69,316 results match your criteria Biochemistry[Journal]


Molecular architecture of the inositol phosphatase Siw14.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Siw14 is a recently discovered inositol phosphatase implicated in suppressing prion propagation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this paper, we used hybrid structural methods to decipher Siw14 molecular architecture. We found the protein exists in solution as an elongate monomer ~140 Å in length, containing an acidic N-terminal domain (NTD) and a basic C-terminal dual specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain, structurally similar to the glycogen phosphatase laforin. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of the major diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA in mouse adipocytes and macrophages.

Authors:
Heping Cao

BMC Biochem 2018 Dec 14;19(1):11. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA, 70124, USA.

Background: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major form of energy storage in eukaryotes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of TAG biosynthesis. Mammalian DGATs are classified into DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies. Read More

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December 2018

Insights into the mechanism of paraoxonase-1: Comparing the reactivity of the six-bladed β-propeller hydrolases.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The mammalian protein paraoxonase-1 (PON1) has been explored as a promising bioscavenger treatment for organophosphorus (OP) agent poisoning, but it is not active enough to protect against many agents. Engineering is limited because PON1's catalytic mechanism is poorly understood; moreover, its native activity and substrate are unknown. PON1 is a calcium-bound six-bladed β-propeller hydrolase that shares high structural homology, a conserved metal-coordinating active site, and substrate specificity overlap with other members of a superfamily that includes squid diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase), bacterial drug responsive protein 35 (Drp35), and mammalian senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30). Read More

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December 2018

Design, validation, and application of an enzyme coupled hydrogen sulfide detection assay.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key metabolite in biosynthesis and is increasingly being recognized as an essential gasotransmitter. Owing to its diffusible and reactive nature, H¬2S can be difficult to quantify, particularly in situ. Although several detection schemes are available, they have drawbacks. Read More

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December 2018

Kinetics of Ligand-Protein Dissociation from All-Atom Simulations: Are We There Yet?

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Large parallel gains in the development of both computational resources as well as sampling methods have now made it possible to simulate dissociation events in ligand-protein complexes with all--atom resolution. Such encouraging progress, together with the inherent spatiotemporal resolution associated with molecular simulations, has left their use for investigating dissociation processes brimming with potential, both in rational drug design, where it can be an invaluable tool for determining the mechanistic driving forces behind dissociation rate constants, as well as in force-field development, where it can provide a catalog of transient molecular structures on which to refine force-fields. Although much progress has been made in making force-fields more accurate, reducing their error for transient structures along a transition path could yet prove to be a critical development helping to make kinetic predictions much more accurate. Read More

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December 2018

Poly(ADP-ribose) engages the TDP-43 nuclear-localization sequence to regulate granulo-filamentous aggregation.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms granulo-filamentous aggregates in affected brain regions of >95% of patients with ALS and ~50% of patients with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Furthermore, in disease, TDP-43 becomes N-terminally truncated resulting in protein deposits that are mainly composed of the C-terminal prion-like domain (PrLD). The PrLD is inherently aggregation-prone and is hypothesized to drive protein aggregation of TDP-43 in disease. Read More

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December 2018

Mispacking of the Phe87 side chain reduces the kinetic stability of human transthyretin.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Aggregation of transthyretin (TTR) causes the TTR amyloidoses. The native TTR tetramer (a dimer of dimers) is stabilized by pack-ing of phenylalanine 87 (F87) into a hydrophobic cavity of a neighboring protomer across the strong dimer-dimer interface. X-ray structures at acidic pH show that the side chain of F87 can be displaced from its binding pocket, but the resultant solution confor-mations remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

The Polycystin Complex Reveals Its Complexity.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology , Yale University School of Medicine , P.O. Box 208026, New Haven , Connecticut 06520-8026 , United States.

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December 2018

Probing the effect of sildenafil on Progesterone and Testosterone production by an intracellullar FRET/BRET combined approach.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based biosensors have been recently applied to the study of biological pathways. In this study, a new biosensor was validated for the first time in live HEK293 and steroidogenic MLTC-1 cell line for studying the PDE5 inhibitor effect on hCG/LH-induced steroidogenic pathway. The sensor benefits of FRET between, a donor (D), the fluorescein-like diarsenical probe able to covalently bind a tetracysteine motif fused to the PDE5 catalytic domain and, an acceptor (A), the rhodamine probe conjugated to the pseudosubstrate cGMPS. Read More

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December 2018

Stuffed Methyltransferase Catalyzes Penultimate Step of Pyochelin Biosynthesis.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases use tailoring domains to incorporate chemical diversity into the final natural product. A structurally unique set of tailoring domains are found to be stuffed within adenylation domains and have only recently begun to be characterized. PchF is the NRPS termination module in pyochelin biosynthesis and includes a stuffed methyltransferase domain responsible for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) dependent N-methylation. Read More

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December 2018

The Structure of the Bifunctional Everninomicin Biosynthetic Enzyme EvdMO1 Suggests Independent Activity of the Fused Methyltransferase-Oxidase Domains.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Members of the orthosomycin family of natural products are decorated polysaccharides with potent antibiotic activity and complex biosynthetic pathways. The defining feature of the orthosomycins is an orthoester linkage between carbohydrate moieties that is necessary for antibiotic activity and is likely formed by a family of conserved oxygenases. Everninomicins are octasaccharide orthosomycins produced by Micromonospora carbonacea that have two orthoester linkages and a methylenedioxy bridge, three features whose formation logically requires oxidative chemistry. Read More

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December 2018

Clicking a fish: Click chemistry of different biomolecules in Danio rerio.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Click chemistry has found remarkable applications in imaging biomacromolecules in cellular systems and even organisms. Over the past few years, bioorthogonal click reactions have been improved and tailored for specific applications, allowing to selectively label biomolecules like DNA, RNA, protein, glycans and lipids. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a prime model organism for vertebrate development and has gained importance in experimental biology and biochemistry for its ease of handling and appreciable genetic homology to mammals. Read More

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December 2018

Target engagement and binding mode of an anti-tuberculosis drug to its bacterial target deciphered in whole living cells by NMR.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Detailed information on hit-target interaction is very valuable for drug discovery efforts and indispensable for rational hit to lead optimization. We developed a new approach combining NMR in whole-cells (in-cell NMR) and docking to characterize hit-target interaction at the atomic level. By using in-cell NMR, we validated target engagement of the anti-tuberculosis imidazopyridine amide (IPA) series with the subunit b of the cytochrome bc1:aa3, the major respiratory terminal oxidase in mycobacteria. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1 Uncovers the Role of Acidic Tails in Histone Binding.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nucleosome assembly proteins (Naps) influence chromatin dynamics by directly binding to histones. Here we provide a comprehensive structural and biochemical analysis of a Nap protein from Caenorhabditis elegans (CeNap1). CeNap1 naturally lacks the acidic N-terminal tail and has a short C-terminal tail compared to many other Nap proteins. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

A Chemical Chaperone Decouples TDP-43 Disordered Domain Phase Separation from Fibrillation.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) condensations through liquid-liquid phase separation play vital roles in the dynamic formation-dissolution of stress granules (SGs). These condensations are, however, usually assumed to be linked to pathologic fibrillation. Here, we show that physiologic condensation and pathologic fibrillation of RNPs are independent processes that can be unlinked with the chemical chaperone trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Next-generation PNA chimeras exhibit high affinity and potent gene silencing.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

We present a new design of mixed-backbone antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) containing both DNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Previous generations of PNA-DNA chimeras showed low binding affinity, reducing their potential as therapeutics. The addition of a 5'-wing of locked nucleic acid as well as the combination of modified nucleotide and PNA monomer at the junction between PNA and DNA gave high affinity to the chimeras. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The folding and aggregation energy landscapes of tethered RRM domains of human TDP-43 are coupled via a metastable molten globule-like oligomer.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Stress-induced misfolding and intraneuronal aggregation of the highly conserved nucleic acid binding protein TDP-43 (transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa) and its fragments have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple other neurodegenerative diseases. However, the physico-chemical mechanism of its misfolding from the functional folded state is poorly understood. TDP-43 is a four domain protein and it performs the essential nucleic acid binding function with the help of its two tandem RNA recognition motif domains naturally tethered by a linker (called here tethered RRM domain of TDP-43 or TDP-43). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A Biophysical Perspective on Enzyme Catalysis.

Authors:
Pratul K Agarwal

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Even after a century of investigations, our knowledge of how enzymes work remains far from complete. In particular, several factors that enable enzymes to achieve the high catalytic efficiency still remain only poorly understood. A number of theories have been developed, which propose or reaffirm that enzymes work as structural scaffolds, serving to bringing together and properly orienting the participants so that the reaction can proceed; therefore, only viewing enzymes as passive participants in the catalyzed reaction. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Molecular Mechanism of the Pin1-Histone H1 Interaction.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Pin1 is an essential Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) that catalyzes cis-trans prolyl isomerization in proteins containing pSer/Thr-Pro motifs. It has an N-terminal WW domain that targets these motifs and a C-terminal PPIase domain that catalyzes isomerization. Recently, Pin1 was shown to modify the conformation of phosphorylated histone H1 and stabilize the chromatin-H1 interaction by increasing its residence time. Read More

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December 2018

Structural basis for graded inhibition of CREB:DNA interactions by multi-site phosphorylation.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Phosphorylation of the kinase-inducible domain (KID) of the cyclic AMP response element binding transcription factor (CREB) regulates its function through several mechanisms. Transcriptional activation occurs following phosphorylation at serine 133, but multisite phosphorylation in a neighboring region termed the CK cassette, residues 108-117, results in inhibition of CREB-mediated transcription. A molecular-level understanding of the mechanism of these opposing reactions has been lacking, in part because of the difficulty of preparing multiply-phosphorylated CREB in vitro. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Quantification of Free Ferriprotoporphyrin IX Heme and Hemozoin for Artemisinin Sensitive vs Delayed Clearance Phenotype Plasmodium falciparum Malarial Parasites.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

We use Plasmodium falciparum culture synchronization, optimized heme and hemozoin extraction protocols, and mass spectrometry to quantify the abundance of free ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX) heme and crystallized FPIX (hemozoin; Hz) for various growth stages of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum malarial parasites. Due to altered cell cycle kinetics for delayed clearance phenotype (DCP) parasites relative to control, we test whether FPIX and Hz abundances differ for DCP vs control parasites. Read More

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December 2018

Amyloid-like behavior of site-specifically citrullinated myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG) peptide fragments inside EBV infected B-cells influences their cytotoxicity and autoimmunogenicity.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder manifested via chronic inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration inside the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive phase of MS is characterized by neurodegeneration, but unlike classical neurodegenerative diseases, amyloid-like aggregation of self-proteins has not been documented. There is evidence that citrullination protects an immunodominant peptide of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG34-56) against destructive processing in EBV-infected B-lymphocytes (EBV-BLCs) in marmosets and causes exacerbation of ongoing MS-like encephalopathies in mice. Read More

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December 2018

RNA Structural Differentiation: Opportunities with Pattern Recognition.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Our awareness and appreciation of the many regulatory roles of RNA has dramatically increased in the past decade. This understanding, in addition to the impact of RNA in many disease states, has renewed interest in developing selective RNA-targeted small molecule probes. However, the fundamental guiding principles in RNA molecular recognition that could accelerate these efforts remain elusive. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Can protein expression be regulated by modulation of tRNA modifications profiles?

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

tRNAs are the central adaptor molecules in translation. Their decoding properties are influenced by post-transcriptional modifications, particularly in the critical anticodon-stem-loop (ASL) region. Synonymous codon choice also called codon usage bias affects both translation efficiency and accuracy, and ASL modifications play key roles in both these processes. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

An Open-Source Plate Reader.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Microplate readers are foundational instruments in ex-perimental biology and bioengineering that enable mul-tiplexed spectrophotometric measurements. To enhance their accessibility, we here report the design, construc-tion, validation, and benchmarking of an open-source microplate reader. The system features full-spectrum absorbance and fluorescence emission detection, in situ optogenetic stimulation, and stand-alone touch screen programming of automated assay protocols. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Redox-Responsive Protein Design: Design of a Small Protein Motif Dependent on Glutathionylation.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Cysteine S-glutathionylation is a protein post-translational modification that promotes cellular responses to changes in oxidative conditions. The design of protein motifs that directly depend on defined changes to protein side chains provides new methods to probe diverse protein post-translational modifications. A canonical, 12-residue EF Hand motif was redesigned to be responsive to cysteine glutathionylation. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Purification and characterization of cysteine protease from miswak Salvadora persica.

Authors:
Wesam H Abdulaal

BMC Biochem 2018 Dec 3;19(1):10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Generally, proteases in medicinal plants had different therapeutic effects such as anti-inflammatory effect; modulate the immune response and inhibitory effect toward tumor growth. In this study, protease was purified and characterized from miswak roots, as medicinal plant and natural toothbrush.

Results: Physical and chemical characterization of cysteine protease P1 were studied such as pH optimum (6. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Human cytosolic and mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms in comparison: full kinetic characterization and substrate inhibition properties.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyses the reversible conversion of L-serine and tetrahydrofolate into glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in one-carbon metabolism, is involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming and is a recognised target of chemotherapy intervention. In humans, two isoforms of the enzyme exist, which are commonly referred to as cytosolic SHMT1 and mitochondrial SHMT2. Read More

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November 2018

Endoplasmic Reticulum-Endosome Contact Sites: Specialized Interfaces for Orchestrating Endosomal Tubule Fission?

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

School of Biochemistry , University of Bristol , Biomedical Sciences Building , Bristol BS8 1TD , U.K.

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November 2018

Genome, Epigenome, and Transcriptome Editing via the Chemical Modification of Nucleobases in Living Cells.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Base editors are tools that chemically modify the nucleobases of DNA and RNA in a programmable manner, allowing for genome, epigenome, and transcriptome editing in live cells. These tools can be used to introduce specific base transitions in DNA or RNA, manipulate methylation patterns in the epigenome, and create genetically encoded libraries in target genes. These various functions can be used to modulate every aspect of the central dogma. Read More

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November 2018

A Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) capable of acetylating polymyxin B and colistin antibiotics in vitro.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Deeper exploration of uncharacterized Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases has the potential to expand our knowledge of the types of molecules that can be acylated by this important superfamily of enzymes and may offer new opportunities for biotechnological applications. While determining native or biologically relevant in vivo functions of uncharacterized proteins is ideal, their alternative or promiscuous in vitro capabilities provide insight into key active site interactions. Additionally, this knowledge can be exploited to selectively modify complex molecules and reduce byproducts when synthetic routes become challenging. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Extracellular processing of lysyl oxidase-like 2 and its effect on amine oxidase activity.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Over-expression of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is associated with several hepatic and vascular fibrotic diseases and tumor progression in some aggressive cancers. Secreted LOXL2 promotes extracellular matrix crosslinking by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine. A great deal remains to be learned about the post-translational modifications of LOXL2, including whether such modifications modulate enzymatic and disease-promoting activities; such knowledge would inform the development of potential therapies. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Ancient Family of Retinal Proteins Brought to Light "Sight-Unseen".

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Signal Transduction , The Rockefeller University , 1230 York Avenue , New York , New York 10065 , United States.

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November 2018

Quantitative variations with pH of ADF/cofilin's multiple actions on actin filaments.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Actin Depolymerizing Factor (ADF)/cofilin is the main protein family promoting the disassembly of actin filaments, which is essential for numerous cellular functions. ADF/cofilin proteins disassemble actin filaments through different reactions, as they bind to their sides, sever them, and promote the depolymerization of the resulting ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments. Moreover, the efficiency of ADF/cofilin is known to be very sensitive to pH. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

PHYSIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT ELECTROLYTES AS REGULATORS OF TDP-43 AGGREGATION AND DROPLET-PHASE BEHAVIOR.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Intraneuronal aggregation of TDP-43 is seen in 97% of all ALS cases and occurs by a poorly understood mechanism. We developed a simple in vitro model system for the study of full length TDP-43 aggregation in solution and in protein droplets. We found that soluble, YFP-tagged full-length TDP-43 (yTDP-43) dimers can be produced by refolding into low salt HEPES buffer; these solutions are stable for several weeks. Read More

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November 2018

Transcription-dependent formation of nuclear granules containing FUS and RNA Pol II.

Biochemistry 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Purified recombinant FUsed in Sarcoma (FUS) assembles into an oligomeric state in an RNA-dependent manner to form large condensates. FUS condensates bind and concentrate the C-terminal domain, CTD, of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). We asked whether a granule in cells contained FUS and RNA Pol II as suggested by the binding of FUS condensates to the polymerase. Read More

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November 2018

Cysmotif Searcher Pipeline for Antimicrobial Peptide Identification in Plant Transcriptomes.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1424-1432

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333, Russia.

In this paper, we present the new Cysmotif searcher pipeline for identification of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), the most important components of innate immunity, in plant transcriptomes. Cysmotif searcher reveals and classifies short cysteine-rich amino acid sequences containing an open reading frame and a signal peptide cleavage site. Due to the combination of various search methods, Cysmotif searcher allows to obtain the most complete repertoire of AMPs for one or more transcriptomes in a short amount of time. Read More

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November 2018

Erratum to: "Structural Relationships Between Genetically Closely Related O-Antigens of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp." [Biochemistry (Moscow), 81, 600 (2016)].

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 11;83(11):1422-1423

Nankai University, TEDA Institute of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, 300457, China.

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1134/S0006297916060067. Read More

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November 2018

Aggregation of Influenza A Virus Nuclear Export Protein.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1411-1421

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Belozersky Research Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Influenza A virus nuclear export protein (NEP) plays an important role in the viral life cycle. Recombinant NEP proteins containing (His)-tag at either N- or C-terminus were obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells and their high propensity for aggregation was demonstrated. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to study the kinetics and properties of NEP aggregation in solutions under different conditions (pH, ionic strength, presence of low-molecular-weight additives and organic solvents). Read More

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November 2018

Comprehensive Analysis of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes from the Filamentous Fungus Scytalidium candidum 3C.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1399-1410

National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad Region, 188300, Russia.

Complete enzymatic degradation of plant polysaccharides is a result of combined action of various carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of the filamentous fungus Scytalidium candidum 3C for processing of plant biomass. Structural annotation of the improved assembly of S. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of Disulfide Bond Incorporation on the Structure and Activity of Endostatin Peptide.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1388-1398

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The structure and function of a 27-a.a. fragment of the N-terminal sequence of human endostatin (ES-Zn) were compared to those of the mutant peptide (ES-SSZn) obtained by adding Cys-Pro-Ala to the endostatin N-terminus and substituting Asn16 for Cys ensuring formation of a disulfide bond. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Lymphocyte Phosphatase-Associated Phosphoprotein Is a Substrate of Protein Kinase CK2.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1380-1387

Institute of Immunology National Research Center, Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow, 115522, Russia.

Lymphocyte phosphatase-associated phosphoprotein (LPAP) is a molecular partner of CD45 phosphatase that plays a key role in the regulation of antigen-specific activation of lymphocytes. The functions of LPAP still remain unknown. We believe that studying LPAP phosphorylation pathways could shed light on its functions. Read More

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November 2018

Contribution of Eutrema salsugineum Cold Shock Domain Structure to the Interaction with RNA.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1369-1379

All-Russia Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Moscow, 127550, Russia.

Plant cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) are DNA/RNA-binding proteins. CSDPs contain the conserved cold shock domain (CSD) in the N-terminal part and a varying number of the CCHC-type zinc finger (ZnF) motifs alternating with glycine-rich regions in the C-terminus. CSDPs exhibit RNA chaperone and RNA-melting activities due to their nonspecific interaction with RNA. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Exogenous 3-Deoxyglucosone-Induced Carbonyl and Oxidative Stress Causes β-Cells Dysfunction by Impairing Gut Permeability in Rats.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1358-1368

Suzhou Academy of Wumen Chinese Medicine, Suzhou TCM Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

3-Deoxyglucosone (3DG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl species, and its accumulation evokes carbonyl and oxidative stress. Our recent data reveal the role of 3DG as an independent factor for the development of prediabetes and suggest that intestine could be its novel target tissue. The present study investigated whether exogenous 3DG increases intestinal permeability by triggering carbonyl and oxidative stress, thus contributing to β-cell dysfunction. Read More

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November 2018

Vitamin D in Nature: A Product of Synthesis and/or Degradation of Cell Membrane Components.

Authors:
H Göring

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1350-1357

Göring Consulting, Berlin, 12555, Germany.

The review discusses the data on vitamin D accumulation in animals, plants, and other organisms. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and ergosterol are considered to be the only true precursors of vitamin D, although even vitamin D (ergocalciferol) is not fully comparable to vitamin D (cholecalciferol) in regard to their functions. These precursors are converted by UV radiation into the corresponding D vitamins. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Pseudogenes as Functionally Significant Elements of the Genome.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1332-1349

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

Pseudogene is a gene copy that has lost its original function. For a long time, pseudogenes have been considered as "junk DNA" that inevitably arises as a result of ongoing evolutionary process. However, experimental data obtained during recent years indicate this understanding of the nature of pseudogenes is not entirely correct, and many pseudogenes perform important genetic functions. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular Factors of the Maintenance and Activation of the Juvenile Phenotype of Cellular Sources for Eye Tissue Regeneration.

Authors:
E N Grigoryan

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1318-1331

Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334, Russia.

Modern achievements in the understanding of tissue regeneration, identification of endogenous cell sources for regeneration, and development of approaches for induction and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells have open broad prospects for regenerative medicine. However, application of the obtained information in medicine is hindered by insufficient knowledge on the molecular factors and their combinations capable of regulating the age and fate of cellular sources for eye tissue reparation as well as on the regenerative responses of these cells. In the review, we present our own and literature data on cells serving as endogenous sources for eye tissue regeneration in lower and higher vertebrates and properties of gene expression that allow these cells to maintain their juvenile phenotype. Read More

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November 2018

Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Inactivated Skeletal Muscle: Signal Inputs, Protein Kinase Cascades, and Ribosome Biogenesis.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Nov;83(11):1299-1317

Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 123007, Russia.

Disuse atrophy of skeletal muscles is characterized by a significant decrease in the mass and size of muscle fibers. Disuse atrophy develops as a result of prolonged reduction in the muscle functional activity caused by bed rest, limb immobilization, and real or simulated microgravity. Disuse atrophy is associated with the downregulation of protein biosynthesis and simultaneous activation of protein degradation. Read More

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November 2018