1,110,172 results match your criteria Biochemistry and molecular biology education : a bimonthly publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology[Journal]


Dietary Fat and Male Sex Increase Histopathological Changes in a Mouse Model of Oral Cancer.

Oral Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

College of Dental Medicine-Illinois, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, United States.

Objective: To compare the effects of dietary fat and sex on murine oral squamous cell carcinoma pathology.

Materials And Methods: Male and female C57Bl/6 mice (36/sex) received a low-fat (10 kcal%) or high-fat (60 kcal%) diet. Water (control), vehicle, or 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in vehicle (50 µg/ml) was provided for 17 weeks followed by 6 additional weeks of water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13542DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, phenylethyl anthranilate, CAS Registry Number 133-18-6.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111470. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 07677, USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. Phenylethyl anthranilate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from phenylethyl anthranilate and the read-across analog cinnamyl anthranilate (CAS # 87-29-6) show that phenylethyl anthranilate is not expected to be genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111470DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 4-methylpentanoic acid, CAS Registry Number 646-07-1.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111456. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677 USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. 4-Methylpentanoic acid was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog 2-ethylbutyric acid (CAS # 88-09-5) show that 4-methylpentanoic acid is not expected to be genotoxic and provide a calculated margin of exposure (MOE) >100 for the repeated dose toxicity and reproductive toxicity endpoints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111456DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-acetylthiazole, CAS Registry Number 24295-03-2.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111468. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677 USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. 2-Acetylthiazole was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data show that 2-acetylthiazole is not genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111468DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 3-(m-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropionaldehyde, CAS Registry Number 62518-65-4.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111496. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 07677, USA.

The existing information supports the use of 3-(m-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropionaldehyde as described in this safety assessment. 3-(m-tert-Butylphenyl)-2-methylpropionaldehyde was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog p-t-butyl-α-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (CAS # 80-54-6) show that 3-(m-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropionaldehyde is not expected to be genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111496DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2,2-dimethyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl propanoate, CAS Registry Number 104468-21-5.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111489. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 07677, USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl propanoate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog rhodinyl formate (CAS # 141-09-3) show that 2,2-dimethyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl propanoate is not expected to be genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111489DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, ethyl (E)hex-3-enoate, CAS Registry Number 26553-46-8.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111474. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 07677, USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. Ethyl (E)hex-3-enoate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog methyl 3-hexenoate (CAS # 2396-78-3) show that ethyl (E)hex-3-enoate is not expected to be genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111474DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, decanoic acid, CAS Registry Number 334-48-5.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111465. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 07677, USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. Decanoic acid was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data on the target material and from read-across analog nonanoic acid (CAS # 112-05-0) show that decanoic acid is not expected to be genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111465DOI Listing

Analysis of the intricate effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols on inflammatory pathways in health and disease.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111558. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Medical School, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece; Department of Analytical and Forensic Medical Toxicology, Sechenov University, 2-4 Bolshaya Pirogovskaya st, 119991, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, arthritis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and various infectious diseases; lately most notably COVID-19 have been in the front line of research worldwide. Although targeting different organs, these pathologies have common biochemical impairments - redox disparity and, prominently, dysregulation of the inflammatory pathways. Research data have shown that diet components like polyphenols, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fibres as well as lifestyle (fasting, physical exercise) are important factors influencing signalling pathways with a significant potential to improve metabolic homeostasis and immune cells' functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111558DOI Listing

Methods for analysis of specific DNA methylation status.

Methods 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Biomarkers and Precision Medicine Unit, Health Research Institute la Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain; Epigenomics Core Facility, Health Research Institute la Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Methylation of CpG dinucleotides plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and therefore in the development of different pathologies. Aberrant methylation has been associated to the majority of the diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns is crucial to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of these diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2020.06.021DOI Listing

Towards model-driven characterization and manipulation of plant lipid metabolism.

Prog Lipid Res 2020 Jul 5:101051. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Genetics of Metabolic Traits Group, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam 14476, Germany; Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 8410501 Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Plant lipids have versatile applications and provide essential fatty acids in human diet. Therefore, there has been a growing interest to better characterize the genetic basis, regulatory networks, and metabolic pathways that shape lipid quantity and composition. Addressing these issues is challenging due to context-specificity of lipid metabolism integrating environmental, developmental, and tissue-specific cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2020.101051DOI Listing

Constitutional Thinness: tALKing the tALK or wALKing the wALK?

Cell Metab 2020 Jul;32(1):8-10

MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK; Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

In a recent issue of Cell, Orthofer et al. (2020) present a body of data from mice, flies, and humans that suggest (1) a physiological role for Alk in the normal control of energy balance across several species and (2) a possible contribution of genetic variants in or near ALK to the variability of adiposity in humans, more specifically at its lower end. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.012DOI Listing

The World Goes Bats: Living Longer and Tolerating Viruses.

Cell Metab 2020 Jul;32(1):31-43

Departments of Biochemistry and Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117596, Singapore; Centre for Healthy Longevity, National University Health System, Singapore 117609, Singapore; Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences, A(∗)STAR, Singapore 117609, Singapore. Electronic address:

For centuries, people believed that bats possessed sinister powers. Bats are thought to be ancestral hosts to many deadly viruses affecting humans including Ebola, rabies, and most recently SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. However, bats themselves tolerate these viruses without ill effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.013DOI Listing

Regulatory T Cells Play a Role in a Subset of Idiopathic Preterm Labor/Birth and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes.

Cell Rep 2020 Jul;32(1):107874

Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Department of Computer Science, Wayne State University College of Engineering, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been exhaustively investigated during early pregnancy; however, their role later in gestation is poorly understood. Herein, we report that functional Tregs are reduced at the maternal-fetal interface in a subset of women with idiopathic preterm labor/birth, which is accompanied by a concomitant increase in Tc17 cells. In mice, depletion of functional Tregs during late gestation induces preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes, which are rescued by the adoptive transfer of such cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107874DOI Listing

WRNIP1 Is Recruited to DNA Interstrand Crosslinks and Promotes Repair.

Cell Rep 2020 Jul;32(1):107850

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. Electronic address:

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway repairs DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Many FA proteins are recruited to ICLs in a timely fashion so that coordinated repair can occur. However, the mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107850DOI Listing

The ZGRF1 Helicase Promotes Recombinational Repair of Replication-Blocking DNA Damage in Human Cells.

Cell Rep 2020 Jul;32(1):107849

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark; Center for Chromosome Stability, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Replication-blocking DNA lesions are particularly toxic to proliferating cells because they can lead to chromosome mis-segregation if not repaired prior to mitosis. In this study, we report that ZGRF1 null cells accumulate chromosome aberrations following replication perturbation and show sensitivity to two potent replication-blocking anticancer drugs: mitomycin C and camptothecin. Moreover, ZGRF1 null cells are defective in catalyzing DNA damage-induced sister chromatid exchange despite accumulating excessive FANCD2, RAD51, and γ-H2AX foci upon induction of interstrand DNA crosslinks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107849DOI Listing

Extracellular Granzyme A Promotes Colorectal Cancer Development by Enhancing Gut Inflammation.

Cell Rep 2020 Jul;32(1):107847

Fundación Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Biomedical Research Centre of Aragon (CIBA), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain; Aragon I+D Foundation (ARAID), Zaragoza, Spain; Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain; Department Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology and Department Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain; CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

If not properly regulated, the inflammatory immune response can promote carcinogenesis, as evident in colorectal cancer (CRC). Aiming to gain mechanistic insight into the link between inflammation and CRC, we perform transcriptomics analysis of human CRC, identifying a strong correlation between expression of the serine protease granzyme A (GzmA) and inflammation. In a dextran sodium sulfate and azoxymethane (DSS/AOM) mouse model, deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of extracellular GzmA both attenuate gut inflammation and prevent CRC development, including the initial steps of cell transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107847DOI Listing

Pediatric Dyslipidemia-Beyond Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Mar 23. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Dyslipidemia is seen with increasing prevalence in young Canadians, mainly mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia secondary to obesity. This review focuses on pediatric dyslipidemias excluding familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), but including both severe and mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia, combined hyperlipidemia, and elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. We suggest that for Canadian children and adolescents with dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment should include both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides measurement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.03.020DOI Listing

The GLP-1R Agonist Liraglutide Increases Myocardial Glucose Oxidation Rates via Indirect Mechanisms and Mitigates Experimental Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Mar 8. Epub 2020 Mar 8.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases risk for cardiovascular disease. Of interest, liraglutide, a therapy for T2D that activates the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor to augment insulin secretion, reduces cardiovascular-related death in people with T2D, though it remains unknown how liraglutide produces these actions. Notably, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is not expressed in ventricular cardiac myocytes, making it likely that ventricular myocardium-independent actions are involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.02.098DOI Listing

Proline Hydroxylation Primes Protein Kinases for Autophosphorylation and Activation.

Mol Cell 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases 1A and 1B (DYRK1A and DYRK1B) requires prolyl hydroxylation by PHD1 prolyl hydroxylase. Prolyl hydroxylation of DYRK1 initiates a cascade of events leading to the release of molecular constraints on von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase tumor suppressor function. However, the proline residue of DYRK1 targeted by hydroxylation and the role of prolyl hydroxylation in tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1 are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.021DOI Listing

RNA Sensing by Gut Piezo1 Is Essential for Systemic Serotonin Synthesis.

Cell 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Division of Cell Signaling, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience (National Institute for Physiological Sciences), National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Aichi 444-8787, Japan. Electronic address:

Gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells regulate bone and gut homeostasis via serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) production. A recent report suggested that gut microbes regulate 5-HT levels; however, the precise underlying molecular mechanisms are unexplored. Here, we reveal that the cation channel Piezo1 in the gut acts as a sensor of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) governing 5-HT production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.022DOI Listing

Macrocyclic Peptide-Mediated Blockade of the CD47-SIRPα Interaction as a Potential Cancer Immunotherapy.

Cell Chem Biol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Molecular and Cellular Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan. Electronic address:

Medium-sized macrocyclic peptides are an alternative to small compounds and large biomolecules as a class of pharmaceutics. The CD47-SIRPα signaling axis functions as an innate immune checkpoint that inhibits phagocytosis in phagocytes and has been implicated as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. The potential of macrocyclic peptides that target this signaling axis as immunotherapeutic agents has remained unknown, however. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.06.008DOI Listing

Illuminating RNA Biology: Tools for Imaging RNA in Live Mammalian Cells.

Cell Chem Biol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biochemistry, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Electronic address:

The central dogma teaches us that DNA makes RNA, which in turn makes proteins, the main building blocks of the cell. But this over simplified linear transmission of information overlooks the vast majority of the genome produces RNAs that do not encode proteins and the myriad ways that RNA regulates cellular functions. Historically, one of the challenges in illuminating RNA biology has been the lack of tools for visualizing RNA in live cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.06.010DOI Listing

Hiding the Elephant in the Room with Experimental Neutrons.

Authors:
Kushol Gupta

Biophys J 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2020.05.038DOI Listing

In vivo protective effects of UCMA against cartilage degeneration in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis model.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hatay, Turkey ;

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease affecting the majority of over 65-year-old people and characterized by cartilage degeneration, subchondral abnormal changes and inflammation. Despite the enormous socioeconomic burden caused by OA, currently, there is no effective therapy against it. Upper Zone of Growth Plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated (UCMA) is a vitamin K-dependent protein and has a critical role in pathophysiological conditions associated with bone and cartilage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2020-0009DOI Listing

SIRT1-mediated amelioration of oxidative stress in kidney of alcohol-aflatoxin-B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma by resveratrol is catalase dependent and GPx independent.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Jul 8:e22576. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Dr Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, India.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of primary liver cancer and dietary exposure to aflatoxins is a major risk factor of HCC. The current study aimed to assess the role of resveratrol and nicotinamide in renal toxicity during alcohol-aflatoxin-B1-induced HCC. The results revealed that resveratrol treatment normalized the level of urea, lipid peroxidation, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, which were increased in HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22576DOI Listing

Syringic acid modulates molecular marker-involved cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis in DMBA-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma in Syrian hamsters.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Jul 8:e22574. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India.

Despite, different medicinal phyto compounds giving an inexhaustible variety of anticancer drugs, potent signalling mechanism of leads  the key successes of anticancer agent, anti-inflammatory, induction of apoptosis, and antiangiogenic. The current study was conducted to estimate the effect of syringic acid (SA) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, inducing apoptosis and angiogenic signaling pathways in a hamster model by preneoplastic stages, histological, immunohistochemistry and immunoblots analysis. Hamsters were given oral cancer by painting 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22574DOI Listing

Introducing multi-modal enteral medication reduced morbidity and mortality associated with necrotising enterocolitis.

Acta Paediatr 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Arabkir" Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Yerevan State Medical University, Armenia.

Aim: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyse retrospectively whether the introduction of a multi-modal three-component enteral medication regimen resulted in a change in morbidity and mortality in neonates NEC.

Methods: When diagnosis of NEC was established, the following multi-modal three-component enteral medication regimen was administered enterally (via nasogastric tube): an antibiotic, an antifungal agent, and a probiotic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15466DOI Listing

Enzyme-catalysed polymer cross-linking: Biocatalytic tools for chemical biology, materials science and beyond.

Biopolymers 2020 Jul 8:e23390. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, UK.

Intermolecular cross-linking is one of the most important techniques that can be used to fundamentally alter the material properties of a polymer. The introduction of covalent bonds between individual polymer chains creates 3D macromolecular assemblies with enhanced mechanical properties and greater chemical or thermal tolerances. In contrast to many chemical cross-linking reactions, which are the basis of thermoset plastics, enzyme catalysed processes offer a complimentary paradigm for the assembly of cross-linked polymer networks through their predictability and high levels of control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bip.23390DOI Listing

Giant ankyrin-B suppresses stochastic collateral axon branching through direct interaction with microtubules.

J Cell Biol 2020 Aug;219(8)

Division of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Giant ankyrin-B (gAnkB) is a 440-kD neurospecific ankyrin-B isoform and a high-confidence target for autism mutations. gAnkB suppresses axon branching through coordination of cortical microtubules, and autism-related mutation of gAnkB results in ectopic neuronal connectivity. We identified a bipartite motif from gAnkB, which bundles and avidly binds to microtubules in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201910053DOI Listing

An Angelman syndrome substitution in the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase C-terminal Lobe of E6AP affects protein stability and activity.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(7):e0235925. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Gustaf H. Carlson School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Clark University, Worcester, MA, United States of America.

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by speech impairment, intellectual disability, ataxia, and epilepsy. AS is caused by mutations in the maternal copy of UBE3A located on chromosome 15q11-13. UBE3A codes for E6AP (E6 Associated Protein), a prominent member of the HECT (Homologous to E6AP C-Terminus) E3 ubiquitin ligase family. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235925PLOS

Sensitivity of yeast to lithium chloride connects the activity of YTA6 and YPR096C to translation of structured mRNAs.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(7):e0235033. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biology and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Lithium Chloride (LiCl) toxicity, mode of action and cellular responses have been the subject of active investigations over the past decades. In yeast, LiCl treatment is reported to reduce the activity and alters the expression of PGM2, a gene that encodes a phosphoglucomutase involved in sugar metabolism. Reduced activity of phosphoglucomutase in the presence of galactose causes an accumulation of intermediate metabolites of galactose metabolism leading to a number of phenotypes including growth defect. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235033PLOS

Long-term low-dose ethanol intake improves healthspan and resists high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Jul 8;12. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Numerous epidemiological studies have reported that moderate alcohol drinking has beneficial effects. However, few studies have focused on the beneficial effects of ethanol, the common component in alcoholic beverages. Here we fed the C57BL/6 mice with 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103401DOI Listing

Interfacial Rashba-Effect-Induced Anisotropy in Nonmagnetic-Material-Ferrimagnetic-Insulator Bilayers.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Jun;124(25):257202

Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Interfacial magnetic anisotropy in magnetic insulators has been largely unexplored. Recently, interface-induced skyrmions and electrical control of magnetization have been discovered in insulator-based heterostructures, which demand a thorough understanding of interfacial interactions in these materials. We observe a substantial, tunable interfacial magnetic anisotropy between Tm_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} epitaxial thin films and fifteen nonmagnetic materials spanning a significant portion of the periodic table, which we attribute to Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.257202DOI Listing

Thermal Control of Spin Excitations in the Coupled Ising-Chain Material RbCoCl_{3}.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Jun;124(25):257201

Department of Quantum Matter Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics of the quantum (S=1/2) antiferromagnetic Ising chains in RbCoCl_{3}. The structure and magnetic interactions in this material conspire to produce two magnetic phase transitions at low temperatures, presenting an ideal opportunity for thermal control of the chain environment. The high-resolution spectra we measure of two-domain-wall excitations therefore characterize precisely both the continuum response of isolated chains and the "Zeeman-ladder" bound states of chains in three different effective staggered fields in one and the same material. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.257201DOI Listing

Molecular interaction studies of zinc sulphide nanoparticles with DNA and its consequence: a multi-technique approach.

Luminescence 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, Government Science College, Bengaluru, India.

Molecular interaction studies between NPs and biomolecules are of great importance in the field of nanomedicine, as they affect many physiological processes. Thus, the interaction of zinc sulphide nanoparticles (ZnS NPs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT DNA) and its significance was analysed using UV-visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), zeta potential, viscometry, electrochemical and polymerase chain reaction methods. Fluorescence quenching analysis revealed that the fluorescence of ZnS NPs was quenched by CT DNA via static quenching mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.3912DOI Listing

Performance of the Sysmex White Precursor Channel to discover circulating leukemic blast cells.

Int J Lab Hematol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Technology, Faculty of Health and Technology, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: Circulating immature precursor cells indicate malignant diseases like acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemia, and blast cells are key finds for disease management. Automatized cell counters are an essential contemporary appliance for blast detection, but false-positive samples remain challenging in terms of time and resources. To reduce this issue, the White Precursor Channel (WPC) was introduced to Sysmex XN series; however, sensitivity may reduce when accommodating low specificity. Read More

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