4,088 results match your criteria Biochemistry. Biokhimiia[Journal]


Significance of Glutamate Racemase for the Viability and Cell Wall Integrity of Streptococcus iniae.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):248-256

College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, 050024, China.

Streptococcus iniae is a pathogenic and zoonotic bacterium responsible for human diseases and mortality of many fish species. Recently, this bacterium has demonstrated an increasing trend for antibiotics resistance, which has warranted a search for new approaches to tackle its infection. Glutamate racemase (MurI) is a ubiquitous enzyme of the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway that plays an important role in the cell wall integrity maintenance; however, the significance of this enzyme differs in different species. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020121DOI Listing
February 2020

Elucidation of the K32 Capsular Polysaccharide Structure and Characterization of the KL32 Gene Cluster of Acinetobacter baumannii LUH5549.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):241-247

Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii LUH5549 carrying the KL32 capsule biosynthesis gene cluster, was studied by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, and one- and two-dimensional H and C NMR spectroscopy. The K32 CPS was found to be composed of branched pentasaccharide repeats (K units) containing two residues of β-D-GalpNAc and one residue of β-D-GlcpA (β-D-glucuronic acid) in the main chain and one residue each of β-D-Glcp and α-D-GlcpNAc in the disaccharide side chain. Consistent with the established CPS structure, the KL32 gene cluster includes genes for a UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (Ugd3) responsible for D-GlcA synthesis and four glycosyltransferases that were assigned to specific linkages. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629792002011XDOI Listing
February 2020

Variations in the Expression of Terminal Oligosaccharide Units and Glycosylation of Poly(N-acetyllactosamine) Chain in the Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide upon Colonization of Rhesus Macaques.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):234-240

Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. O-polysaccharides of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are composed of (β1→3)-poly(N-acetyllactosamine) (polyLacNAc) decorated with multiple α-L-fucose residues. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020108DOI Listing
February 2020

Complexes Formed via Bioconjugation of Genetically Modified TMV Particles with Conserved Influenza Antigen: Synthesis and Characterization.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):224-233

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Recently we obtained complexes between genetically modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) particles and proteins carrying conserved influenza antigen such as M2e epitope. Viral vector TMV-N-lys based on TMV-U1 genome was constructed by insertion of chemically active lysine into the exposed N-terminal part of the coat protein. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were agroinjected and TMV-N-lys virions were purified from non-inoculated leaves. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020091DOI Listing
February 2020

Neurotrophins of the Fetal Brain and Placenta in Prenatal Hyperhomocysteinemia.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):213-223

Ott Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductology, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia.

Prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia (PHHC) in pregnant rats was induced by chronic L-methionine loading, resulting in a significant increase in the L-homocysteine content both in the mothers' blood and blood and brain of fetuses. Significant decrease in the weight of the placenta, fetus, and fetal brain was detected by the morphometric studies on day 20 of pregnancy. PHHC also activated maternal immune system due to the increase in the content of proinflammatory interleukin-1β in the rat blood and fetal part of the placenta. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629792002008XDOI Listing
February 2020

Thymoquinone Induces Mitochondrial Damage and Death of Cerebellar Granule Neurons.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):205-212

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, 125367, Russia.

Thymoquinone (TQ) exhibits a wide spectrum of biological activities. Most studies on the neurotoxic action of TQ have been carried out in cancer cell lines. Here, we studied the toxic effect of TQ in primary neuronal cultures in vitro. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020078DOI Listing
February 2020

Catalytically Competent Conformation of the Active Site of Human 8-Oxoguanine-DNA Glycosylase.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):192-204

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.

8-Oxoguanine-DNA N-glycosylase (OGG1) is a eukaryotic DNA repair enzyme responsible for the removal of 8-oxoguanine (oxoG), one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions. OGG1 catalyzes two successive reactions - N-glycosidic bond hydrolysis (glycosylase activity) and DNA strand cleavage on the 3'-side of the lesion by β-elimination (lyase activity). The enzyme also exhibits lyase activity with substrates containing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (deoxyribose moieties lacking the nucleobase). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020066DOI Listing
February 2020

Lipid Rafts in Exosome Biogenesis.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):177-191

Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 115478, Russia.

Exosomes (secreted extracellular vesicles formed in the intracellular vesicular transport system) play a crucial role in distant cell-cell communication. Exosomes transfer active forms of various biomolecules; the molecular composition of the exosomal cargo is a result of targeted selection and depends on the type of producer cells. The mechanisms underlying exosome formation and cargo selection are poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020054DOI Listing
February 2020

Thymoquinone as a Potential Neuroprotector in Acute and Chronic Forms of Cerebral Pathology.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):167-176

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, 125367, Russia.

Thymoquinone is one of the main active components of the essential oil from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds. Thymoquinone exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective action demonstrated in the models of brain ischemia/reperfusion, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and traumatic brain injury. The neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone is mediated via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, and prevention of apoptosis through inhibition of caspases-3, -8, and -9. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020042DOI Listing
February 2020

Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques and Their Use in Bioanalysis.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):147-166

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Recently, there has been a rapid progress in the development of techniques for isothermal amplification of nucleic acids as an alternative to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The advantage of these methods is that the nucleic acids amplification can be carried out at constant temperature, unlike PCR, which requires cyclic temperature changes. Moreover, isothermal amplification can be conducted directly in living cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223333PMC
February 2020

Single Cell Proteogenomics - Immediate Prospects.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):140-146

Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, Semenov Federal Research Center of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334, Russia.

Recent technical advances in genomic technology have led to the explosive growth of transcriptome-wide studies at the level of single cells. The review describes the first steps of the single cell proteomics that has originated soon after development of transcriptomics methods. The first studies on the shotgun proteomics of single cells that used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry have been already published. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020029DOI Listing
February 2020

Granzymes and Mitochondria.

Authors:
D B Kiselevsky

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Feb;85(2):131-139

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells eliminate infected cells from the organism by triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). The contents of the lytic granules of killer cells, including pore-forming proteins perforins and proteolytic enzymes granzymes, are released with the following penetration of the released proteins into the target cells. Granzyme B initiates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis via (i) proapoptotic Bid protein, (ii) Mcl-1 and Bim proteins, or (iii) p53 protein. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920020017DOI Listing
February 2020

Nanohybrid Structures Based on Plasmonic or Fluorescent Nanoparticles and Retinal-Containing Proteins.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S196-S212

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

Rhodopsins are light-sensitive membrane proteins enabling transmembrane charge separation (proton pump) on absorption of a light quantum. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a transmembrane protein from halophilic bacteria that belongs to the rhodopsin family. Potential applications of BR are considered so promising that the number of studies devoted to the use of BR itself, its mutant variants, as well as hybrid materials containing BR in various areas grows steadily. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140102DOI Listing
January 2020

Phospholipase Superfamily: Structure, Functions, and Biotechnological Applications.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S177-S195

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center "Fundamentals of Biotechnology", Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Enzymes of the phospholipase superfamily are involved in lipid metabolism, as well as regulation of membrane composition, cell signaling, and inflammation. This review provides an insight into the structure, functional properties, and biotechnological application of phospholipase A2 and phospholipases in general. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140096DOI Listing
January 2020

Chitin/Chitosan and Its Derivatives: Fundamental Problems and Practical Approaches.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S154-S176

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Federal Research Center "Fundamentals of Biotechnology", Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312, Russia.

In this review, we present the data on the natural occurrence of chitin and its partially or fully deacetylated derivative chitosan, as well as their properties, methods of modification, and potential applications of derivatives with bactericidal, fungicidal, and antioxidant activities. The structure and physicochemical characteristics of the polymers, their functions, and features of chitin microbial synthesis and degradation, including the processes occurring in nature, are described. New data on the hydrolytic microorganisms capable of chitin degradation under extreme conditions are presented. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140084DOI Listing
January 2020

Evolution of Proteins of the DNA Photolyase/Cryptochrome Family.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S131-S153

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Proteins of the cryptochrome/DNA photolyase family (CPF) are phylogenetically related and structurally conserved flavoproteins that perform various functions. DNA photolyases repair DNA damage caused by UV-B radiation by exposure to UV-A/blue light simultaneously or subsequently. Cryptochromes are photoreceptor proteins regulating circadian clock, morphogenesis, phototaxis, and other responses to UV and blue light in various organisms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140072DOI Listing
January 2020

Neuroregeneration: Regulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Aging.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S108-S130

National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V. I. Kulakov, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

It had been commonly believed for a long time, that once established, degeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) is irreparable, and that adult person merely cannot restore dead or injured neurons. The existence of stem cells (SCs) in the mature brain, an organ with minimal regenerative ability, had been ignored for many years. Currently accepted that specific structures of the adult brain contain neural SCs (NSCs) that can self-renew and generate terminally differentiated brain cells, including neurons and glia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140060DOI Listing
January 2020

Drug-Related Carcinogenesis: Risk Factors and Approaches for Its Prevention.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S79-S107

Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Moscow, 115478, Russia.

The review summarizes the data on the role of metabolic and repair systems in the mechanisms of therapy-related carcinogenesis and the effect of their polymorphism on the cancer development risk. The carcinogenic activity of different types of drugs, from the anticancer agents to analgesics, antipyretics, immunomodulators, hormones, natural remedies, and non-cancer drugs, is described. Possible approaches for the prevention of drug-related cancer induction at the initiation and promotion stages are discussed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140059DOI Listing
January 2020

Dual Character of Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Halogen Species: Endogenous Sources, Interconversions and Neutralization.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S56-S78

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and halogen species (ROS, RNS, and RHS, respectively) causes the damage of cells and biomolecules. However, over the long evolutionary time, living organisms have developed the mechanisms for adaptation to oxidative stress conditions including the activity of the antioxidant system (AOS), which maintains low intracellular levels of RONS (ROS and RNS) and RHS. Moreover, living organisms have adapted to use low concentrations of these electrophiles for the regulation of cell functions through the reversible post-translational chemical modifications of redox-sensitive amino acid residues in intracellular effectors of signal transduction pathways (protein kinases and protein phosphatases), transcription factors, etc. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140047DOI Listing
January 2020

The Role of Halogenative Stress in Atherogenic Modification of Low-Density Lipoproteins.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S34-S55

Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, 119435, Russia.

This review discusses formation of reactive halogen species (RHS) catalyzed by myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme mostly present in leukocytes. An imbalance between the RHS production and body's ability to remove or neutralize them leads to the development of halogenative stress. RHS reactions with proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and antioxidants in the content of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) of the human blood are described. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140035DOI Listing
January 2020

Molecular Mechanisms of Pathologies of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles Caused by Point Mutations in the Tropomyosin Genes.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S20-S33

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center on Fundamentals of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

The review is devoted to tropomyosin (Tpm) - actin-binding protein, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles. Special attention is paid to myopathies and cardiomyopathies - severe hereditary diseases of skeletal and cardiac muscles associated with point mutations in Tpm genes. The current views on the molecular mechanisms of these diseases and the effects of such mutations on the Tpm structure and functions are considered in detail. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140023DOI Listing
January 2020

Cold Shock Domain Proteins: Structure and Interaction with Nucleic Acids.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(Suppl 1):S1-S19

All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 127550, Russia.

This review summarizes the features of cold shock domain (CSD) proteins in the context of their interactions with nucleic acids and describes similarities and differences in the structure of cold shock proteins of prokaryotes and CSD proteins of eukaryotes with special emphasis on the functions related to the RNA/DNA-binding ability of these proteins. The mechanisms and specificity of their interaction with nucleic acids in relation to the growing complexity of protein domain structure are described, as well as various complexes of the mammalian Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) with nucleic acids (filaments, globules, toroids). The role of particular amino acid residues in the binding of nitrogenous bases and the sugar-phosphate backbone of nucleic acids is emphasized. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920140011DOI Listing
January 2020

PTPN11 Knockdown Prevents Changes in the Expression of Genes Controlling Cell Cycle, Chemotherapy Resistance, and Oncogene-Induced Senescence in Human Thyroid Cells Overexpressing BRAF V600E Oncogenic Protein.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):108-118

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

The MAPK (RAS/BRAF/MEK/ERK) signaling pathway is a kinase cascade involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in response to external stimuli. The V600E mutation in the BRAF gene has been detected in various tumors, resulting in a 500-fold increase in BRAF kinase activity. However, monotherapy with selective BRAF V600E inhibitors often leads to reactivation of MAPK signaling cascade and emergence of drug resistance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010101DOI Listing
January 2020

Modeling of the Enzyme-Substrate Complexes of Human Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):99-107

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is a key DNA repair enzyme and an important target in cancer treatment. Conventional methods of studying the reaction mechanism of PARP-1 have limitations because of the complex structure of PARP-1 substrates; however, the necessary data can be obtained by molecular modeling. In this work, a molecular dynamics model for the PARP-1 enzyme-substrate complex containing NAD+ molecule and the end of the poly(ADP-ribose) chain in the form of ADP molecule was obtained for the first time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010095DOI Listing
January 2020

Verification of the Stabilized Protein Design Based on the Prediction of Intrinsically Disordered Regions: Ribosomal Proteins L1.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):90-98

Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia.

In our previous papers, we proposed the idea that programs predicting intrinsically disordered regions in amino acid sequences can be used for finding weakened sites in proteins. The regions predicted by such programs are suitable targets for the introduction of protein-stabilizing mutations. However, for each specific protein, it remains unclear what determines protein stabilization - the amino acid sequence (and accordingly, prediction of weakened sites) or the 3D structure. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010083DOI Listing
January 2020

Chaperone and Immunoglobulin-Binding Activities of Skp Protein from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):80-89

Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia.

Here, we determined qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the chaperone and immunoglobulin-binding activities of recombinant Skp protein (rSkp) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis using the methods of dynamic light scattering and surface plasmon resonance. Commercial human polyclonal IgG and Fc and Fab fragments of human IgG were used as substrate proteins. The activity of rSkp strongly depended on the medium pH. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010071DOI Listing
January 2020

Methods of Computational Interactomics for Investigating Interactions of Human Proteoforms.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):68-79

Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, 119121, Russia.

Human genome contains ca. 20,000 protein-coding genes that could be translated into millions of unique protein species (proteoforms). Proteoforms coded by a single gene often have different functions, which implies different protein partners. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629792001006XDOI Listing
January 2020

Transcription Factor KLF2 and Its Role in the Regulation of Inflammatory Processes.

Authors:
K T Turpaev

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):54-67

Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

KLF2 is a member of the Krüppel-like transcription factor family of proteins containing highly conserved DNA-binding zinc finger domains. KLF2 participates in the differentiation and regulation of the functional activity of monocytes, T lymphocytes, adipocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. The activity of KLF2 is controlled by several regulatory systems, including the MEKK2,3/MEK5/ERK5/MEF2 MAP kinase cascade, Rho family G-proteins, histone acetyltransferases CBP and p300, and histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010058DOI Listing
January 2020

Intracellular Mechanisms of Oxygen Sensing.

Authors:
A N Vjotosh

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):40-53

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg, 194223, Russia.

The review describes molecular mechanisms for sensing oxygen levels in various compartments of animal cell. Several pathways for intracellular oxygen sensing are discussed together with details of functioning of the near-membrane and cytoplasmic pools of molecular components in hypoxic cells. The data on the role of mitochondria in cell sensitivity to a decreased oxygen content are presented. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010046DOI Listing
January 2020

Regulation of Malate Dehydrogenases and Glutamate Dehydrogenase of Mammalian Brain by Thiamine in vitro and in vivo.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):27-39

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

To study the mechanisms of the non-coenzyme action of thiamine and its diphosphate (ThDP) on brain proteins, proteins of acetone extract of bovine brain synaptosomes or the homogenate of rat brain cortex were subjected to affinity chromatography on thiamine-modified Sepharose. In the step-wise eluates by thiamine (at pH 7.4 or 5. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010034DOI Listing
January 2020

Biochemical Regulation of Regenerative Processes by Growth Factors and Cytokines: Basic Mechanisms and Relevance for Regenerative Medicine.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):11-26

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Medical Research and Education Center, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Regenerative medicine that had emerged as a scientific and medical discipline at end of 20th century uses cultured cells and tissue-engineered structures for transplantation into human body to restore lost or damaged organs. However, practical achievements in this field are far from the promising results obtained in laboratory experiments. Searching for new directions has made apparent that successful solution of practical problems is impossible without understanding the fundamental principles of the regulation of development, renewal, and regeneration of human tissues. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010022DOI Listing
January 2020

Characteristics of the Airway Microbiome of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Jan;85(1):1-10

Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, 123098, Russia.

Microbiota as an integral component of human body is actively investigated, including by massively parallel sequencing. However, microbiomes of lungs and sinuses have become the object of scientific attention only in the last decade. For patients with cystic fibrosis, monitoring the state of respiratory tract microorganisms is essential for maintaining lung function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010010DOI Listing
January 2020

Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of RBP-Jk Controls Notch1 Signaling.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1537-1546

School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

The Notch1 signaling pathway plays a crucial role in determining cell fate, including cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that the antagonistic action of RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase) signaling pathway on the Notch1 signaling pathway is mediated via Ras-PI3K-Akt1. The PI3K-Akt1 signaling pathway was shown to inhibit Notch1 signaling via phosphorylation of RBP-Jk. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120137DOI Listing
December 2019

Identification of E2F8 as a Transcriptional Regulator of Gluconeogenesis in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

Authors:
Y Chen D Yu L Wang S Du

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1529-1536

Emergency and Clinical Care Medicine Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116023, China.

The dysregulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hepatic gluconeogenesis is known to be tightly regulated at the transcription/expression level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the E2F8 transcription factor in glucose metabolism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120125DOI Listing
December 2019

DNA Aptamers to Thrombin Exosite I. Structure-Function Relationships and Antithrombotic Effects.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1521-1528

National Medical Research Center for Cardiology, Russian Ministry of Health, Moscow, 121552, Russia.

DNA aptamers (oligonucleotides) interacting with thrombin exosite I contain G-quadruplex, two T-T, and one T-G-T loops in their structure. They prevent exosite I binding with fibrinogen and thrombin receptors on platelet surface, thereby suppressing thrombin-stimulated formation of fibrin from fibrinogen and platelet aggregation. Earlier, we synthesized original antithrombin aptamer RE31 (5'-GTGACGTAGGTTGGTGTGGTTGGGGCGTCAC-3') that contained (in addition to G-quadruplex) a hinge region connected to six pairs of complementary bases (duplex region). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120113DOI Listing
December 2019

GPI-Modified Proteins Non-covalently Attached to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cell Wall.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1513-1520

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Yeast cell wall GPI-anchored proteins lack the lipid part of the anchor and are covalently bound to the high-molecular-weight polysaccharides glucan and/or chitin through the mannose residues. They perform many functions, including participation in the cell wall molecular ensemble formation and providing cell resistance to stress. In this work, we identified a pool of GPI-modified proteins firmly bound to the cell wall by non-covalent interactions with the high-molecular-weight structural polysaccharides. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120101DOI Listing
December 2019

Rapamycin Is Not Protective against Ischemic and Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1502-1512

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

Autophagy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Although autophagy activation was shown to be associated with an increased lifespan and beneficial effects in various pathologies, the impact of autophagy activators, particularly, rapamycin and its analogues on AKI remains obscure. In our study, we explored the effects of rapamycin treatment in in vivo and in vitro models of ischemic and cisplatin-induced AKI. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120095DOI Listing
December 2019

Unlocking Golgi: Why Does Morphology Matter?

Authors:
A Petrosyan

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1490-1501

College of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5870, USA.

The mammalian Golgi apparatus is a highly dynamic organelle, which is normally localized in the juxtanuclear space and plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. While posttranslational modification of cargo is mediated by the resident enzymes (glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and kinases), the ribbon structure of Golgi and its cisternal stacking mostly rely on the cooperation of coiled-coil matrix golgins. Among them, giantin, GM130, and GRASPs are unique, because they form a tripartite complex and serve as Golgi docking sites for cargo delivered from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120083DOI Listing
December 2019

Neotenic Traits in Heterocephalus glaber and Homo sapiens.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1484-1489

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

The data on the neoteny (prolongation of youth and retardation of aging) in naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and Homo sapiens are summarized. Fifty-eight neotenic traits have been described by now in the naked mole rat at the organismal, tissue, cellular, and metabolism levels. Among them, there are traits that increase the lifespan, including mild depolarization of mitochondria that prevents generation by these organelles of reactive oxygen species known to strongly promote aging. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120071DOI Listing
December 2019

Biological Diversity and Remodeling of Cardiolipin in Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Pathologies.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1469-1483

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Age-related dysfunctions are accompanied by impairments in the mitochondrial morphology, activity of signaling pathway, and protein interactions. Cardiolipin is one of the most important phospholipids that maintains the curvature of the cristae and facilitates assembly and interaction of complexes and supercomplexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The fatty acid composition of cardiolipin influences the biophysical properties of the membrane and, therefore, is crucial for the mitochondrial bioenergetics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791912006XDOI Listing
December 2019

What Is Antagonistic Pleiotropy?

Authors:
J Mitteldorf

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1458-1468

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Antagonistic Pleiotropy (AP) is today the best-accepted theory for the evolutionary origin of aging. According to AP theory, aging is a side effect of genes that are selected for their contribution to fertility and other essential components of individual fitness. In this standard view, aging exists because the benefits of enhanced fertility early in life are linked logically or physically to the long-term deterioration of the body, and evolution has been compelled to accept the latter as a cost of the former. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120058DOI Listing
December 2019

Digital Genetics, Variation, Evolvability, and the Evolution of Programmed Aging.

Authors:
T C Goldsmith

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1451-1457

Azinet LLC, Box 239 Crownsville, MD 21032, USA.

A major unresolved issue in gerontology concerns the evolutionary nature of senescence: Is aging caused by genetically programmed evolved mechanisms because limiting individual lifespan increases a population's ability to survive and grow? Or is aging non-programmed because aging reduces an individual's ability to survive and reproduce? There has been little disagreement with the many proposed population benefits of senescence, but evolution theory as described by Darwin and currently taught is very individual-oriented and until recently, programmed aging has been widely thought to be theoretically impossible. However, genetics discoveries have exposed issues with traditional theory that support population-driven evolution and programmed aging. In particular, as described in this article, the discovery that biological inheritance involves the transmission of information in digital form between parent and descendant of any organism strongly supports population-oriented evolution concepts and dependent programmed aging theories. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120046DOI Listing
December 2019

Age-Related Dysfunctions: Evidence and Relationship with Some Risk Factors and Protective Drugs.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1442-1450

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

The theories interpreting senescence as a phenomenon favored by natural selection require the existence of specific, genetically determined and regulated mechanisms that cause a progressive age-related increase in mortality. The mechanisms defined in the subtelomere-telomere theory suggest that progressive slackening of cell turnover and decline in cellular functions are determined by the subtelomere-telomere-telomerase system, which causes a progressive "atrophic syndrome" in all organs and tissues. If the mechanisms underlying aging-related dysfunctions are similar and having the same origin, it could be hypothesized that equal interventions could produce similar effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120034DOI Listing
December 2019

Phenoptosis as a Phenomenon Widespread among Many Groups of Living Organisms Including Mammals (Commentary to the Paper by E. R. Galimov, J. N. Lohr, and D. Gems (2019) Biochemistry (Moscow), 84, 1433-1437).

Authors:
V P Skulachev

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 12;84(12):1438-1441

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Author congratulates David Gems and co-authors on a brilliant discovery - direct proof of acute phenoptosis in the nematode - but argues that the authors underappreciate the significance of their work by suggesting that phenoptosis is a rare natural phenomenon not typically observed in mammals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120022DOI Listing
December 2019

When and How Can Death Be an Adaptation?

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Dec;84(12):1433-1437

Institute of Healthy Ageing, Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

The concept of phenoptosis (or programmed organismal death) is problematic with respect to most species (including humans) since it implies that dying of old age is an adaptation, which contradicts the established evolutionary theory. But can dying ever be a strategy to promote fitness? Given recent developments in our understanding of the evolution of altruism, particularly kin and multilevel selection theories, it is timely to revisit the possible existence of adaptive death. Here, we discuss how programmed death could be an adaptive trait under certain conditions found in organisms capable of clonal colonial existence, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, perhaps, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919120010DOI Listing
December 2019

Effect of Chemotherapeutic Agents on the Expression of Retinoid Receptors and Markers of Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Nov;84(11):1424-1432

Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, 81377, Germany.

A large body of evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as expression and function of retinoid receptors, are pivotal features of tumor initiation, progression, and chemoresistance. This is also true for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which represents a clinical challenge due to poor prognosis and increasing incidence. Understanding the above features of cancer cells could open new avenues for PDAC treatment strategies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919110166DOI Listing
November 2019

Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Mitochondrial Complex I Damage.

Authors:
A Galkin

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Nov;84(11):1411-1423

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University William Black Building, NY 10032, New York, USA.

Ischemic stroke and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are two of the leading causes of disability in adults and infants. The energy demands of the brain are provided by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) affects the production of ATP in brain mitochondria, leading to energy failure and death of the affected tissue. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919110154DOI Listing
November 2019

Na+-Translocating Ferredoxin:NAD+ Oxidoreductase Is a Component of Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain in Green Sulfur Bacteria.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Nov;84(11):1403-1410

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

Genomes of photoautotrophic organisms containing type I photosynthetic reaction center were searched for the rnf genes encoding Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (RNF). These genes were absent in heliobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, and plants; however, genomes of many green sulfur bacteria (especially marine ones) were found to contain the full rnf operon. Analysis of RNA isolated from the marine green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeovibrioides revealed a high level of rnf expression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919110142DOI Listing
November 2019

Features of Organization and Mechanism of Catalysis of Two Families of Terminal Oxidases: Heme-Copper and bd-Type.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Nov;84(11):1390-1402

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Terminal oxidases of aerobic respiratory chains catalyze the transfer of electrons from the respiratory substrate, cytochrome c or quinol, to O2 with the formation of two H2O molecules. There are two known families of these membrane oxidoreductases: heme-copper oxidase superfamily and bd-type oxidase family (cytochromes bd) found in prokaryotes only. The redox reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is coupled to the generation of proton motive force used by the cell to synthesize ATP and to perform other useful work. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919110130DOI Listing
November 2019