction of Y-90's decay processes, and (b) cancer imaging with [Ga]citrate with uptake time of 3-4 half-lives, necessary for visualizing tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-019-01347-0DOI Listing

Efficacy of mechanical vibration in regulating mesenchymal stem cells gene expression.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed at investigating the expression of osteoblast and chondrocyte-related genes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from rabbit adipose tissue, under mechanical vibration. The cells were placed securely on a vibrator's platform and subjected to 300 Hz of sinusoidal vibration, with a maximum amplitude of 10 μm, for 45 min per day, and for 14 consequent days, in the absence of biochemical reagents. The negative control group was placed in the conventional culture medium with no mechanical loading. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-019-00340-9DOI Listing

Quantitative Phenotyping of Cell-Cell Junctions to Evaluate ZO-1 Presentation in Brain Endothelial Cells.

Ann Biomed Eng 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

The selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is controlled by tight junction-expressing brain endothelial cells. The integrity of these junctional proteins, which anchor to actin via zonula occludens (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-019-02266-5DOI Listing

Can we reduce the workload of mammographic screening by automatic identification of normal exams with artificial intelligence? A feasibility study.

Eur Radiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To study the feasibility of automatically identifying normal digital mammography (DM) exams with artificial intelligence (AI) to reduce the breast cancer screening reading workload.

Methods And Materials: A total of 2652 DM exams (653 cancer) and interpretations by 101 radiologists were gathered from nine previously performed multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic (MRMC ROC) studies. An AI system was used to obtain a score between 1 and 10 for each exam, representing the likelihood of cancer present. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00330-019-06186-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06186-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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Type XI collagen-perlecan-HS interactions stabilise the pericellular matrix of annulus fibrosus cells and chondrocytes providing matrix stabilisation and homeostasis.

J Mol Histol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Raymond Purves Bone and Joint Research Laboratories, Level 10, Kolling Institute of Medical Research B6, The Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW, 2065, Australia.

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether, like many cell types in cartilaginous tissues if type XI collagen was a pericellular component of annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and chondrocytes. Fine fibrillar networks were visualised which were perlecan, HS (MAb 10E4) and type XI collagen positive. Heparitinase-III pre-digestion abolished the type XI collagen and 10E4 localisation in these fibrillar assemblies demonstrating a putative HS mediated interaction which localised the type XI collagen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-019-09823-1DOI Listing

Selective protein enrichment in calcium oxalate stone matrix: a window to pathogenesis?

Urolithiasis 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine/Division of Nephrology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Urine proteins are thought to control calcium oxalate stone formation, but over 1000 proteins have been reported in stone matrix obscuring their relative importance. Proteins critical to stone formation should be present at increased relative abundance in stone matrix compared to urine, so quantitative protein distribution data were obtained for stone matrix compared to prior urine proteome data. Matrix proteins were isolated from eight stones (> 90% calcium oxalate content) by crystal dissolution and further purified by ultradiafiltration (> 10 kDa membrane). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00240-019-01131-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-019-01131-3DOI Listing
April 2019
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Contextual knowledge provided by a movie biases implicit perception of the protagonist.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University, Finland.

We are constantly categorizing other people as belonging to our in-group ("one of us") or out-group ("one of them"). Such grouping occurs fast and automatically and can be based on others' visible characteristics such as skin color or clothing style. Here we studied neural underpinnings of implicit social grouping not often visible on the face, male sexual orientation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsz028DOI Listing

Ginsenoside Rk3 ameliorates high-fat-diet/streptozocin induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice via the AMPK/Akt signaling pathway.

Food Funct 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, 229 North Taibai Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069, China. and Shaanxi R&D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, 229 North Taibai Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069, China.

Ginsenoside Rk3 (G-Rk3) is a main active ingredient of ginsenosides. Several recent studies demonstrated that ginsenosides have potential anti-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) properties. To evaluate the anti-T2DM effect of G-Rk3 and verify its potential mechanism, a high-fat-diet/streptozocin (HFD/STZ) induced model of T2DM in C57BL/6 mice and a high glucose induced insulin resistance model of HepG2 cells were applied in this research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00095jDOI Listing

A surface with stress, extensional elasticity, and bending stiffness.

Soft Matter 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18017, USA. and Department of Bioengineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18017, USA.

We demonstrate that the surface of a commonly used polydimethylsiloxane formulation (PDMS, Sylgard 184) treated by ultraviolet ozonolysis (UVO) has significant surface stress, considerable extensional elasticity (the "Shuttleworth Effect"), and surface bending elasticity. For soft solids, phenomena such as wetting, contact, surface flattening, and stiffening by liquid inclusions are often governed by their surface, which is usually represented by a liquid-like constant surface stress. Whether the surfaces of soft solids can have more complex constitutive response is actively debated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm00075eDOI Listing

A 2D laser rangefinder scans dataset of standard EUR pallets.

Data Brief 2019 Jun 22;24:103837. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering (DIBRIS), University of Genoa, Italy.

In the past few years, the technology of automated guided vehicles (AGVs) has notably advanced. In particular, in the context of factory and warehouse automation, different approaches have been presented for detecting and localizing pallets inside warehouses and shop-floor environments. In a related research paper Mohamed et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449777PMC

The assessment of instability in the osteoarthritic knee.

EFORT Open Rev 2019 Mar 8;4(3):70-76. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

Patient-reported instability is a common complaint amongst those with knee arthritis.Much research has examined the assessment of self-reported instability in the knee; however, no definitive quantitative measure of instability has been developed.This review focuses on the current literature investigating the nature of self-reported instability in the arthritic knee and discusses the possibilities of further investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2058-5241.4.170079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440299PMC