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    16267 results match your criteria Biochemical Society Transactions[Journal]

    1 OF 326

    Diverse exocytic pathways for mast cell mediators.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of Fundamental Neurobiology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8.
    Mast cells play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunities but are also culprits in allergy, autoimmunity, and cardiovascular diseases. Mast cells respond to environmental changes by initiating regulated exocytosis/secretion of various biologically active compounds called mediators (e.g. Read More

    Signaling through plant lectins: modulation of plant immunity and beyond.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Glycobiology, Department of Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Lectins constitute an abundant group of proteins that are present throughout the plant kingdom. Only recently, genome-wide screenings have unraveled the multitude of different lectin sequences within one plant species. It appears that plants employ a plurality of lectins, though relatively few lectins have already been studied and functionally characterized. Read More

    Model-based metabolism design: constraints for kinetic and stoichiometric models.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Biosystems Group, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela Iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia.
    The implementation of model-based designs in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology may fail. One of the reasons for this failure is that only a part of the real-world complexity is included in models. Still, some knowledge can be simplified and taken into account in the form of optimization constraints to improve the feasibility of model-based designs of metabolic pathways in organisms. Read More

    Competitive resource allocation to metabolic pathways contributes to overflow metabolisms and emergent properties in cross-feeding microbial consortia.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Microbiology and Immunology, or Mathematics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, U.S.A.
    Resource scarcity is a common stress in nature and has a major impact on microbial physiology. This review highlights microbial acclimations to resource scarcity, focusing on resource investment strategies for chemoheterotrophs from the molecular level to the pathway level. Competitive resource allocation strategies often lead to a phenotype known as overflow metabolism; the resulting overflow byproducts can stabilize cooperative interactions in microbial communities and can lead to cross-feeding consortia. Read More

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization as a cell death mechanism in cancer cells.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Lysosomes are acidic organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that mediate the intracellular degradation of macromolecules. Damage of these organelles often results in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and the release into the cytoplasm of the soluble lysosomal contents, which include proteolytic enzymes of the cathepsin family. This, in turn, activates several intracellular cascades that promote a type of regulated cell death, called lysosome-dependent cell death (LDCD). Read More

    Pseudo-DUBs as allosteric activators and molecular scaffolds of protein complexes.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Astbury Building, Room 8.109, Leeds LS2 9JT, U.K.
    The ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system and Ub signalling networks are crucial to cell biology and disease development. Deubiquitylases (DUBs) control cell signalling by removing mono-Ub and polyubiquitin chains from substrates. DUBs take part in almost all processes that regulate cellular life and are frequently dysregulated in disease. Read More

    Protein phosphatases at the nuclear envelope.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 6;46(1):173-182. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    College of Health and Life Science, Research Institute for Environment Health and Society, Brunel University London, London UB8 3PH, U.K.
    The nuclear envelope (NE) is a unique topological structure formed by lipid membranes (Inner and Outer Membrane: IM and OM) interrupted by open channels (Nuclear Pore complexes). Besides its well-established structural role in providing a physical separation between the genome and the cytoplasm and regulating the exchanges between the two cellular compartments, it has become quite evident in recent years that the NE also represents a hub for localized signal transduction. Mechanical, stress, or mitogen signals reach the nucleus and trigger the activation of several pathways, many effectors of which are processed at the NE. Read More

    Co-translational control of protein complex formation: a fundamental pathway of cellular organization?
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 6;46(1):197-206. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia
    Analyses of proteomes from a large number of organisms throughout the domains of life highlight the key role played by multiprotein complexes for the implementation of cellular function. While the occurrence of multiprotein assemblies is ubiquitous, the understanding of pathways that dictate the formation of quaternary structure remains enigmatic. Interestingly, there are now well-established examples of protein complexes that are assembled co-translationally in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and indications are that the phenomenon is widespread in cells. Read More

    Structure and function of the cytochrome P450 peroxygenase enzymes.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 6;46(1):183-196. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, U.S.A.
    The cytochromes P450 (P450s or CYPs) constitute a large heme enzyme superfamily, members of which catalyze the oxidative transformation of a wide range of organic substrates, and whose functions are crucial to xenobiotic metabolism and steroid transformation in humans and other organisms. The P450 peroxygenases are a subgroup of the P450s that have evolved in microbes to catalyze the oxidative metabolism of fatty acids, using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant rather than NAD(P)H-driven redox partner systems typical of the vast majority of other characterized P450 enzymes. Early members of the peroxygenase (CYP152) family were shown to catalyze hydroxylation at the α and β carbons of medium-to-long-chain fatty acids. Read More

    Chitinase-like proteins as regulators of innate immunity and tissue repair: helpful lessons for asthma?
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 19;46(1):141-151. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT, U.K.
    Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 of proteins. Chitinases are expressed in mammals and lower organisms, facilitate chitin degradation, and hence act as host-defence enzymes. Gene duplication and loss-of-function mutations of enzymatically active chitinases have resulted in the expression of a diverse range of CLPs across different species. Read More

    The exon junction complex: structural insights into a faithful companion of mammalian mRNPs.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 19;46(1):153-161. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Institute for Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Str. 47a, 50674 Cologne, Germany
    During splicing, the exon junction complex (EJC) is deposited upstream of exon-exon boundaries. The EJC and its peripheral bound proteins play an essential role in mediating mRNA export, translation and turnover. However, the exact sequence of EJC assembly and the involved factors during splicing remain elusive. Read More

    RNA helicases in RNA decay.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 19;46(1):163-172. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    RNA molecules have the tendency to fold into complex structures or to associate with complementary RNAs that exoribonucleases have difficulties processing or degrading. Therefore, degradosomes in bacteria and organelles as well as exosomes in eukaryotes have teamed-up with RNA helicases. Whereas bacterial degradosomes are associated with RNA helicases from the DEAD-box family, the exosomes and mitochondrial degradosome use the help of Ski2-like and Suv3 RNA helicases. Read More

    Metabolic and molecular changes associated with the increased skeletal muscle insulin action 24-48 h after exercise in young and old humans.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 12;46(1):111-118. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K.
    The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Read More

    Fatty acids and related lipid mediators in the regulation of cutaneous inflammation.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 12;46(1):119-129. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Laboratory for Lipidomics and Lipid Biology, Division of Pharmacy and Optometry, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9PL, U.K.
    Human skin has a distinct profile of fatty acids and related bioactive lipid mediators that regulate many aspects of epidermal and dermal homeostasis, including immune and inflammatory reactions. Sebum lipids act as effective antimicrobial agents, shape immune cell communications and contribute to the epidermal lipidome. The essential fatty acid linoleic acid is crucial for the structure of the epidermal barrier, while polyunsaturated fatty acids act as precursors to eicosanoids, octadecanoids and docosanoids through cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated reactions, and endocannabinoids and-acyl ethanolamines. Read More

    The importance of the photosynthetic Gibbs effect in the elucidation of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 5;46(1):131-140. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Institute of Quantitative and Theoretical Biology, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, is now contained in every standard biochemistry textbook. Although the cycle was already proposed in 1954, it is still the subject of intense research, and even the structure of the cycle, i.e. Read More

    Evolution of tools and methods for monitoring autophagic flux in mammalian cells.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 5;46(1):97-110. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1L3
    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-mediated degradation and recycling process, which functions in cellular homeostasis and stress adaptation. The process is highly dynamic and involves autophagosome synthesis, cargo recognition and transport, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and cargo degradation. The multistep nature of autophagy makes it challenging to quantify, and it is important to consider not only the number of autophagosomes within a cell but also the autophagic degradative activity. Read More

    RecQ and Fe-S helicases have unique roles in DNA metabolism dictated by their unwinding directionality, substrate specificity, and protein interactions.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22;46(1):77-95. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, NIH Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, U.S.A.
    Helicases are molecular motors that play central roles in nucleic acid metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding DNA helicases of the RecQ and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) helicase families are linked to hereditary disorders characterized by chromosomal instabilities, highlighting the importance of these enzymes. Moreover, mono-allelic RecQ and Fe-S helicase mutations are associated with a broad spectrum of cancers. Read More

    Gene expression regulation by heat-shock proteins: the cardinal roles of HSF1 and Hsp90.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22;46(1):51-65. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    The ability to permit gene expression is managed by a set of relatively well known regulatory mechanisms. Nonetheless, this property can also be acquired during a life span as a consequence of environmental stimuli. Interestingly, some acquired information can be passed to the next generation of individuals without modifying gene information, but instead by the manner in which cells read and process such information. Read More

    Approaches to single-molecule studies of metalloprotein electron transfer using scanning probe-based techniques.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22;46(1):1-9. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, U.K.
    The single-molecule properties of metalloproteins have provided an intensely active research area in recent years. This brief review covers some of the techniques used to prepare, measure and analyse the electron transfer properties of metalloproteins, concentrating on scanning tunnelling microscopy-based techniques and advances in attachment of proteins to electrodes. Read More

    At the ends of their tethers! How coiled-coil proteins capture vesicles at the Golgi.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 22;46(1):43-50. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, U.K.
    Cells face a complex problem: how to transfer lipids and proteins between membrane compartments in an organized, timely fashion. Indeed, many thousands of membrane and secretory proteins must traffic out of the ER to different organelles to function, while others are retrieved from the plasma membrane having fulfilled their roles [Nat. Rev. Read More

    The 10-nm chromatin fiber and its relationship to interphase chromosome organization.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 20;46(1):67-76. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Biological Macromolecules Laboratory, Structural Biology Center, National Institute of Genetics and Department of Genetics, Sokendai (Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan
    A chromosome is a single long DNA molecule assembled along its length with nucleosomes and proteins. During interphase, a mammalian chromosome exists as a highly organized supramolecular globule in the nucleus. Here, we discuss new insights into how genomic DNA is packaged and organized within interphase chromosomes. Read More

    Cell signaling abnormalities in cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 1;46(1):37-42. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, U.S.A.
    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene () encoding intermediate filament proteins associated with the inner nuclear membrane cause diseases known as laminopathies. Mostmutations cause dilated cardiomyopathy with variable skeletal muscular dystrophy. Cell signaling abnormalities have been discovered in hearts of mouse models of cardiomyopathy caused bymutations that contribute to pathogenesis. Read More

    Single-molecule live-cell imaging of bacterial DNA repair and damage tolerance.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 1;46(1):23-35. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
    Genomic DNA is constantly under threat from intracellular and environmental factors that damage its chemical structure. Uncorrected DNA damage may impede cellular propagation or even result in cell death, making it critical to restore genomic integrity. Decades of research have revealed a wide range of mechanisms through which repair factors recognize damage and co-ordinate repair processes. Read More

    MicroRNA-based therapeutics in cardiovascular disease: screening and delivery to the target.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Feb 1;46(1):11-21. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, the Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, U.K.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nucleotides, which have increasingly been recognized as potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNA targeting is defined by the complementarities between positions 2-8 of miRNA 5'-end with generally the 3'-untranslated region of target mRNAs (messenger RNAs). The capacity of miRNAs to simultaneously inhibit many different mRNAs allows for an amplification of biological responses. Read More

    Autophagy in the context of the cellular membrane-trafficking system: the enigma of Atg9 vesicles.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 17;45(6):1323-1331. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Center for Frontier Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
    Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system that involves theformation of membrane structures called autophagosomes, although the detailed process by which membrane lipids are supplied during autophagosome formation is yet to be elucidated. Macroautophagy is thought to be associated with canonical membrane trafficking, but several mechanistic details are still missing. In this review, the current understanding and potential mechanisms by which membrane trafficking participates in macroautophagy are described, with a focus on the enigma of the membrane protein Atg9, for which the proximal mechanisms determining its movement are disputable, despite its key role in autophagosome formation. Read More

    Transcriptional regulators of redox balance and other homeostatic processes with the potential to alter neurodegenerative disease trajectory.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 17;45(6):1295-1303. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Edinburgh Medical School, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, U.K.
    Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. Read More

    The devil is in the domain: understanding protein recognition of multiple RNA targets.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 17;45(6):1305-1311. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6XA, U.K.
    RNA regulation provides a finely tuned and highly co-ordinated control of gene expression. Regulation is mediated by hundreds to thousands of multi-functional RNA-binding proteins which often interact with large sets of RNAs. In this brief review, we focus on a recent work that highlights how the proteins use multiple RNA-binding domains to interact selectively with the different RNA targets. Read More

    Distinct RNA-unwinding mechanisms of DEAD-box and DEAH-box RNA helicase proteins in remodeling structured RNAs and RNPs.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 17;45(6):1313-1321. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Molecular Biosciences and the Institute for Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, U.S.A.
    Structured RNAs and RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) fold through complex pathways that are replete with misfolded traps, and many RNAs and RNPs undergo extensive conformational changes during their functional cycles. These folding steps and conformational transitions are frequently promoted by RNA chaperone proteins, notably by superfamily 2 (SF2) RNA helicase proteins. The two largest families of SF2 helicases, DEAD-box and DEAH-box proteins, share evolutionarily conserved helicase cores, but unwind RNA helices through distinct mechanisms. Read More

    Breaking the scale: how disrupting the karyoplasmic ratio gives cancer cells an advantage for metastatic invasion.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 17;45(6):1333-1344. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology and Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, U.K.
    Nuclear size normally scales with the size of the cell, but in cancer this 'karyoplasmic ratio' is disrupted. This is particularly so in more metastatic tumors where changes in the karyoplasmic ratio are used in both diagnosis and prognosis for several tumor types. However, the direction of nuclear size changes differs for particular tumor types: for example in breast cancer, larger nuclear size correlates with increased metastasis, while for lung cancer smaller nuclear size correlates with increased metastasis. Read More

    Emerging candidate treatment strategies for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 10;45(6):1279-1293. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Center for Innovative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, progeria) is an extremely rare premature aging disorder affecting children, with a disease incidence of ∼1 in 18 million individuals. HGPS is usually caused by apoint mutation in exon 11 of thegene (c.1824C>T, p. Read More

    SNARE phosphorylation: a control mechanism for insulin-stimulated glucose transport and other regulated exocytic events.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 3;45(6):1271-1277. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, U.K.
    Trafficking within eukaryotic cells is a complex and highly regulated process; events such as recycling of plasma membrane receptors, formation of multivesicular bodies, regulated release of hormones and delivery of proteins to membranes all require directionality and specificity. The underpinning processes, including cargo selection, membrane fusion, trafficking flow and timing, are controlled by a variety of molecular mechanisms and engage multiple families of lipids and proteins. Here, we will focus on control of trafficking processes via the action of the SNARE (soluble-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) family of proteins, in particular their regulation by phosphorylation. Read More

    Biochemical targets of drugs mitigating oxidative stress via redox-independent mechanisms.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 3;45(6):1225-1252. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Graz, Humboldtstrasse 46/3, Graz 8010, Austria
    Acute or chronic oxidative stress plays an important role in many pathologies. Two opposite approaches are typically used to prevent the damage induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), namely treatment either with antioxidants or with weak oxidants that up-regulate endogenous antioxidant mechanisms. This review discusses options for the third pharmacological approach, namely amelioration of oxidative stress by 'redox-inert' compounds, which do not inactivate RONS but either inhibit the basic mechanisms leading to their formation (i. Read More

    Impact of bacterial sRNAs in stress responses.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 3;45(6):1203-1212. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Box 596, Uppsala S-75124, Sweden.
    Bacterial life is harsh and involves numerous environmental and internal challenges that are perceived as stresses. Consequently, adequate responses to survive, cope with, and counteract stress conditions have evolved. In the last few decades, a class of small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) has been shown to be involved as key players in stress responses. Read More

    Combining high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy and mutagenesis to develop cowpea mosaic virus for bionanotechnology.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 3;45(6):1263-1269. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, U.K.
    Particles of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) have enjoyed considerable success as nanoparticles. The development of a system for producing empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of the virus, which are non-infectious and have the potential to be loaded with heterologous material, has increased the number of possible applications for CPMV-based particles. However, for this potential to be realised, it was essential to demonstrate that eVLPs were accurate surrogates for natural virus particles, and this information was provided by high-resolution cryo-EM studies of eVLPs. Read More

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis: emergent role in cell signalling pathways.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 27;45(6):1185-1202. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Signal Transduction Laboratory, School of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility (ABCRF), Western Gateway Building, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Receptor signalling events including those initiated following activation of cytokine and growth factor receptors and the well-characterised death receptors (tumour necrosis factor receptor, type 1, FasR and TRAIL-R1/2) are initiated at the cell surface through the recruitment and formation of intracellular multiprotein signalling complexes that activate divergent signalling pathways. Over the past decade, research studies reveal that many of these receptor-initiated signalling events involve the sequential proteolysis of specific receptors by membrane-bound proteases and the γ-secretase protease complexes. Proteolysis enables the liberation of soluble receptor ectodomains and the generation of intracellular receptor cytoplasmic domain fragments. Read More

    Biomolecular coevolution and its applications: Going from structure prediction toward signaling, epistasis, and function.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 20;45(6):1253-1261. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    Evolution leads to considerable changes in the sequence of biomolecules, while their overall structure and function remain quite conserved. The wealth of genomic sequences, the 'Biological Big Data', modern sequencing techniques provide allows us to investigate biomolecular evolution with unprecedented detail. Sophisticated statistical models can infer residue pair mutations resulting from spatial proximity. Read More

    Platelet mitochondrial dysfunction and the correlation with human diseases.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Dec 20;45(6):1213-1223. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
    The platelet is considered as an accessible and valuable tool to study mitochondrial function, owing to its greater content of fully functional mitochondria compared with other metabolically active organelles. Different lines of studies have demonstrated that mitochondria in platelets have function far more than thrombogenesis regulation, and beyond hemostasis, platelet mitochondrial dysfunction has also been used for studying mitochondrial-related diseases. In this review, the interplay between platelet mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA lesions, electron transfer chain impairments, mitochondrial apoptosis and mitophagy has been outlined. Read More

    Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 22;45(5):1067-1076. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Perinatal Brain Injury Group, Centre for the Developing Brain, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, King's Health Partners, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, U.K.
    Birth asphyxia in term neonates affects 1-2/1000 live births and results in the development of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy with devastating life-long consequences. The majority of neuronal cell death occurs with a delay, providing the potential of a treatment window within which to act. Currently, treatment options are limited to therapeutic hypothermia which is not universally successful. Read More

    G-quadruplex unwinding helicases and their function.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 22;45(5):1173-1182. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    European Research Institute for the Biology of Ageing, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
    The concept that G-quadruplex (G4) structures can form within DNA or RNAhas been long known and extensively discussed. In recent years, accumulating evidences imply that G-quadruplex structures formInitially, inefficient regulation of G-quadruplex structures was mainly associated with genome instability. However, due to the location of G-quadruplex motifs and their evolutionary conservation, different cellular functions of these structures have been postulated (e. Read More

    Mass spectrometry techniques for studying the ubiquitin system.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 22;45(5):1137-1148. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K.
    Post-translational control of proteins through covalent attachment of ubiquitin plays important roles in all eukaryotic cell functions. The ubiquitin system in humans consists of 2 E1, 35 E2 and >600 E3 ubiquitin ligases as well as hundreds of deubiquitylases, which reverse ubiquitin attachment. Moreover, there are hundreds of proteins with ubiquitin-binding domains that bind one of the eight possible polyubiquitin chains. Read More

    Long and small noncoding RNAs during oocyte-to-embryo transition in mammals.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 22;45(5):1117-1124. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    Oocyte-to-embryo transition is a process during which an oocyte ovulates, is fertilized, and becomes a developing embryo. It involves the first major genome reprogramming event in life of an organism where gene expression, which gave rise to a differentiated oocyte, is remodeled in order to establish totipotency in blastomeres of an early embryo. This remodeling involves replacement of maternal RNAs with zygotic RNAs through maternal RNA degradation and zygotic genome activation. Read More

    Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 12;45(5):1105-1115. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, IDS Building, MP887 Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, U.K.
    Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Read More

    Geometries of vasculature bifurcation can affect the level of trophic damage during formation of a brain ischemic lesion.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 12;45(5):1097-1103. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Institute of Cytochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, 6-th Radial'naya str. 24-14, Moscow 115404, Russia
    Ischemic lesion is a common cause of various diseases in humans. Brain tissue is especially sensitive to this type of damage. A common reason for the appearance of an ischemic area is a stop in blood flow in some branch of the vasculature system. Read More

    Structure and function of Pif1 helicase.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 12;45(5):1159-1171. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, U.S.A.
    Pif1 family helicases have multiple roles in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotes.Pif1 is involved in replication through barriers to replication, such as G-quadruplexes and protein blocks, and reduces genetic instability at these sites. Another Pif1 family helicase in, Rrm3, assists in fork progression through replication fork barriers at the rDNA locus and tRNA genes. Read More

    Regulation of the cell cycle and centrosome biology by deubiquitylases.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 12;45(5):1125-1136. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, U.K.
    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitylation is increasingly recognised as a highly complex code that contributes to the regulation of diverse cellular processes. In humans, a family of almost 100 deubiquitylase enzymes (DUBs) are assigned to six subfamilies and many of these DUBs can remove ubiquitin from proteins to reverse signals. Roles for individual DUBs have been delineated within specific cellular processes, including many that are dysregulated in diseases, particularly cancer. Read More

    Role of conformational change and K-path ligands in controlling cytochromeoxidase activity.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 24;45(5):1087-1095. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, 603 Wilson Rd, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A.
    Given the central role of cytochromeoxidase (CO) in health and disease, it is an increasingly important question as to how the activity and efficiency of this key enzyme are regulated to respond to a variety of metabolic states. The present paper summarizes evidence for two modes of regulation of activity: first, by redox-induced conformational changes involving the K-proton uptake path; and secondly, by ligand binding to a conserved site immediately adjacent to the entrance of the K-path that leads to the active site. Both these phenomena highlight the importance of the K-path in control of CO. Read More

    Visualising pattern recognition receptor signalling.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 24;45(5):1077-1085. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, U.K.
    Signalling by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is critical for protecting the host against pathogens. Disruption of these signalling pathways has been implicated in many diseases ranging from infection susceptibility to cancer and autoimmune disease. Understanding how PRRs signal is of critical importance due to their potential as therapeutic targets to ameliorate symptoms of inflammatory diseases. Read More

    Structure of the Holliday junction: applications beyond recombination.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2017 Oct 24;45(5):1149-1158. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, 1870 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1870, U.S.A.
    The Holliday junction (HJ) is an essential element in recombination and related mechanisms. The structure of this four-stranded DNA assembly, which is now well-defined alone and in complex with proteins, has led to its applications in areas well outside of molecular recombination, including nanotechnology and biophysics. This minireview explores some interesting recent research on the HJ, as it has been adapted to design regular two- or three-dimensional lattices for crystal engineering, and more complex systems through DNA origami. Read More

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