1,020,165 results match your criteria Biochemistry Insights [Journal]


Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Horm Metab Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Saolta University Health Care Group (SUHCG), Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland.

The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is recommended for case detection of primary aldosteronism (PA). Several factors including medications can undermine its diagnostic accuracy. The objective was to explore the effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the ARR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were prescribed a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor (SGLT-2i) as part of routine clinical care. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Pharmacokinetics of Prenylflavonoids following Oral Ingestion of Standardized Epimedium Extract in Humans.

Planta Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Leaves of the plant are traditionally consumed for bone health and other indications. The aim of this study was to establish the safety and pharmacokinetics of the metabolites of prenylflavonoids (icariin, icariside I, icariside II, icaritin, and desmethylicaritin) following single doses of a defined prenylflavonoid extract in humans. A single oral dose of 370, 740, or 1110 mg of a standardized prenylflavonoid extract was administered to 30 healthy male subjects in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read
2.152 Impact Factor

Photoinactivation of the Staphylococcus aureus Lactose-Specific EIICB Phosphotransferase Component with p-azidophenyl-β-D-Galactoside and Phosphorylation of the Covalently Bound Substrate.

J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 6;28(3):147-158. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Max Planck Institute for Systems Physiology, Dortmund,

Background: The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):lactose phosphotransferase system of Staphylococcus aureus transports and phosphorylates lactose and various phenylgalactosides. Their phosphorylation is catalyzed by the Cys476-phosphorylated EIIB domain of the lactose-specific permease enzyme IICB (EIICBLac). Phosphorylation causes the release of galactosides bound to the EIIC domain into the cytoplasm by a mechanism not yet understood. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

PD-1/ PD-L1 blockade as a novel treatment for colorectal cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 3;110:312-318. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC), as a prominent cause of cancer-related deaths, has historically been notable worldwide and many attempts have been made to raise the overall survival of CRC patients. Immune response has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields such as cancer therapies and anti-tumor immunity through checkpoint inhibitors, specifically anti PD-1/ PD-L1 interaction, is a new line of research for treatment of CRC patients. Following the successful development of anti-PD-1 for melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer, several clinical trials have been conducted on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PD-1 in CRC. Read More

View Article
December 2018
9 Reads

Loss of enzyme activity in mutated B4GALNT1 gene products in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia results in relatively mild neurological disorders: Similarity with phenotypes of B4galnt1 knockout mice.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai 487-8501, Japan; Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-0065, Japan. Electronic address:

B4GALNT1 is an enzyme essential for the synthesis of complex gangliosides, whose absence leads to progressive neurodegeneration with aging in mice. Recently, eleven cases of hereditary spastic paraplegia with mutation in the coding region of B4GALNT1 were reported. However, changes in the enzymatic activity of their products have never been studied. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Beneficial Effect of Curcumin Nanoparticles-Hydrogel on Excisional Skin Wound Healing in Type-I Diabetic Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies.

Ann Anat 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Management of diabetic wounds remains a major challenge in the medical field, mostly due to incompetent outcomes of treatments. Curcumin has been documented as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antineoplastic agent in addition to wound healing activities. However, its poor aqueous solubility and impaired skin permeation handicap its topical pharmaceutical usage. Read More

View Article
December 2018
7 Reads

Mechanically magnified chitosan-based hydrogel as tissue adhesive and antimicrobial candidate.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, UP, India.

The present article reports the development of chitosan (CS) based hydrogel series by varying the concentration of cross-linking agent i.e. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) (0. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Geodorum densiflorum rhizome lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell growth by inducing apoptosis through the regulation of BAX, p53 and NF-κB genes expression.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

A lectin with a molecular mass of 12 ± 1 kDa was isolated for the first time from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) rhizome (GDL). The lectin exhibited hemagglutination activity both in mice and human erythrocytes which was inhibited by 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside among the tested 26 sugars. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads
2.858 Impact Factor

Enhancement of the carbohydrate content in Spirulina by applying CO, thermoelectric fly ashes and reduced nitrogen supply.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, 96203-900, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study focused on evaluating whether the injection of CO, which is associated with the use of thermoelectric fly ashes and a reduced supply of nitrogen, affects the production of intracellular carbohydrates from Spirulina. For this purpose, the addition of 0.25 g L of NaNO, along with a 10% (v v) of CO injection, a flow rate of 0. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Oxidation of cystatin imparted by riboflavin generated free radicals: Spectral analysis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of life sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India. Electronic address:

Thiol Protease inhibitors (cystatins) are endogenous natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are present in all mammalians cells and body fluids. Cystatin are allocated into three major families. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Polysaccharide from a Tunisian red seaweed Chondrus canaliculatus: Structural characteristics, antioxidant activity and in vivo hemato-nephroprotective properties on maneb induced toxicity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Enzyme engineering and Microbiology, National Engineering School in Sfax, University of Sfax, B.P. 1173, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:

The present study aims to investigate the physicochemical and the structural features of polysaccharide isolated from the red marine macro alga Chondrus canaliculatus (C.C.P) using FT-IR, gel filtration high-pressure chromatograph, HPLC-FID and solid state C NMR analysis. Read More

View Article
December 2018

RNA Therapy: Are we using the right Molecules?

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Small-molecule and protein/antibody drugs mainly act on genome-derived proteins to exert pharmacological effects. RNA based therapies hold the promise to expand the range of druggable targets from proteins to RNAs and the genome, as evidenced by several RNA drugs approved for clinical practice and many others under active trials. While chemo-engineered RNA mimics have found their success in marketed drugs and continue dominating basic research and drug development, these molecules are usually conjugated with extensive and various modifications. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Biased perspectives on formyl peptide receptors.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Center for Molecular Biology of Inflammation, University of Muenster, Von-Esmarch-Str. 56, D-48149 Muenster, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Cells in Motion", University of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogenic threats. For the early pathogen recognition and activation of cell protective mechanisms, germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect characteristic and evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs are therefore key elements in the innate immune response; in addition, they sense danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are released by host cell molecules under pathophysiological conditions. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Alpha-pinene attenuates UVA-induced photoaging through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in mouse skin.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Transdisciplinary Research and Innovation, Waikato Institute of Technology, Wintec Private Bag, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Aim: The present study was designed to examine the role of alpha-pinene (AP) against skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated mice.

Materials And Methods: Swiss albino mice were subjected to UVA-irradiation at the rate of 10 J/cm per day for ten days, totally mouse received 100 J/cm. One hour prior to each UVA-exposure, the mouse skin was topically treated with AP (100 mg kg/b·wt). Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads
2.702 Impact Factor

Cardiovascular development and survival require Mef2c function in the myocardial but not the endothelial lineage.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA. Electronic address:

MEF2C is a member of the highly conserved MEF2 family of transcription factors and is a key regulator of cardiovascular development. In mice, Mef2c is expressed in the developing heart and vasculature, including the endothelium. Loss of Mef2c function in germline knockout mice leads to early embryonic demise and profound developmental abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Overexpression of heat shock protein HSP90AA1 and translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane TOM34 in HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: A pilot study.

Clin Biochem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Electronic address:

Objective: Identification of new molecular markers to enhance early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a need. TOM34 (34 kDa-translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) protein expression deregulation has demonstrated to be involved in the growth of many cancers. Here, we aimed at evaluating serum TOM34 and some heat shock proteins (HSPA4, HSPA1B, and HSP90AA1) expressions in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and HCV-induced HCC relative to controls and correlating these expressions to the clinicopathological data. Read More

View Article
December 2018
6 Reads

A Path(way) to Keeping Your Synapses on an Even Keel.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1013-1014

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.

In this issue of Neuron, Harris et al. (2018) show that a signal transduction pathway normally exploited by the innate immune system in recognizing foreign agents plays a critical role in controlling a synapse's ability to maintain stability in the efficacy of synaptic transmission over both rapid and prolonged timescales. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Assessing the role of the T-box transcription factor Eomes in B cell differentiation during either Th1 or Th2 cell-biased responses.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208343. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Successful T-dependent humoral responses require the production of antibody-secreting plasmablasts, as well as the formation of germinal centers which eventually form high-affinity B cell memory. The ability of B cells to differentiate into germinal center and plasma cells, as well as the ability to tailor responses to different pathogens, is driven by transcription factors. In T cells, the T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) regulate effector and memory T cell differentiation, respectively. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Gene landscape and correlation between B-cell infiltration and programmed death ligand 1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208459. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are related to positive clinical prognoses in numerous cancer types. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a mediator of the PD-1 receptor, plays an inhibitory role in cancer immune responses. PD-L1 upregulation can impede infiltrating T-cell functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), a lung cancer subtype. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Effect estimate comparison between the prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA) and parallel group study designs: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208389. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, unit PharmacoTherapy, -Epidemiology & -Economics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA), a case-only design introduced in 1996, has been increasingly used to identify unintentional drug effects, and has potential applications as a hypothesis-testing and a hypothesis-generating method, due to its easy application and effective control of time-invariant confounders. The aim of this study is to systematically compare effect estimates from the PSSA to effect estimates from conventional observational parallel group study designs, to assess the validity and constraints of the PSSA study design. We reviewed the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases until February 2016 to identify studies that compared PSSA to a parallel group design. Read More

View Article
December 2018

An efficient proteome-wide strategy for discovery and characterization of cellular nucleotide-protein interactions.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208273. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Metabolite-protein interactions define the output of metabolic pathways and regulate many cellular processes. Although diseases are often characterized by distortions in metabolic processes, efficient means to discover and study such interactions directly in cells have been lacking. A stringent implementation of proteome-wide Cellular Thermal Shift Assay (CETSA) was developed and applied to key cellular nucleotides, where previously experimentally confirmed protein-nucleotide interactions were well recaptured. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Global Tudor-SN transgenic mice are protected from obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801253RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

In the current study, we explored the impact of Tudor-staphylococcal nuclease (SN) on obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, because the functional involvement of Tudor-SN in lipid metabolism in vivo is unknown. HFD-transgenic (Tg) mice exhibited reductions in hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin resistance. There was no difference in hepatic lipid accumulation between chow-fed wild-type (WT) and chow-fed Tg mice; consistently, no difference in activation of the lipogenic pathway was detected. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Oligomerization of equilibrative nucleoside transporters: a novel regulatory and functional mechanism involving PKC and PP1.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201800440RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) translocate nucleosides and nucleobases across plasma membranes, as well as a variety of anti-cancer, -viral, and -parasite nucleoside analogs. They are also key members of the purinome complex and regulate the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine. Despite their important role, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their regulation. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Target engagement and binding mode of an anti-tuberculosis drug to its bacterial target deciphered in whole living cells by NMR.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Detailed information on hit-target interaction is very valuable for drug discovery efforts and indispensable for rational hit to lead optimization. We developed a new approach combining NMR in whole-cells (in-cell NMR) and docking to characterize hit-target interaction at the atomic level. By using in-cell NMR, we validated target engagement of the anti-tuberculosis imidazopyridine amide (IPA) series with the subunit b of the cytochrome bc1:aa3, the major respiratory terminal oxidase in mycobacteria. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1 Uncovers the Role of Acidic Tails in Histone Binding.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nucleosome assembly proteins (Naps) influence chromatin dynamics by directly binding to histones. Here we provide a comprehensive structural and biochemical analysis of a Nap protein from Caenorhabditis elegans (CeNap1). CeNap1 naturally lacks the acidic N-terminal tail and has a short C-terminal tail compared to many other Nap proteins. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Structural basis for neutralization of cytotoxic abrin by monoclonal antibody D6F10.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, 560012, India.

Abrin, an extremely cytotoxic Type-II ribosome inactivating protein (RIP), is a potential bio-warfare agent. Abrin A-chain (ABA) depurinates an adenosine of sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) from eukaryotic 28S rRNA thereby arresting protein synthesis and leading to cell death. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) D6F10 is the only known antibody that neutralizes ABA's activity in cell-free systems as well as abrin's toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Photofunctionalizing effects of hydroxyapatite combined with TiO on bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41940, Republic of Korea.

The hydrophilicity of bone graft material generally used as a carrier can play an important role in regulating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression at the bone graft site. The hydrophilicity, altering physicochemical properties, and enhancing biological capabilities, can be increased via surface modification through ultraviolet (UV) photofunctionalization and the effect on de novo osteogenesis could be further improved. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of UV-irradiated TiO -coated hydroxyapatite (HA) in combination with rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Hexameric assembly of the AAA+ protein McrB is necessary for GTPase activity.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411008, India.

McrBC is one of the three modification-dependent restriction enzymes encoded by the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome. Amongst restriction enzymes, McrBC and its close homologues are unique in employing the AAA+ domain for GTP hydrolysis-dependent activation of DNA cleavage. The GTPase activity of McrB is stimulated by the endonuclease subunit McrC. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

An RK/ST C-terminal Motif is Required for Targeting of OEP7.2 and a Subset of Other Arabidopsis Tail-Anchored Proteins to the Plastid Outer Envelope Membrane.

Plant Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a unique class of integral membrane proteins that possess a single C-terminal transmembrane domain and target post-translationally to the specific organelles at which they function. While significant advances have been made in recent years in elucidating the mechanisms and molecular targeting signals involved in the proper sorting of TA proteins, particularly to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, relatively little is known about the targeting of TA proteins to the plastid outer envelope. Here we show that several known or predicted plastid TA outer envelope proteins (OEPs) in Arabidopsis possess a C-terminal RK/ST sequence motif that serves as a conserved element of their plastid targeting signal. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Advances in Genomic Hepatocellular Carcinoma Research.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117456, Singapore.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the cancer with the second highest mortality in the world due to its late presentation and limited treatment options. As such, there is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and develop novel therapies. The availability of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data from tumors of liver cancer patients has provided us with invaluable resources to better understand HCC through the integration of data from different sources to facilitate the identification of promising biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mechanistic insights into the slow peptide bond formation with D-amino acids in the ribosomal active site.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

During protein synthesis, ribosomes discriminate chirality of amino acids and prevent incorporation of D-amino acids into nascent proteins by slowing down the rate of peptide bond formation. Despite this phenomenon being known for nearly forty years, no structures have ever been reported that would explain the poor reactivity of D-amino acids. Here we report a 3. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read
9.112 Impact Factor

Association of Body Fat and Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women With Normal Body Mass Index: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial and Observational Study.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Importance: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, including the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subtype in postmenopausal women. Whether excess adiposity is associated with increased risk in women with a normal body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is unknown.

Objective: To investigate the association between body fat and breast cancer risk in women with normal BMI. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Correction: Synthesis and application of a highly branched, mechanism-based 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-oligosaccharide inhibitor of endo-xyloglucanases.

Org Biomol Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, 2185 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Correction for 'Synthesis and application of a highly branched, mechanism-based 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-oligosaccharide inhibitor of endo-xyloglucanases' by Namrata Jain et al., Org. Biomol. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A single AT-GC exchange can modulate charge transfer-induced p53-DNA dissociation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. and Department of Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.

Using molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure theory, we shed light on the charge dynamics that causes the differential interaction of tumor suppressor protein p53 with the p21 and Gadd45 genes in response to oxidative stress. We show that the sequence dependence of this selectivity results from competing charge transfer to the protein and through the DNA, with implications on the use of genome editing tools to influence the p53 regulatory function. Read More

View Article
December 2018

SecScan: a general approach for mapping disulfide bonds in synthetic and recombinant peptides and proteins.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Maastricht, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Selenocysteine scanning (SecScan) is a novel technique to map disulfide networks in proteins independent of structure-based distance information and mass spectrometry. SecScan applies systematic substitution of single Cys by Sec in combination with NMR spectroscopy for reliable and unambiguous determination of disulfide bond networks. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Biopharmaceutical benchmarks 2018.

Authors:
Gary Walsh

Nat Biotechnol 2018 Dec;36(12):1136-1145

Industrial Biochemistry Program, Department of Chemical Sciences and Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Ireland.

View Article
December 2018

A secretory pathway kinase regulates sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca homeostasis and protects against heart failure.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, United States.

Ca signaling is important for many cellular and physiological processes, including cardiac function. Although sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) proteins involved in Ca signaling have been shown to be phosphorylated, the biochemical and physiological roles of protein phosphorylation within the lumen of the SR remain essentially uncharacterized. Our laboratory recently identified an atypical protein kinase, Fam20C, which is uniquely localized to the secretory pathway lumen. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Protein gradients on the nucleoid position the carbon-fixing organelles of cyanobacteria.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.

Carboxysomes are protein-based bacterial organelles encapsulating key enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Previous work has implicated a ParA-like protein (hereafter McdA) as important for spatially organizing carboxysomes along the longitudinal axis of the model cyanobacterium PCC 7942. Yet, how self-organization of McdA emerges and contributes to carboxysome positioning is unknown. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Regulating Osteogenic Differentiation by Suppression of Exosomal microRNAs.

Tissue Eng Part A 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Kyungpook National University, Oral Microbiology , 2177 Dalgubeol-daero, Jung-gu , Daegu, Korea, Republic of , 41940 ;

Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles that naturally transport bio-molecules, including miRNAs, and play critical roles in intercellular communication. We found that the growth condition milieu of pre-osteoblast exosomes contains a high level of the let-7 miRNAs. After blocking exosome secretion, we found that osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) decreased significantly whereas addition of exosomes from growth condition recovered osteogenic ability. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Overexpression of IL-11 promotes premalignant gastric epithelial hyperplasia in isolation from germline gp130-JAK-STAT3 driver mutations.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Australia.

Expression of the cytokine IL-11 is elevated in human Helicobacter pylori infection and progressively increases with worsening gastric pathology. Additionally, IL-11 is required for tumour development in STAT3 dependent murine models of gastric cancer (GC) and, when administered acutely, causes resolving atrophic gastritis. However, it is unclear whether locally elevated IL-11 ligand expression can, in isolation from oncogenic gp130-JAK-STAT pathway mutations, initiate GC pathogenesis. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Sweat Testing in Ireland

Ir Med J 2018 08 13;111(7):789. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Paediatric Cystic Fibrosis Unit, University Hospital Limerick

Introduction Quick, painless, cheap and reliable, the sweat test remains the gold standard diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis. We aimed to describe the pattern of testing in Ireland over a calendar year. Methods Information on sweat test practices was requested from each centre between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2011, and the number of positive, negative, equivocal, and insufficient samples was recorded. Read More

View Article

Directed Evolution Empowered Redesign of Natural Proteins for the Sustainable Production of Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

ABBt-Institute of Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University and DWI Leibniz Institute for, Interactive Materials, Worringer Weg 3, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Directed evolution has advanced into a standard industrial "tool" to tailor naturally occurring proteins for a variety of biotechnological applications, thus enabling product valorization and bringing societal benefits across industrial sectors. Examples are sustainable enzymatic production processes for chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or applications in the food, feed, and laundry industries. In essence, directed evolution has contributed to sustainable industrial processes that fuel the transition from a fossil-based economy to a biobased economy utilizing renewable resources. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Trends in the incidence and mortality of cancer in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2018 Dec;39(12):1259-1262

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Objectives: To analyze the overall trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2016.   Methods: Data were retrieved through a Global Burden of Disease (GBD, 2016) database (Viz Hub) that is developed by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington. Results: The incidence of cancer increased around 26-fold for thyroid cancer; approximately 10-fold in breast, colon, bladder and uterine cancers; 8-fold for prostate cancer; 5-fold for renal cancer; 4-fold for pancreatic and ovarian cancer; 3. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Diagnostic Value of HLA Typing in Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, Research Institute of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz. Iran.

Development of cardiomyopathy (CM) is dependent upon several factors. However, reaction of immune response against myocardial tissue due to microbial and viral infections plays an important role in this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between HLAs and their pathogenic mechanisms in the incidence of CM. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Doxorubicin effects on leukemia and breast cancer cells in culture on the TK1 protein levels using AroCell TK 210 ELISA: a tool for drug development.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry , Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , VHC , Uppsala , Sweden.

In this study changes in thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) levels after 24 hours of Doxorubicin (Dox) exposure of CEM and MDA MB-231 cells were determined using the commercially available AroCell TK 210 ELISA test. In cell extracts, TK1 levels increased twofold with 1 µM Dox in both cell lines, while the TK1 levels in the culture media increased with 5 and 10 µM of Dox only in case of CEM cells. In conclusion, this study reveals that the TK 210 ELISA can measure changes in intra- and extracellular TK1 levels apparently related to the mechanism of cytotoxicity of anti-cancer agents. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Chemical Chaperone Decouples TDP-43 Disordered Domain Phase Separation from Fibrillation.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) condensations through liquid-liquid phase separation play vital roles in the dynamic formation-dissolution of stress granules (SGs). These condensations are, however, usually assumed to be linked to pathologic fibrillation. Here, we show that physiologic condensation and pathologic fibrillation of RNPs are independent processes that can be unlinked with the chemical chaperone trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Next-generation PNA chimeras exhibit high affinity and potent gene silencing.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

We present a new design of mixed-backbone antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) containing both DNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Previous generations of PNA-DNA chimeras showed low binding affinity, reducing their potential as therapeutics. The addition of a 5'-wing of locked nucleic acid as well as the combination of modified nucleotide and PNA monomer at the junction between PNA and DNA gave high affinity to the chimeras. Read More

View Article
December 2018
  • Page 1 of 20404