374,134 results match your criteria Biochemical and biophysical research communications[Journal]


Insulin Pump Therapy - Influence on Body Fat Redistribution, Skeletal Muscle Mass and Ghrelin, Leptin Changes in T1D Patients.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):454-464. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clinic of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (JFM CU), Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: To report changes in body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) after switching from multiple daily injection (MDI) to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

Methods: 31 patients switched over from MDI to CSII. Body composition, biochemical parameters, glycaemic variability (GV) and level of physical activity were evaluated before and 6 months on CSII. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Alterations of Renal Epithelial Glucose and Uric Acid Transporters in Fructose Induced Metabolic Syndrome.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2018 Dec 7;43(6):1822-1831. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung,

Background/aims: Hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia are two major disorders of Metabolic syndrome. Kidney plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of uric acid and glucose. The aim of the study was to examine the changes of renal glucose and uric acid transporters in animals with metabolic syndrome. Read More

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December 2018

Establishment of a Mouse Model of Premature Ovarian Failure Using Consecutive Superovulation.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 7;51(5):2341-2358. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of the Model Animal Research, Animal Core Facility of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing,

Background/aims: This study investigated the effect of consecutive superovulation on the ovaries and established a premature ovarian failure (POF) model in mice.

Methods: The mouse POF model was induced by 5-15 consecutive superovulation treatments with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Normal adult mice were compared with mice displaying natural ovarian aging. Read More

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December 2018

Drought tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties is associated with enhanced antioxidative protection and declined lipid peroxidation.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Oct 31;232:226-240. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

College of Grassland Science, Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecosystem (Ministry of Education), Pratacultural Engineering Laboratory of Gansu Province, Sino-U.S. Centers for Grazing Land Ecosystem Sustainability, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

Drought stress is considered the most adverse factor restricting plant survival, growth, and productivity. The identification of the key adaptive mechanisms to drought stress is essential to enhance the drought resistance of plants. In this study, differential responses of three alfalfa varieties to drought, including Medicago sativa L. Read More

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October 2018
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Metabolic and biochemical responses of Potamogeton anguillanus Koidz. (Potamogetonaceae) to low oxygen conditions.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 23;232:171-179. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, Japan; Research Institute of Chuo University, Kasuga, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan. Electronic address:

Oxygen availability in water is considered one of the most important factors for growth and productivity in aquatic submerged macrophytes. In the present study, the growth, stress responses, and metabolic changes in Potamogeton anguillanus Koidz. (Potamogetonaceae) were assessed after a 21-day exposure to low (hypoxia; dissolved oxygen, DO < 1 mg/L) or null (anoxia) oxygen concentrations in water. Read More

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November 2018

Mesophyll conductance limitation of photosynthesis in poplar under elevated ozone.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;657:136-145. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Finite mesophyll conductance (g) reduces the rate of CO diffusion from the leaf intercellular space to the chloroplast and constitutes a major limitation of photosynthesis in trees. While it is well established that g is decreased by stressors such as drought and high temperature, few studies have investigated if the phytotoxic air pollutant ozone (O) affects g. We quantified the relative importance of three different types of limitations of photosynthesis in poplar trees exposed to elevated O: decreases in stomatal conductance, g and biochemical photosynthetic capacity. Read More

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December 2018
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Concise Review: The Endothelial Cell Extracellular Matrix Regulates Tissue Homeostasis and Repair.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Einthoven Laboratory for Vascular and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

All tissues are surrounded by a mixture of noncellular matrix components, that not only provide physical and mechanical support to cells, but also mediate biochemical signaling between cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of endothelial cells, also known as the perivascular matrix, forms an organ specific vascular niche that orchestrates mechano-, growth factor, and angiocrine signaling required for tissue homeostasis and organ repair. This concise review describes how this perivascular ECM functions as a signaling platform and how this knowledge can impact the field of regenerative medicine, for example, when designing artificial matrices or using decellularized scaffolds from organs. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The association of klotho gene polymorphism and the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism disorders in patients with ESRD.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Nephrology Department of Subei People's Hospital, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Klotho G-395-A gene polymorphism is associated with several diseases; however, its association with calcium-phosphate metabolism disorders in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown.

Methods: 137 patients with ESRD and 80 healthy adults (control) were enrolled in the study. Patients with ESRD were divided into three subgroups: hemodialysis (A1, n=52), peritoneal dialysis (A2, n=30), and non-dialysis (A3, n=55). Read More

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December 2018

Multicomponent analysis of T relaxation in bovine articular cartilage at low magnetic fields.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany.

Purpose: The multi-exponential character of T relaxation in bovine articular cartilage was investigated at low magnetic fields below 0.5 T. The ultimate aim was to identify a parameter based on the T relaxation time distribution as a biomarker to biochemical features of osteoarthritis. Read More

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December 2018

Structural and mechanistic insights into polymyxin resistance mediated by EptC originating from Escherichia coli.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Gram-negative bacteria defend against the toxicity of polymyxins by modifying their outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This modification mainly occurs through the addition of cationic molecules such as phosphoethanolamine (PEA). EcEptC is a PEA transferase from Escherichia coli (E. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of PD-L1 in tumor-associated nerves correlates with reduced CD8 tumor-associated lymphocytes and poor prognosis in prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Urology and Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

To investigate immune profile consisting of stromal PD-L1 expression, inhibitory or non-T-cell inflamed tumor microenvironment that may predict response to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy in prostate cancer, we validated the specificity of a PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (E1L3N) and identified PD-L1 specific expression in prostatic stromal nerve cells. PD-L1 expression was analyzed in 73 primary prostate cancers and 7 castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC) by IHC and resulting data from primary prostate cancers were correlated with tumor-associated lymphocytes (TALs), clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome. PD-L1 was expressed in the tumor cells in only one primary prostate cancer case and none of the CRPC. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing ureolytic bacteria with calcifying abilities isolated from limestone caves for biocalcification.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Chemical Engineering and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak Campus, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Biocalcification through the use of ureolytic bacteria and biochemical activities has evolved in recent decades into a fervent resourceful effective technology suitable for soil stabilization, crack repair and bioremediation. Extensive studies have been carried out numerous ureolytic bacterial species isolated from soils and sewage samples. However, very limited attention has been given to limestone caves with natural calcite formations, as a possible source for isolation of ureolytic bacteria. Read More

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December 2018

Functional fat injection under local anesthesia to treat severe postsurgical dysphagia, a case report.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Division of Otorhinolaryngology, San Giuseppe Hospital, IRCCS Multimedica, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: In this study, we present the first application of functional fat injection performed under local anesthesia in the treatment of severe dysphagia secondary to head and neck cancer surgery.

Methods: Functional fat injection was performed using a transcervical approach. Control of injection depth and site was performed through a transnasal flexible endoscope. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanical loading releases osteoclastogenesis-modulating factors through stimulation of the P2X7 receptor in hematopoietic progenitor cells.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Mechanical instability of bone implants stimulate osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss, leading to prosthetic loosening. It is unclear which cells at the periprosthetic interface transduce mechanical signals into a biochemical response, and subsequently facilitate bone loss. We hypothesized that mechanical overloading of hematopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells, which are located near to the inserted bone implants, stimulates the release of osteoclast-inducing soluble factors. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Angelica gigas Nakai on the production of decursin- and decursinol angelate-enriched eggs.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Green-Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do 25354, Korea.

Background: The livestock industry requires high-quality products as well as improved productivity. There have been many studies regarding the utilization of feed additives to increase productivity, enhance immune functions, and prevent infectious diseases in livestock. Biofunctional feed additives would be beneficial not only for animal health, but also for consumers. Read More

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December 2018
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Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis, and a novel Campylobacter sp. in a captive non-human primate zoological collection.

J Med Primatol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Background: The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from non-human primates primate (NHP) with a history of endemic diarrhea housed at Como Park Zoo.

Methods: Fecal samples from 33 symptom-free NHP belonging to eight different species were collected weekly for 9 weeks. Read More

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December 2018
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Cellular and Chemical Gradients to Engineer the Meniscus-to-Bone Insertion.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 10:e1800806. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA.

Tissue-engineered menisci hold promise as an alternative to allograft procedures but require a means of robust fixation to the native bone. The insertion of the meniscus into bone is critical for meniscal function and inclusion of a soft tissue-to-bone interface in a tissue engineered implant can aid in the fixation process. The native insertion is characterized by gradients in composition, tissue architecture, and cellular phenotype, which are all difficult to replicate. Read More

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December 2018
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Detection of extracellular vesicles in the mouse vaginal fluid: Their delivery of sperm proteins that stimulate capacitation and modulate fertility.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) were isolated by ultracentrifugation of vaginal luminal fluid (VLF) from superovulated mice and identified for the first time using transmission electron microscopy. Characterized by size and biochemical markers (CD9 and HSC70), EVs were shown to be both microvesicular and exosomal and were dubbed as "Vaginosomes" (VGS). Vaginal cross-sections were analyzed to visualize EVs in situ: EVs were present in the lumen and also embedded between squamous epithelial and keratinized cells, consistent with their endogenous origin. Read More

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December 2018

Label-Free Metabolic Classification of Single Cells in Droplets Using the Phasor Approach to Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, California.

Characterization of single cell metabolism is imperative for understanding subcellular functional and biochemical changes associated with healthy tissue development and the progression of numerous diseases. However, single-cell analysis often requires the use of fluorescent tags and cell lysis followed by genomic profiling to identify the cellular heterogeneity. Identifying individual cells in a noninvasive and label-free manner is crucial for the detection of energy metabolism which will discriminate cell types and most importantly critical for maintaining cell viability for further analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of BMD Changes and Bone Formation Marker Levels 3 Years After Bisphosphonate Discontinuation: FLEX and HORIZON-PFT Extension I Trials.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

An ASBMR task force recommends a drug holiday for certain women treated for ≥5 years with oral alendronate or ≥3 years with intravenous zoledronic acid, with reassessment 2-3 years later. It is not known whether changes in BMD or bone turnover markers differ after oral or intravenous therapy. Our goal was to compare changes in BMD and procollagen type I N propeptide, PINP, after oral or intravenous bisphosphonate use. Read More

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December 2018

Characterisation of a novel method for the production of single-span membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, U.K.

The large-scale production and isolation of recombinant protein is a central element of the biotechnology industry and many of the products have proved extremely beneficial for therapeutic medicine. Escherichia coli is the microorganism of choice for the expression of heterologous proteins for therapeutic application, and a range of high-value proteins have been targeted to the periplasm using the well characterised Sec protein export pathway. More recently, the ability of the second mainstream protein export system, the twin-arginine translocase, to transport fully-folded proteins into the periplasm of not only E. Read More

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December 2018

Global wheat production with 1.5 and 2.0°C above pre-industrial warming.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Agricultural & Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Efforts to limit global warming to below 2°C in relation to the pre-industrial level are under way, in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, most impact research on agriculture to date has focused on impacts of warming >2°C on mean crop yields, and many previous studies did not focus sufficiently on extreme events and yield interannual variability. Here, with the latest climate scenarios from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI) project, we evaluated the impacts of the 2015 Paris Agreement range of global warming (1. Read More

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December 2018
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Physiological changes after colorectal surgery suggest anastomotic leakage is an early event: a retrospective cohort study.

Colorectal Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ.

Introduction: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is often identified 7-10 days after colorectal surgery. However, in retrospect, patients may have abnormalities evident much earlier. This study aims to identify the clinical time-point when AL occurs. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic testing and surveillance guidelines in hereditary pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

J Intern Med 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm.

Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL), collectively abbreviated PPGL are rare tumours originating from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (PCC) or the sympathetic or parasympathetic extra-adrenal paraganglia (PGL) (1, 2), Figure 1. The enlarged cell volume leads to increased levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noraderenaline and/or dopamine) and their metabolites which can be measured in plasma or urine for biochemical diagnosis. Hormone-producing PPGL commonly originate from sympathetic paraganglia in the adrenal glands, abdomen or pelvis (3). Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of experimentally induced hypertension on cerebellum of postmenopausal rat.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Cerebellum seems to be a specific target for both the decrease of estrogen and hypertension in menopause. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypertension and menopause-induced changes in rat's cerebellar cortex and the possible mechanisms of these changes. Rats were divided into four groups: the sham-operated control (SC-group), the ovariectomized (OVX-group), the hypertensive (H-group), and the ovariectomized-hypertensive (OVX-H-group) group. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Specific Systems for Evaluation.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;110:99-123

University of Waterloo, School of Pharmacy, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Fluorescent-based visualization techniques have long been used to monitor biological activity. This chapter explores the delivery of reporter genes as a means to assay and track activity in biological systems. Bioluminescence is the production of light due to biochemical processes. Read More

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January 2018

Outcomes and prognostic factors in intermediate-risk prostate cancer: multi-institutional analysis of the Spanish RECAP database.

Clin Transl Oncol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Alcoy, Spain.

Purpose: To retrospectively assess outcomes and to identify prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with intermediate-risk (IR) prostate cancer (PCa) treated with primary external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).

Materials And Methods: Data were obtained from the multi-institutional Spanish RECAP database, a population-based prostate cancer registry in Spain. All IR patients (NCCN criteria) who underwent primary EBRT were included. Read More

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December 2018
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The "Memory" Effect in a Chain of Biochemical Reactions with a Positive Feedback is Enhanced by Substrate Saturation Described by Michaelis-Menten Kinetics.

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Biosciences, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave 7, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Information in the brain is stored in a form of an altered synaptic strength between neurons. The long-term potentiation (LTP), a phenomenon when a short-term increase in neural activity is transformed into a long-lasting increase in strengths of synaptic connectivity, provides an experimental substrate of memory. Using reaction-diffusion equations, we established an LTP model, describing the dynamics of glutamate (Glu), calcium (Ca) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to the stimulus-a presynaptic action potential. Read More

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December 2018

Hyper-ammonia stress causes induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and more production of nitric oxide in air-breathing magur catfish, Clarias magur (Hamilton).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biochemical Adaptation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793022, India.

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions in several vertebrates including that of adaptation to various stressful stimuli. The air-breathing magur catfish (Clarias magur) is known to tolerate a very high external ammonia (HEA) stress in its natural habitats. We report here the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide (inos) gene and more generation of NO in magur catfish exposed to HEA. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of supplementing herbaceous forage legume pellets on growth indices and blood profile of West African dwarf sheep fed Guinea grass.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pasture and Range Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P. M. B. 2240, Nigeria.

Twenty West African dwarf (WAD) rams with average body weight of 12.43 ± 0.5 kg were used for the experiment that lasted 84 days to investigate the effects of supplementing herbaceous forage legume pellets on weight change and blood profile of animals fed Panicum maximum basal diet. Read More

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December 2018

Biodistribution and Toxicity Assessment of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In Vitro and In Vivo.

Curr Med Sci 2018 Dec 7;38(6):1096-1102. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Biodistribution and toxicity assessment are critical for safe clinical use of newly developed medicines. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are effective carriers for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to examine the toxicity and biodistribution of SPION coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) (SPION-PEI) designed for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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December 2018

Probing BAK and BAX Activation and Pore Assembly with Cytochrome c Release, Limited Proteolysis, and Oxidant-Induced Linkage.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1877:201-216

Molecular Genetics of Cancer Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Mitochondrial permeabilization is a key event in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, and is mediated by either of the BCL-2 family members BAK or BAX. These two proteins generate pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane that release factors such as cytochrome c into the cytosol to trigger caspase activation and apoptotic cell death. To generate pores, BAK and BAX undergo major changes including BAX translocation to the outer membrane, and partial unfolding, dimerization, and oligomerization. Read More

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January 2019

Photocrosslinking Approach to Investigate Protein Interactions in the BCL-2 Family.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1877:131-149

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeability thereby making life or death decisions for cells. Most of Bcl-2 proteins contain hydrophobic regions that are embedded in intracellular membranes such as mitochondria. These membrane proteins are difficult to express and purify thereby preluding biochemical and biophysical characterizations. Read More

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January 2019
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Liposomal Permeabilization Assay to Study the Functional Interactions of the BCL-2 Family.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1877:111-119

Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that is important for development and homeostasis, is regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins. Over twenty BCL-2 family members have been classified in three groups based on structural homology and function. The multidomain antiapoptotic proteins promote survival, whereas the multidomain and the BH3-only proapoptotic members induce cell death. Read More

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January 2019

Investigating BCL-2 Family Protein Interactions in Yeast.

Authors:
Stéphen Manon

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1877:93-109

Institut de Biochimie et de Génétique Cellulaires, UMR 5095, CNRS & Université de Bordeaux, Campus Careire, CS61390, Bordeaux, France.

Among the different models used to study the biochemical properties and function of proteins of the Bcl-2 family, their heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may look out of place. However, when grown under adequate conditions, yeast cells have mitochondria that have similar properties as those of mammalian cells, and are able to be targeted by mammalian Bcl-2 family members. Yeast thus provides a neutral cellular background to study how proteins of the Bcl-2 family interact with mitochondria, alone or as a couple (or a combination of more proteins). Read More

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January 2019

Resveratrol-mediated reversal of changes in purinergic signaling and immune response induced by Toxoplasma gondii infection of neural progenitor cells.

Purinergic Signal 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Graduate Program in Toxicological Biochemical and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

The effects of Toxoplasma gondii during embryonic development have not been explored despite the predilection of this parasite for neurons and glial cells. Here, we investigated the activation of the purinergic system and proinflammatory responses during congenital infection by T. gondii. Read More

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December 2018

Recent advances in the identification and management of inherited hyperoxalurias.

Urolithiasis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is caused by genetic mutations resulting in oxalate overproduction leading to nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, extrarenal manifestations, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. Advances in genetic testing techniques have improved our ability to efficiently and effectively obtain a definitive diagnosis of PH as well as easily screen at-risk family members. Similarly, advances in technologies related to intervening at the genetic and molecular level promise to change the way we treat patients with PH. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of brightness and contrast variation for detectability of root resorption lesions in digital intraoral radiographs.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 13414-903, Brazil.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of periapical radiography assessed under different radiographic brightness and contrast variations in the detection of simulated internal (IRR) and external (ERR) root resorption lesions. Additionally, observers' preferences related to image quality for these diagnostic tasks were evaluated.

Methods: Thirty single-root teeth were divided into two groups (n = 15): IRR, in which lesions were simulated using mechanical and biochemical processes; and ERR, in which cavities standardized with drills of different sizes were performed on the root surfaces. Read More

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December 2018
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Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by peripheral neuropeptides: new approaches to enhancing transport and endogenous expression.

Authors:
M R Lee R D Jayant

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnosis, management, and follow-up of mitochondrial disorders in childhood: a personalized medicine in the new era of genome sequence.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Newborn Screening, Metabolism and Genetics Unit, Human Genetics Department, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Porto, Portugal.

Primary mitochondrial disorders are highly variable in clinical presentation, biochemistry, and molecular etiology. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by genetic defects in the mitochondrial, in nuclear genome, or in the interplay between the two genomes. Biochemical screening tests may be inconclusive or misleading since patients, with confirmed mitochondrial disorders specially in pediatric age, may exhibit normal routine biochemistry, muscle histology, or enzymatic analysis of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Read More

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December 2018

Composts as alternative to inorganic fertilization for cereal crops.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CEBAS-CSIC), Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Edificio no. 25, P.O. Box 164, 30100, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

The use of treated organic products as fertilizers and soil amendments not only results in economic benefits for the small-scale farmer, but it also reduces pollution due to reduced nutrient run-off and N leaching. In this work, the feasibility of using composts as fertilizers and soil improvers has been evaluated at the field level, in barley and soft wheat crops (two successive cultivations of each crop). The applied treatments consisted of two commercial composts (compost manure and sewage sludge compost) added to the soil either alone (T1 and T3) or in combination with inorganic fertilizers (T2 and T4) and a conventional mineral fertilization (T5). Read More

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December 2018

GAG content, fiber stiffness, and fiber angle affect swelling-based residual stress in the intact annulus fibrosus.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5122 Etcheverry Hall, #1740, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Biological tissues with a high glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content have an excellent ability to swell by absorbing water molecules from the surrounding environment. Our recent work showed that anisotropy in tissue swelling depends on the fiber-network architecture, including fiber angle, fiber stiffness, and lamellae structure. However, that work did not evaluate the effect of in situ boundary conditions, such as the kidney-bean shape of the annulus fibrosus (AF), on swelling behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Cellular Metabolism at a Glance.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:3-27

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Metabolism is highly coordinated component of the cellular activity that involves sequential chemical transformations, within a so-called metabolic network. Through these coordinated actions, living organisms acquire energy and biosynthetic precursors to maintain cellular homeostasis and function. Metabolism relies on the breaking down of macromolecules to produce energy [catabolism] and/or intermediary metabolites that are then used to construct essential building blocks for macromolecule production [anabolism]. Read More

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January 2018

Octreotide SC depot in patients with acromegaly and functioning neuroendocrine tumors: a phase 2, multicenter study.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Endocrinology, DiMI and CEBR, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Purpose: Octreotide SC depot is a novel, ready-to-use formulation administered via a thin needle. In a phase 1 study in healthy volunteers, this formulation provided higher bioavailability of octreotide with faster onset and stronger suppression of IGF-1 in healthy volunteers versus long-acting intramuscular (IM) octreotide. This phase 2 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of octreotide SC depot in patients with acromegaly and functioning NETs, previously treated with octreotide IM. Read More

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December 2018

miR‑124 targets retinoid X receptor α to reduce growth of TSC2‑deficient lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

Oncol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, P.R. China.

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease that leads to progressive destruction of lung function. However, the mechanisms underlying the progression of LAM remain unknown. Recent studies demonstrated that miR‑124‑3p (hereinafter referred to as miR‑124) is a downregulated miRNA in tumors and it is still unclear whether miR‑124 participates in LAM. Read More

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December 2018

Advantages of Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone as a Marker for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Lab Med 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Clinical Laboratory, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To evaluate the advantages of using anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: We compared data from 56 Han Chinese patients with PCOS and 52 female control Han Chinese individuals in terms of biochemical markers and the antral follicle count (AFC). Then, the correlation between serum AMH levels and various endocrine and metabolic factors was analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

The Top 25 Laboratory Tests by Volume and Revenue in Five Different Countries.

Am J Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pathology and Laboratory Services, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO.

Objectives: To compare the most common diagnostic/laboratory tests across five different referral hospitals by volume and revenue.

Methods: The authors obtained data on volumes and reimbursement rates for the most common 25 tests at the five hospitals with which they are affiliated and organized them to be as comparable as possible. Simple descriptive statistics were used to make cross-country comparisons. Read More

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December 2018
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[Spontaneous remission of acromegaly and Cushing's disease in older patients. Report of two cases].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Jul;146(7):933-937

Departamento de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Pituitary diseases such as acromegaly and Cushing's disease require surgical or medical therapy. In some functioning pituitary tumors, a spontaneous remission of hormonal hypersecretion is observed, mainly associated to apoplexy or pituitary infarction. We report the evolution of two female patients older than 70 years at the time of diagnosis, with multiple comorbidities. Read More

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July 2018
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