3,909 results match your criteria Biochemistry-moscow[Journal]


Brain Proteome of Drosophila melanogaster Is Enriched with Nuclear Proteins.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):71-78

Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, 119121, Russia.

The brain proteome of Drosophila melanogaster was characterized by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and compared to the earlier characterized Drosophila whole-body and head proteomes. Raw data for all the proteomes were processed in a similar manner. Approximately 4000 proteins were identified in the brain proteome that represented, as expected, the subsets of the head and body proteomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010097DOI Listing
January 2019

The Effect of Antitumor Antibiotic Olivomycin A and Its New Semi-synthetic Derivative Olivamide on the Activity of Murine DNA Methyltransferase Dnmt3a.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):62-70

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Olivomycin A is a highly active antitumor drug that belongs to the family of aureolic acid antibiotics. The antitumor effect of olivomycin A is related to its ability to bind to the DNA minor groove in GC-rich regions as Mg2+-coordinated complexes. Characterization of cellular targets of olivomycin A and its mechanism of action is crucial for the successful application of this antibiotic in clinical practice and development of semi-synthetic derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1134/S0006297919010085
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010085DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mitochondria in Obliquely Striated Muscles of the Horsehair Worm Gordionus alpestris (Nematomorpha, Gordioidea) with Structural Organization Typical of Cells with Energy-Intensive Processes.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):56-61

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

The ultrastructure of mitochondria in the flattened circomyarian fibers of the horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Nemathelminthes) was examined. In contrast to the previously published data, we showed these mitochondria to be giant elongated organelles that densely fill the central cytoplasmic space of the ribbon-like muscle fibers. No fundamental differences were found in the ultrastructure of the muscle tissue mitochondria in actively moving free-living and parasitic G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010073DOI Listing
January 2019

Identification of Amyloidogenic Regions in the Spine of Insulin Fibrils.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):47-55

Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia.

To reveal conformational changes resulting in the formation of insulin fibrils, it is necessary to identify amyloidogenic regions in the structure of protein monomers. Different models of insulin fibrillogenesis have been proposed previously. However, precise regions responsible for the formation of amyloid fibrils have not been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010061DOI Listing
January 2019

Aim23p Interacts with the Yeast Mitochondrial Ribosomal Small Subunit.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):40-46

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Protein synthesis in mitochondria is generally organized in a bacterial-like manner but, at the same time, possesses several unique traits. Translation initiation in mitochondria is regulated by two protein factors, mtIF2 and mtIF3. Previously we demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aim23 protein is an ortholog of IF3 in budding yeast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791901005XDOI Listing
January 2019

New Sorbent on the Basis of Covalently Immobilized Lysozyme for Removal of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) from Biological Fluids.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):33-39

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

It was demonstrated for the first time that immobilized lysozyme can efficiently remove Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) from solutions. Experimentally confirmed sorption capacity for the developed sorbent was at least 400 ng of endotoxin per ml sorbent. The new sorbent is compatible with the whole human blood and can be potentially used in extracorporeal therapy in the treatment of sepsis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010048DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Proteins Synthesized in Escherichia coli Cells: Effects of Additional Domains on the in vitro and in vivo Activities.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):20-32

Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 123098, Russia.

The aim of this work was to compare biological activities of three variants of bacterially expressed human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) with additional protein domains: 6His-s-tag-EPO protein carrying the s-tag (15-a.a. oligopeptide from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A) at the N-terminus and HBD-EPO and EPO-HBD proteins containing heparin-binding protein domains (HBD) of the bone morphogenetic protein 2 from Danio rerio at the N- and C-termini, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010036DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Western Blotting-Based Quantitative Measurement of Myosin II Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation in Small Amounts of Non-muscle Cells.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):11-19

National Medical Research Center for Cardiology, Moscow, 121552, Russia.

Myosin II is the main molecular motor in the actomyosin-dependent motility in cells. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at Ser19 is a prerequisite for smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin II activation and serves as a biochemical equivalent of myosin II activity. Simultaneous phosphorylation at Thr18 further promotes the myosin II ATPase activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010024DOI Listing
January 2019

Mechanisms of Leptin and Ghrelin Action on Maturation and Functions of Dendritic Cells.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):1-10

Perm Federal Research Center, Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, 614081, Russia.

Molecular mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects of leptin and ghrelin in concentrations typical for pregnancy on the maturation and functional activity of dendritic cells (DCs) generated from the peripheral blood monocytes of women are investigated. The presence of leptin during DC maturation did not affect the levels of CD83CD1c, CD86CD1c, and HLA-DRCD1c DCs, but increased the amount and the activity of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Cell culturing in the presence of ghrelin or combination of leptin and ghrelin reduced the percentage of CD86CD1c DCs but did not affect the levels of CD83CD1c and HLA-DRCD1c DCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010012DOI Listing
January 2019

Mobile Loop in the Active Site of Metallocarboxypeptidases as an Underestimated Determinant of Substrate Specificity.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1594-1602

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

It is generally accepted that the primary specificity of metallocarboxypeptidases is mainly determined by the structure of the so-called primary specificity pocket. However, the G215S/A251G/T257A/D260G/T262D mutant of carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (CPT) with the primary specificity pocket fully reproducing the one in pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB) retained the broad, mainly hydrophobic substrate specificity of the wild-type enzyme. In order to elucidate factors affecting substrate specificity of metallocarboxypeptidases and the reasons for the discrepancy with the established views, we have solved the structure of the complex of the CPT G215S/A251G/T257A/D260G/T262D mutant with the transition state analogue N-sulfamoyl-L-phenylalanine at a resolution of 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120167DOI Listing
December 2018

Alternate and Additional Functions of Erythrocyte Hemoglobin.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1575-1593

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

The review discusses pleiotropic effects of erythrocytic hemoglobin (Hb) and their significance for human health. Hemoglobin is mostly known as an oxygen carrier, but its biochemical functions are not limited to this. The following aspects of Hb functioning are examined: (i) catalytic functions of the heme component (nitrite reductase, NO dioxygenase, monooxygenase, alkylhydroperoxidase) and of the apoprotein (esterase, lipoxygenase); (ii) participation in nitric oxide metabolism; (iii) formation of membrane-bound Hb and its role in the regulation of erythrocyte metabolism; (iv) physiological functions of Hb catabolic products (iron, CO, bilirubin, peptides). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120155DOI Listing
December 2018

Iatrogenic Damage of Eye Tissues: Current Problems and Possible Solutions.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1563-1574

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

Visual system is at high risk of iatrogenic damage. Laser ocular surgery, the use of powerful illumination devices in diagnostics and surgical treatment of eye diseases, as well as long surgeries under general anesthesia provoke the development of chronic degenerative changes in eye tissues, primarily in the cornea and the retina. Despite the existence of approaches for prevention and treatment of these complications, the efficacy of these approaches is often limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120143DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Application of the CRISPR/Cas System for Generation of Pathogen-Resistant Plants.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1552-1562

Doka-Gene Technology Ltd., 141880 Rogachevo, Moscow Region, Russia.

The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 prokaryotic adaptive immune system has led to a breakthrough in targeted genome editing in eukaryotes. The CRISPR/Cas technology allows to generate organisms with desirable characteristics by introducing deletions/insertions into selected genome loci resulting in the knockout or modification of target genes. This review focuses on the current state of the CRISPR/Cas use for the generation of plants resistant to viruses, bacteria, and parasitic fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120131DOI Listing
December 2018

Non-structural Functions of Hordeivirus Capsid Protein Identified in Plants Infected by a Chimeric Tobamovirus.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1543-1551

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Capsid proteins (CPs) of (+)RNA-containing plant viruses are multifunctional proteins involved in many stages of viral infection cycle, in addition to their main function of virus capsid formation. For example, the tobamoviral CP ensures virus systemic transport in plants and defines the virus-host interactions, thereby influencing the virus host range, virus infectivity, pathogenicity, and manifestation of infection symptoms. Hordeiviruses and tobamoviruses belong to the Virgaviridae family and have rod-shaped virions with a helical symmetry; their CPs are similar in structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791812012XDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Potential Markers of Autoimmune Diseases, Alleles rs115662534(T) and rs548231435(C), Disrupt the Binding of Transcription Factors STAT1 and EBF1 to the Regulatory Elements of Human CD40 Gene.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1534-1542

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

CD40 receptor is expressed on B lymphocytes and other professional antigen-presenting cells. The binding of CD40 to its ligand CD154 on the surface of T helper cells plays an important role in the activation of B lymphocytes required for production of antibodies, in particular, against autoantigens. Association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the non-coding areas of human CD40 locus with the elevated risk of autoimmune diseases has been demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120118DOI Listing
December 2018

Can Aging be Programmed?

Authors:
J Mitteldorf

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1524-1533

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, 102206, China.

Aging diminishes individual fitness, and aging could never evolve as an adaptive program according to the most prevalent model of evolutionary theory. On the other hand, some mechanisms of aging have been found to be conserved since the Cambrian explosion, and the physiology of aging sometimes looks like programmed self-destruction. Biostatisticians find evidence of an epigenetic aging clock, extending the clock that controls the growth and development into a realm of inexorably increasing mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120106DOI Listing
December 2018

An Incipient Revolution in the Testing of Anti-aging Strategies.

Authors:
J Mitteldorf

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1517-1523

School of Medicine, Washington University of St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Recent advances in the technology of "aging clocks" based on DNA methylation suggest that it may soon be possible to measure changes in the rate of human aging over periods as short as a year or two. If this potential is realized, the testing of putative anti-aging interventions will become radically cheaper and faster. This should prompt a re-appraisal of the entire spectrum of methods for evaluating anti-aging technologies in humans and in model systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791812009XDOI Listing
December 2018
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Can Aging Develop as an Adaptation to Optimize Natural Selection? (Application of Computer Modeling for Searching Conditions When the "Fable of Hares" Can Explain the Evolution of Aging).

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1504-1516

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

There are two points of view on the evolution of aging. The classical theory of aging suggests that natural selection does not efficiently eliminate mutations or alleles that are harmful to organisms at later age. Another hypothesis is that the genetic program of aging has evolved as an adaptation that contributes to the optimization of the evolutionary process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120088DOI Listing
December 2018

Ants as Object of Gerontological Research.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1489-1503

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Social insects with identical genotype that form castes with radically different lifespans are a promising model system for studying the mechanisms underlying longevity. The main direction of progressive evolution of social insects, in particular, ants, is the development of the social way of life inextricably linked with the increase in the colony size. Only in a large colony, it is possible to have a developed polyethism, create large food reserves, and actively regulate the nest microclimate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120076DOI Listing
December 2018

Elimination of Senescent Cells: Prospects According to the Subtelomere-Telomere Theory.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1477-1488

Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Naples, 80138, Italy.

Cell senescence is an artificially reversible condition activated by various factors and characterized by replicative senescence and typical general alteration of cell functions, including extra-cellular secretion. The number of senescent cells increases with age and contributes strongly to the manifestations of aging. For these reasons, research is under way to obtain "senolytic" compounds, defined as drugs that eliminate senescent cells and therefore reduce aging-associated decay, as already shown in some experiments on animal models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120064DOI Listing
December 2018

Role of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Tumor Progression.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1469-1476

Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 115478, Russia.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process of morphogenesis whereby epithelial cells acquire the mesenchymal phenotype. Multiple data suggest a critical role of EMT in tumor progression. In carcinomas, EMT can be initiated and promoted by many oncogenic signaling pathways, hypoxia, and signals of tumor microenvironment resulting in epithelial cells losing their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion and gaining the migratory and invasive properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120052DOI Listing
December 2018

Common and Specific Functions of Nonmuscle Myosin II Paralogs in Cells.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1459-1468

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Various forms of cell motility critically depend on pushing, pulling, and resistance forces generated by the actin cytoskeleton. Whereas pushing forces largely depend on actin polymerization, pulling forces responsible for cell contractility and resistance forces maintaining the cell shape require interaction of actin filaments with the multivalent molecular motor myosin II. In contrast to muscle-specific myosin II paralogs, nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) functions in virtually all mammalian cells, where it executes numerous mechanical tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432631PMC
December 2018

Alterations in WNT Signaling in Leukemias.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1448-1458

Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Moscow, 115478, Russia.

The WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. In recent years, special attention has been paid to the role of impairments in the WNT signaling pathway in pathogenesis of malignant neoplasms of the hematopoietic system. Disorders in the WNT/β-catenin signaling in leukemias identified to date include hypersensitivity to the WNT ligands, epigenetic repression of WNT antagonists, overexpression of WNT ligands, impaired β-catenin degradation in the cytoplasm, and changes in the activity of the TCF/Lef transcription factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120039DOI Listing
December 2018

Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1437-1447

Section on Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Atherosclerosis underlies the development of many cardiovascular diseases that continue to hold a leading place among the causes of death in developed countries. The role of activated immune cells in atherosclerosis progression has been convincingly demonstrated, but the mechanism of their action remains poorly investigated. Since atherosclerosis is associated with chronic inflammatory response, involvement of viral and bacterial infections in atherogenesis has been examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120027DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Juri Markovich Vasiliev - My Mentor and Friend.

Authors:
L B Margolis

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Dec;83(12):1433-1436

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

This is an overview of the biography and scientific accomplishments of Dr. Juri Vasiliev, an outstanding Russian cell biologist. Ju. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918120015DOI Listing
December 2018

Cysmotif Searcher Pipeline for Antimicrobial Peptide Identification in Plant Transcriptomes.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1424-1432

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333, Russia.

In this paper, we present the new Cysmotif searcher pipeline for identification of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), the most important components of innate immunity, in plant transcriptomes. Cysmotif searcher reveals and classifies short cysteine-rich amino acid sequences containing an open reading frame and a signal peptide cleavage site. Due to the combination of various search methods, Cysmotif searcher allows to obtain the most complete repertoire of AMPs for one or more transcriptomes in a short amount of time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110135DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Erratum to: "Structural Relationships Between Genetically Closely Related O-Antigens of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp." [Biochemistry (Moscow), 81, 600 (2016)].

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1422-1423

Nankai University, TEDA Institute of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, 300457, China.

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1134/S0006297916060067. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110123DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Aggregation of Influenza A Virus Nuclear Export Protein.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1411-1421

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Belozersky Research Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Influenza A virus nuclear export protein (NEP) plays an important role in the viral life cycle. Recombinant NEP proteins containing (His)-tag at either N- or C-terminus were obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells and their high propensity for aggregation was demonstrated. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to study the kinetics and properties of NEP aggregation in solutions under different conditions (pH, ionic strength, presence of low-molecular-weight additives and organic solvents). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110111DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Comprehensive Analysis of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes from the Filamentous Fungus Scytalidium candidum 3C.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1399-1410

National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad Region, 188300, Russia.

Complete enzymatic degradation of plant polysaccharides is a result of combined action of various carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of the filamentous fungus Scytalidium candidum 3C for processing of plant biomass. Structural annotation of the improved assembly of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791811010XDOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Effect of Disulfide Bond Incorporation on the Structure and Activity of Endostatin Peptide.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1388-1398

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The structure and function of a 27-a.a. fragment of the N-terminal sequence of human endostatin (ES-Zn) were compared to those of the mutant peptide (ES-SSZn) obtained by adding Cys-Pro-Ala to the endostatin N-terminus and substituting Asn16 for Cys ensuring formation of a disulfide bond. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110093DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Lymphocyte Phosphatase-Associated Phosphoprotein Is a Substrate of Protein Kinase CK2.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1380-1387

Institute of Immunology National Research Center, Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow, 115522, Russia.

Lymphocyte phosphatase-associated phosphoprotein (LPAP) is a molecular partner of CD45 phosphatase that plays a key role in the regulation of antigen-specific activation of lymphocytes. The functions of LPAP still remain unknown. We believe that studying LPAP phosphorylation pathways could shed light on its functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110081DOI Listing
November 2018

Contribution of Eutrema salsugineum Cold Shock Domain Structure to the Interaction with RNA.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1369-1379

All-Russia Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Moscow, 127550, Russia.

Plant cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) are DNA/RNA-binding proteins. CSDPs contain the conserved cold shock domain (CSD) in the N-terminal part and a varying number of the CCHC-type zinc finger (ZnF) motifs alternating with glycine-rich regions in the C-terminus. CSDPs exhibit RNA chaperone and RNA-melting activities due to their nonspecific interaction with RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791811007XDOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Exogenous 3-Deoxyglucosone-Induced Carbonyl and Oxidative Stress Causes β-Cells Dysfunction by Impairing Gut Permeability in Rats.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1358-1368

Suzhou Academy of Wumen Chinese Medicine, Suzhou TCM Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

3-Deoxyglucosone (3DG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl species, and its accumulation evokes carbonyl and oxidative stress. Our recent data reveal the role of 3DG as an independent factor for the development of prediabetes and suggest that intestine could be its novel target tissue. The present study investigated whether exogenous 3DG increases intestinal permeability by triggering carbonyl and oxidative stress, thus contributing to β-cell dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110068DOI Listing
November 2018

Vitamin D in Nature: A Product of Synthesis and/or Degradation of Cell Membrane Components.

Authors:
H Göring

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1350-1357

Göring Consulting, Berlin, 12555, Germany.

The review discusses the data on vitamin D accumulation in animals, plants, and other organisms. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and ergosterol are considered to be the only true precursors of vitamin D, although even vitamin D (ergocalciferol) is not fully comparable to vitamin D (cholecalciferol) in regard to their functions. These precursors are converted by UV radiation into the corresponding D vitamins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110056DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Pseudogenes as Functionally Significant Elements of the Genome.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1332-1349

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

Pseudogene is a gene copy that has lost its original function. For a long time, pseudogenes have been considered as "junk DNA" that inevitably arises as a result of ongoing evolutionary process. However, experimental data obtained during recent years indicate this understanding of the nature of pseudogenes is not entirely correct, and many pseudogenes perform important genetic functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110044DOI Listing
November 2018

Molecular Factors of the Maintenance and Activation of the Juvenile Phenotype of Cellular Sources for Eye Tissue Regeneration.

Authors:
E N Grigoryan

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1318-1331

Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334, Russia.

Modern achievements in the understanding of tissue regeneration, identification of endogenous cell sources for regeneration, and development of approaches for induction and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells have open broad prospects for regenerative medicine. However, application of the obtained information in medicine is hindered by insufficient knowledge on the molecular factors and their combinations capable of regulating the age and fate of cellular sources for eye tissue reparation as well as on the regenerative responses of these cells. In the review, we present our own and literature data on cells serving as endogenous sources for eye tissue regeneration in lower and higher vertebrates and properties of gene expression that allow these cells to maintain their juvenile phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110032DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Inactivated Skeletal Muscle: Signal Inputs, Protein Kinase Cascades, and Ribosome Biogenesis.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1299-1317

Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 123007, Russia.

Disuse atrophy of skeletal muscles is characterized by a significant decrease in the mass and size of muscle fibers. Disuse atrophy develops as a result of prolonged reduction in the muscle functional activity caused by bed rest, limb immobilization, and real or simulated microgravity. Disuse atrophy is associated with the downregulation of protein biosynthesis and simultaneous activation of protein degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110020DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Regulation of Tumor Suppressor Gene CDKN2A and Encoded p16-INK4a Protein by Covalent Modifications.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1289-1298

Central Laboratory of General Biology, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, P. R. China.

CDKN2A is one of the most studied tumor suppressor genes. It encodes the p16-INK4a protein that plays a critical role in the cell cycle progression, differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. Mutations in CDKN2A or dysregulation of its functional activity are frequently associated with various types of human cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918110019DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read
1.303 Impact Factor

Inhibition of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Can Influence the Lipid Metabolism in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1279-1287

Laboratory Animal Center, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, China.

A growing number of evidences accumulated about critical metabolic role of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in some peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and heart. To better understand the interactions of CB1, CPT1 and PPARs in these tissues, 30 diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice were obtained, weight-matched and divided into two groups (15 in each group): (i) DIO/vehicle mice (D-Veh) and (ii) DIO/SR141716 mice (D-SR) treated with SR141716 (or rimonabant, a selective CB1 receptor blocker) administered orally (10 mg/kg daily). Another 15 mice fed standard diet (STD) formed the STD/vehicle group (S-Veh). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1134/S0006297918100127
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100127DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Does Oxidation of Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Trigger a Chain of Antiapoptotic Reactions?

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1263-1278

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Oxidative stress causes selective oxidation of cardiolipin (CL), a four-tail lipid specific for the inner mitochondrial membrane. Interaction with oxidized CL transforms cytochrome c into peroxidase capable of oxidizing even more CL molecules. Ultimately, this chain of events leads to the pore formation in the outer mitochondrial membrane and release of mitochondrial proteins, including cytochrome c, into the cytoplasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100115DOI Listing
October 2018
16 Reads

The Expression of Matryoshka Gene Encoding a Homologue of Kunitz Peptidase Inhibitor Is Regulated Both at the Level of Transcription and Translation.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1255-1262

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

The gene for Kunitz peptidase inhibitor-like protein (KPILP) contains nested alternative open reading frame (aORF) that controls expression of the maternal mRNA. The content of NbKPILP mRNA in intact leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana plant is low but increases significantly upon extended dark exposure or when foreign nucleic acid is overexpressed in the cells. The NbKPILP gene promoter along with the expressed nested aORF are likely to play an important role in maintaining the levels of NbKPILP mRNA. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1134/S0006297918100103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100103DOI Listing
October 2018
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SkQ1 Controls CASP3 Gene Expression and Caspase-3-Like Activity in the Brain of Rats under Oxidative Stress.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1245-1254

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia.

Here, we studied the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (plastoquinone cationic derivative) on the CASP3 gene expression and caspase-3 activity in rat cerebral cortex and brain mitochondria under normal conditions and in oxidative stress induced by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). Under physiological conditions, SkQ1 administration (50 nmol/kg, 5 days) did not affect the CASP3 gene expression and caspase-3-like activity in the cortical cells, as well as caspase-3-like activity in brain mitochondria, but caused a moderate decrease in the content of primary products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level. HBO-induced oxidative stress (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100097DOI Listing
October 2018

Thermodynamic Study of Interactions of Distamycin A with Chromatin in Rat Liver Nuclei in the Presence of Polyamines.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1231-1244

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

We studied the thermodynamics of melting of isolated rat liver nuclei with different degrees of chromatin condensation determined by the concentration of polyamines (PA) and the solution ionic strength, as well as the effect of the antibiotic distamycin A (DM) on melting. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profiles of nuclear preparations contained three peaks that reflected melting of three main chromatin domains. The number of peaks did not depend on the degree of condensation; however, nuclei with more condensed chromatin had a higher total enthalpy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100085DOI Listing
October 2018

Hydrophobic Derivatives of Glycopeptide Antibiotics as Inhibitors of Protein Kinases.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1222-1230

Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, Moscow, 119021, Russia.

As key regulators of cell signaling, protein kinases (PKs) are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in a variety of diseases. Herein, we report for the first time the inhibitory activity of polycyclic peptides, particularly, derivatives of glycopeptide antibiotics teicoplanin and eremomycin, against a panel of 12 recombinant human protein kinases and two protein kinases (CK1 and CK2) isolated from rat liver. Several of the investigated compounds inhibited various PKs with IC values below 10 μM and caused >90% suppression of the enzyme activity at 10 µM concentration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100073DOI Listing
October 2018
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Synthesis in Escherichia coli and Characterization of Human Recombinant Erythropoietin with Additional Heparin-Binding Domain.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1207-1221

Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 123098, Russia.

Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) with additional N-terminal heparin-binding protein domain (HBD) from bone morphogenetic protein 2 was synthesized in Escherichia coli cells. A procedure for HBD-EPO purification and refolding was developed for obtaining highly-purified HBD-EPO. The structure of recombinant HBD-EPO was close to that of the native EPO protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100061DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

αB-Crystallin Phosphorylation: Advances and Problems.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1196-1206

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

The review is dedicated to phosphorylation of αB-crystallin (HspB5), one of ubiquitously expressed small heat shock proteins. We describe the structure and properties of αB-crystallin and protein kinases involved in its phosphorylation in different cells and tissues, advantages and drawbacks of pseudophosphorylation mutants in elucidation of the mechanism of αB-crystallin functioning, effects of phosphorylation on the quaternary structure and intracellular location of αB-crystallin, interactions of αB-crystallin with different elements of the cytoskeleton, and effect of phosphorylation on the chaperone-like activity of αB-crystallin. We also discuss the validity of experimental data obtained by overexpression of pseudophosphorylation mutants for understanding the effect of phosphorylation on physiologically important properties of αB-crystallin, as well as the question why multiple attempts to phosphorylate αB-crystallin in vitro have been unsuccessful so far. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1134/S000629791810005X
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S000629791810005XDOI Listing
October 2018
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Prions and Non-infectious Amyloids of Mammals - Similarities and Differences.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1184-1195

St. Petersburg Branch of Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia.

Amyloids are highly ordered aggregates of protein fibrils exhibiting cross-β structure formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Pathological amyloid deposition is associated with the development of several socially significant incurable human diseases. Of particular interest are infectious amyloids, or prions, that cause several lethal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and can be transmitted from one organism to another. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100048DOI Listing
October 2018

Calcium-Dependent Desensitization of NMDA Receptors.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1173-1183

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 194223, Russia.

Glutamate receptors play the key role in excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions that localize to the pre- and postsynaptic membranes, as well as extrasynaptic neuronal membrane. Calcium entry into dendritic spines is essential for long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100036DOI Listing
October 2018

Advances in the Application of Modified Nucleotides in SELEX Technology.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1161-1172

Apto-Pharm Ltd., Moscow, 115564, Russia.

Aptamers are widely used as molecular recognition elements for detecting and blocking functional biological molecules. Since the common "alphabet" of DNA and RNA consists of only four letters, the chemical diversity of aptamers is less than the diversity of protein recognition elements built of 20 amino acids. Chemical modification of nucleotides enlarges the potential of DNA/RNA aptamers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100024DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

ADP-Inhibition of H+-FF-ATP Synthase.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Oct;83(10):1141-1160

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

H+-FF-ATP synthase (F-ATPase, F-type ATPase, FF complex) catalyzes ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate in eubacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some archaea. ATP synthesis is powered by the transmembrane proton transport driven by the proton motive force (PMF) generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chains. When the PMF is decreased or absent, ATP synthase catalyzes the reverse reaction, working as an ATP-dependent proton pump. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918100012DOI Listing
October 2018