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    27 results match your criteria Biochemistry Insights [Journal]

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    Enzyme Immobilization on Nanoporous Gold: A Review.
    Biochem Insights 2017 17;10:1178626417748607. Epub 2017 Dec 17.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Nanoscience, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Nanoporous gold (referred to as np-Au or NPG) has emerged over the past 10 years as a new support for enzyme immobilization. The material has appealing features of ease of preparation, tunability of pore size, high surface to volume ratio, and compatibility with multiple strategies for enzyme immobilization. The np-Au material is especially of interest for immobilization of redox enzymes for biosensor and biofuel cell applications given the ability to construct electrodes of high surface area and stability. Read More

    Structure and Function of Caltrin (Calcium Transport Inhibitor) Proteins.
    Biochem Insights 2017 17;10:1178626417745822. Epub 2017 Dec 17.
    Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Reproductiva, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos (ICTA); Cátedra de Química Biológica, Departamento de Química Industrial y Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Caltrin (calcium transport inhibitor) is a family of small and basic proteins of the mammalian seminal plasma which bind to sperm cells during ejaculation and inhibit the extracellular Ca uptake, preventing the premature acrosomal exocytosis and hyperactivation when sperm cells ascend through the female reproductive tract. The binding of caltrin proteins to specific areas of the sperm surface suggests the existence of caltrin receptors, or precise protein-phospholipid arrangements in the sperm membrane, distributed in the regions where Ca influx may take place. However, the molecular mechanisms of recognition and interaction between caltrin and spermatozoa have not been elucidated. Read More

    Prophylactic Iron Supplementation in Pregnancy: A Controversial Issue.
    Biochem Insights 2017 27;10:1178626417737738. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Departamento de Biologia e Farmácia, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil.
    In our world today, iron deficiency (ID) is the most frequent nutritional deficiency and it is being considered as an epidemic public health crisis. Women of reproductive age and infants are at particular risk of ID, especially in underdeveloped countries. During pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia is a specific risk factor associated with negative maternal and perinatal outcomes. Read More

    DNA Microarray Analysis of Estrogen Responsive Genes in Ishikawa Cells by Glabridin.
    Biochem Insights 2017 26;10:1178626417721676. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Division of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health Sciences, School of Biosciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.
    Based on a previous study, glabridin displayed a dose-dependent increase in estrogenic activity and cell proliferative activity in Ishikawa cells. However, when treated in combination with 17β-E, synergistic estrogenic effect was observed but without the same synergistic increase in cell proliferative effect. This study aimed to identify the estrogen and nonestrogen-regulated activities induced by glabridin and in combination with 17β-E in comparison with 17β-E. Read More

    The Role of the Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in Visceral Adiposity.
    Biochem Insights 2017 20;10:1178626417703995. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    School of Health, Nursing & Midwifery, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, UK.
    There is substantial evidence that the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity. Both GH and IGF-I have direct effects on adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, and this system is involved in the cross-talk between adipose tissue, liver, and pituitary. Transgenic animal models have been of importance in identifying mechanisms underlying these interactions. Read More

    Identification of Stevioside Using Tissue Culture-Derived Stevia () Leaves.
    Biochem Insights 2015 18;8(Suppl 2):33-37. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Laboratory of Food Preventive Medicine, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, Okayama, Japan.
    Stevioside is a natural sweetener from Stevia leaf, which is 300 times sweeter than sugar. It helps to reduce blood sugar levels dramatically and thus can be of benefit to diabetic people. Tissue culture is a very potential modern technology that can be used in large-scale disease-free stevia production throughout the year. Read More

    Effects of Del. Stem Bark Extract on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats.
    Biochem Insights 2016 11;9:19-22. Epub 2016 Dec 11.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.
    Africa is rich in a wide range of flora that are exploited as herbal medicines and remedies. Several diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery and jaundice have been successfully managed using herbal medicines. Herbal decoctions or concoctions have been used as pain killers, antibiotics, and hematinics. Read More

    Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain.
    Biochem Insights 2016 15;9:11-7. Epub 2016 Jun 15.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.
    A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Read More

    Protein Modifications as Manifestations of Hyperglycemic Glucotoxicity in Diabetes and Its Complications.
    Biochem Insights 2016 23;9:1-9. Epub 2016 Mar 23.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, UNT Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.
    Diabetes and its complications are hyperglycemic toxicity diseases. Many metabolic pathways in this array of diseases become aberrant, which is accompanied with a variety of posttranslational protein modifications that in turn reflect diabetic glucotoxicity. In this review, we summarize some of the most widely studied protein modifications in diabetes and its complications. Read More

    Carbamylated Erythropoietin: A Prospective Drug Candidate for Neuroprotection.
    Biochem Insights 2015 4;8(Suppl 1):25-9. Epub 2016 Feb 4.
    School of Basic Medical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.
    Carbamylated erythropoietin (cEpo), which is neuroprotective but lacks hematopoietic activity, has been attracting rising concerns. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the process of neuroprotection of cEpo are not well known. Based on several recent reports, the neuroprotective effects of cEpo are illustrated, and signaling pathways involved in the different effects of erythropoietin and cEpo are discussed. Read More

    La(3+) Alters the Response Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Low-Temperature Noxious Stimulation of the Dental Pulp.
    Biochem Insights 2015 9;8(Suppl 1):9-20. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
    Department of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Heping District, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.
    Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. Read More

    Arabinosylation Plays a Crucial Role in Extensin Cross-linking In Vitro.
    Biochem Insights 2015 20;8(Supple 2):1-13. Epub 2015 Sep 20.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.
    Extensins (EXTs) are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that are structural components of the plant primary cell wall. They are basic proteins and are highly glycosylated with carbohydrate accounting for >50% of their dry weight. Carbohydrate occurs as monogalactosyl serine and arabinosyl hydroxyproline, with arabinosides ranging in size from ~1 to 4 or 5 residues. Read More

    Extracellular Matrix and Integrins in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.
    Biochem Insights 2015 28;8(Suppl 2):15-21. Epub 2015 Sep 28.
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells with great therapeutic potentials. The in vitro differentiation of ESC was designed by recapitulating embryogenesis. Significant progress has been made to improve the in vitro differentiation protocols by toning soluble maintenance factors. Read More

    Selective Regulation of Oocyte Meiotic Events Enhances Progress in Fertility Preservation Methods.
    Biochem Insights 2015 20;8:11-21. Epub 2015 Sep 20.
    Department of Medical Biochemistry (Firat Hormone Research Group), School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.
    Following early embryonic germ cell migration, oocytes are surrounded by somatic cells and remain arrested at diplotene stage until luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Strict regulation of both meiotic arrest and meiotic resumption during dormant stage are critical for future fertility. Inter-cellular signaling system between the somatic compartment and oocyte regulates these meiotic events and determines the follicle quality. Read More

    Combined Efficacy of Gallic Acid and MiADMSA with Limited Beneficial Effects Over MiADMSA Against Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse.
    Biochem Insights 2015 26;8:1-10. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
    Division of Regulatory Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India.
    Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. Read More

    Production, Purification, and Identification of Cholest-4-en-3-one Produced by Cholesterol Oxidase from Rhodococcus sp. in Aqueous/Organic Biphasic System.
    Biochem Insights 2015 16;8(Suppl 1):1-8. Epub 2015 Feb 16.
    College of Life Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
    Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD) using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. Read More

    A Single-Cell Platform for Monitoring Viral Proteolytic Cleavage in Different Cellular Compartments.
    Biochem Insights 2015 22;8(Suppl 2):23-31. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Infectious diseases affect human health despite advances in biomedical research and drug discovery. Among these, viruses are especially difficult to tackle due to the sudden transfer from animals to humans, high mutational rates, resistance to current treatments, and the intricacies of their molecular interactions with the host. As an example of these interactions, we describe a cell-based approach to monitor specific proteolytic events executed by either the viral-encoded protease or by host proteins on the virus. Read More

    Withaferin A Inhibits STAT3 and Induces Tumor Cell Death in Neuroblastoma and Multiple Myeloma.
    Biochem Insights 2014 9;7:1-13. Epub 2014 Nov 9.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, USA.
    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor that has been implicated in many human cancers and has emerged as an ideal target for cancer therapy. Withaferin A (WFA) is a natural product with promising antiproliferative properties through its association with a number of molecular targets including STAT3. However, the effect of WFA in pediatric neuroblastoma (NB) and its interaction with STAT3 have not been reported. Read More

    Molecular Differences and Similarities Between Alzheimer's Disease and the 5XFAD Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyloidosis.
    Biochem Insights 2013 21;6:1-10. Epub 2013 Nov 21.
    The Longtine Center for Neurodegenerative Biochemistry, Banner Sun Health Research Institute Sun City, AZ, USA.
    Transgenic (Tg) mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively used to study the pathophysiology of this dementia and to test the efficacy of drugs to treat AD. The 5XFAD Tg mouse, which contains two presenilin-1 and three amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations, was designed to rapidly recapitulate a portion of the pathologic alterations present in human AD. APP and its proteolytic peptides, as well as apolipoprotein E and endogenous mouse tau, were investigated in the 5XFAD mice at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. Read More

    Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.
    Biochem Insights 2012 31;5:21-9. Epub 2012 Oct 31.
    Department of Life Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005, Japan.
    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). Read More

    Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of ester-linked 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde-monosaccharide conjugate as potential prodrug.
    Biochem Insights 2012 27;5:17-20. Epub 2012 Aug 27.
    Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, Okayama, Japan.
    Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of ester-linked 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde-glucose conjugate (2-phenylindole-3-carboxyl-10″-O-β-D-glucosyl ester) was achieved by using plant cell cultures as biocatalysts. The anticancer agent, 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde, induced apoptosis in cells, whereas 2-phenylindole-3-carboxyl-10″-O-β-D-glucosyl ester showed no cytotoxicity and induced no apoptosis. Read More

    Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of glycolyl-ester-linked taxol-monosaccharide conjugate and its drug delivery system using hepatitis B virus envelope L bio-nanocapsules.
    Biochem Insights 2012 9;5:11-5. Epub 2012 Jul 9.
    Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005, Japan.
    Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of glycolyl-ester-linked taxol-glucose conjugate, ie, 7-glycolyltaxol 2″-O-α-D-glucoside, was achieved by using α-glucosidase as a biocatalyst. The water-solubility of 7-glycolyltaxol 2″-O-α-D-glucoside (21 μM) was 53 fold higher than that of taxol. The hepatitis B virus envelope L particles (bio-nanocapsules) are effective for delivering 7-glycolyltaxol 2″-O-α-D-glucoside to human hepatocellular carcinoma NuE cells. Read More

    Dying for Good: Virus-Bacterium Biofilm Co-evolution Enhances Environmental Fitness.
    Biochem Insights 2012 3;5:1-9. Epub 2012 Jul 3.
    Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
    Commonly used in biotechnology applications, filamentous M13 phage are non-lytic viruses that infect E. coli and other bacteria, with the potential to promote horizontal gene transfer in natural populations with synthetic biology implications for engineering community systems. Using the E. Read More

    Morphological Changes and Immunohistochemical Expression of RAGE and its Ligands in the Sciatic Nerve of Hyperglycemic Pig (Sus Scrofa).
    Biochem Insights 2010 Sep;2010(3):47-59
    Division of Surgical Science, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
    The aim of our project was to study the effect of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia on sciatic nerve morphology, blood plasma markers and immunohistochemical expression of RAGE (the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products), and its ligands-S100B and Carboxymethyl Lysine (CML)-advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in the laboratory pig. Six months after STZ-injections, blood plasma measurements, morphometric analysis of sciatic nerve fiber density, immunofluorescent distribution of potential molecular neuropathy contributors, ELISA measurement of plasma AGE level and HPLC analysis of sciatic nerve levels of one of the pre-AGE and the glycolysis intermediate products-methyl-glyoxal (MG) were performed. The results of our study revealed that STZ-injected animals displayed elevated levels of plasma glucose, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and triglycerides. Read More

    Targeted Cancer Therapy with Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha.
    Biochem Insights 2008 Jul;2008:15-21
    Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. ; University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a member of the TNF superfamily, was the first cytokine to be evaluated for cancer biotherapy. However, the clinical use of TNF-α is severely limited by its toxicity. Currently, TNF-α is administered only through locoregional drug delivery systems such as isolated limb perfusion and isolated hepatic perfusion. Read More

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