Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    16313 results match your criteria Biochemical Society Transactions[Journal]

    1 OF 327

    O-linked mucin-type glycosylation in breast cancer.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Breast Cancer Biology, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, Innovation Hub, Guy's Hospital London, London, U.K.
    Changes in mucin-type O-linked glycosylation are seen in over 90% of breast cancers where increased sialylation is often observed and a change from branched glycans to linear glycans is often seen. There are many mechanisms involved including increased/altered expression of glycosyltransferases and relocalisation to the endoplasmic reticulum of the enzymes responsible for the addition of the first sugar, -acetyl-d-galactosamine. It is now becoming clear that these changes can contribute to tumour growth and progression by modulating the micro-environment through glycan-sensing lectins expressed on immune cells, by modulating interactions with tumour surface receptors and by binding to selectins. Read More

    ESCRTs in membrane sealing.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0379 Oslo, Norway
    The multisubunit endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is a key regulator of cellular membrane dynamics. Initially characterized in the budding yeast for its involvement in cargo sorting to the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, this protein complex has emerged over the past decade as a driver for diverse membrane remodeling processes. Its pleiotropic functional connection is mirrored in numerous cellular processes, such as cytokinetic abscission during the final step of cell division, nuclear pore quality control, nuclear envelope sealing and repair, plasma membrane repair, vesicle shedding from the plasma membrane, viral budding, and axonal pruning. Read More

    RHO GTPases in cancer: known facts, open questions, and therapeutic challenges.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    RHO GTPases have been traditionally associated with protumorigenic functions. While this paradigm is still valid in many cases, recent data have unexpectedly revealed that RHO proteins can also play tumor suppressor roles. RHO signaling elements can also promote both pro- and antitumorigenic effects using GTPase-independent mechanisms, thus giving an extra layer of complexity to the role of these proteins in cancer. Read More

    Observing DNA in live cells.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
    The structural organization and dynamics of DNA are known to be of paramount importance in countless cellular processes, but capturing these events poses a unique challenge. Fluorescence microscopy is well suited for these live-cell investigations, but requires attaching fluorescent labels to the species under investigation. Over the past several decades, a suite of techniques have been developed for labeling and imaging DNA, each with various advantages and drawbacks. Read More

    The FAM83 family of proteins: from pseudo-PLDs to anchors for CK1 isoforms.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, U.K.
    The eight members of the FAM83 (FAMily with sequence similarity 83) family of poorly characterised proteins are only present in vertebrates and are defined by the presence of the conserved DUF1669 domain of unknown function at their N-termini. The DUF1669 domain consists of a conserved phospholipase D (PLD)-like catalytic motif. However, the FAM83 proteins display no PLD catalytic (PLDc) activity, and the pseudo-PLDc motif present in each FAM83 member lacks the crucial elements of the native PLDc motif. Read More

    Coenzyme A, protein CoAlation and redox regulation in mammalian cells.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, U.K.
    In a diverse family of cellular cofactors, coenzyme A (CoA) has a unique design to function in various biochemical processes. The presence of a highly reactive thiol group and a nucleotide moiety offers a diversity of chemical reactions and regulatory interactions. CoA employs them to activate carbonyl-containing molecules and to produce various thioester derivatives (e. Read More

    Role of mucins in lung homeostasis: regulated expression and biosynthesis in health and disease.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, U.S.A.
    In humans and mice, the first line of innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles in the respiratory tract is airway mucus. The primary solid components of the mucus layer are the mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B, polymeric glycoproteins whose changes in abundance and structure can dramatically affect airway defense. Accordingly, and are tightly regulated at a transcriptional level by tissue-specific transcription factors in homeostasis and in response to injurious and inflammatory triggers. Read More

    Eat it right: ER-phagy and recovER-phagy.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Università della Svizzera italiana, Via G. Buffi, CH-6900 Lugano, Switzerland
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein, lipid, phospholipid, steroid and oligosaccharide synthesis and modification, calcium ion storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous products. Its volume (and activity) must be maintained under normal growth conditions, must be expanded in a controlled manner on activation of ER stress programs and must be reduced to pre-stress size during the recovery phase that follows ER stress termination. ER-phagy is the constitutive or regulated fragmentation and delivery of ER fragments to lysosomal compartments for clearance. Read More

    Mouse models of nesprin-related diseases.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Cardiovascular Division, London SE5 9NU, U.K.
    Nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) are a family of multi-isomeric scaffolding proteins. Nesprins form the LInker of Nucleoskeleton-and-Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex with SUN (Sad1p/UNC84) domain-containing proteins at the nuclear envelope, in association with lamin A/C and emerin, linking the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton. The LINC complex serves as both a physical linker between the nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton and a mechanosensor. Read More

    Regulation of RabGAPs involved in insulin action.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Institute of Clinical Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz-Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf, Germany
    Rab (Ras-related proteins in brain) GTPases are key proteins responsible for a multiplicity of cellular trafficking processes. Belonging to the family of monomeric GTPases, they are regulated by cycling between their active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound conformations. Despite possessing a slow intrinsic GTP hydrolysis activity, Rab proteins rely on RabGAPs (Rab GTPase-activating proteins) that catalyze GTP hydrolysis and consequently inactivate the respective Rab GTPases. Read More

    Latest developments in MUC1 immunotherapy.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Breast Cancer Biology Lab, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, U.K.
    Currently, there is renewed interest in attempting to recruit the host immune system to eliminate cancers, and within this renewed activity, MUC1 continues to arouse interest. MUC1 has been considered a possible therapeutic target for the past 30 years as it is up-regulated, aberrantly glycosylated and its polarization is lost in many adenocarcinomas. Moreover, MUC1 is expressed by some haematopoietic cancers, including acute myeloid leukaemia and myeloma. Read More

    Harnessing post-translational modifications for next-generation HIV immunogens.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Centre for Biological Sciences and Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, U.K.
    The extensive post-translational modifications of the envelope spikes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) present considerable challenges and opportunities for HIV vaccine design. These oligomeric glycoproteins typically have over 30 disulfide bonds and around a 100 N-linked glycosylation sites, and are functionally dependent on protease cleavage within the secretory system. The resulting mature structure adopts a compact fold with the vast majority of its surface obscured by a protective shield of glycans which can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Read More

    Small GTPase-dependent regulation of leukocyte-endothelial interactions in inflammation.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, U.K.
    Inflammation is a complex biological response that serves to protect the body's tissues following harmful stimuli such as infection, irritation or injury and initiates tissue repair. At the start of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory mediators induce changes in the endothelial lining of the blood vessels and in leukocytes. This results in increased vascular permeability and increased expression of adhesion proteins, and promotes adhesion of leukocytes, especially neutrophils to the endothelium. Read More

    Non-coding RNA in cystic fibrosis.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Lung Biology Group, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland
    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an abundant class of RNAs that include small ncRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and pseudogenes. The human ncRNA atlas includes thousands of these specialised RNA molecules that are further subcategorised based on their size or function. Two of the more well-known and widely studied ncRNA species are microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs. Read More

    Thermodynamic constraints for identifying elementary flux modes.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    LRI, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France.
    Metabolic pathway analysis is a key method to study metabolism and the elementary flux modes (EFMs) is one major concept allowing one to analyze the network in terms of minimal pathways. Their practical use has been hampered by the combinatorial explosion of their number in large systems. The EFMs give the possible pathways at steady state, but the real pathways are limited by biological constraints. Read More

    Communicating with the dead: lipids, lipid mediators and extracellular vesicles.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, U.K.
    Apoptosis is a key event in the control of inflammation. However, for this to be successful, dying cells must efficiently and effectively communicate their presence to phagocytes to ensure timely removal of dying cells. Here, we consider apoptotic cell-derived extracellular vesicles and the role of contained lipids and lipid mediators in ensuring effective control of inflammation. Read More

    Local actin polymerization during endocytic carrier formation.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Division of Biosciences, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, U.K.
    Extracellular macromolecules, pathogens and cell surface proteins rely on endocytosis to enter cells. Key steps of endocytic carrier formation are cargo molecule selection, plasma membrane folding and detachment from the cell surface. While dedicated proteins mediate each step, the actin cytoskeleton contributes to all. Read More

    Studying X chromosome inactivation in the single-cell genomic era.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
    Single-cell genomics is set to revolutionise our understanding of how epigenetic silencing works; by studying specific epigenetic marks or chromatin conformations in single cells, it is possible to ask whether they cause transcriptional silencing or are instead a consequence of the silent state. Here, we review what single-cell genomics has revealed about X chromosome inactivation, perhaps the best characterised mammalian epigenetic process, highlighting the novel findings and important differences between mouse and human X inactivation uncovered through these studies. We consider what fundamental questions these techniques are set to answer in coming years and propose that X chromosome inactivation is an ideal model to study gene silencing by single-cell genomics as technical limitations are minimised through the co-analysis of hundreds of genes. Read More

    Self-organization, entropy and allostery.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, U.S.A.
    Allostery is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in biology. Although generally accepted that it is a dynamics-driven process, the exact molecular mechanism of allosteric signal transmission is hotly debated. We argue that allostery is as a part of a bigger picture that also includes fractal-like properties of protein interior, hierarchical protein folding and entropy-driven molecular recognition. Read More

    Metabolic adjustment to high-altitude hypoxia: from genetic signals to physiological implications.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    University College London Centre for Altitude Space and Extreme Environment Medicine, UCLH NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Sport and Exercise Health, London, U.K.
    Ascent to high altitude is associated with physiological responses that counter the stress of hypobaric hypoxia by increasing oxygen delivery and by altering tissue oxygen utilisation via metabolic modulation. At the cellular level, the transcriptional response to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and results in promotion of glycolytic capacity and suppression of oxidative metabolism. In Tibetan highlanders, gene variants encoding components of the HIF pathway have undergone selection and are associated with adaptive phenotypic changes, including suppression of erythropoiesis and increased blood lactate levels. Read More

    Subverting the mechanisms of cell death: flavivirus manipulation of host cell responses to infection.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Biochemistry, IIB, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, U.K.
    Viruses exploit host metabolic and defence machinery for their own replication. The flaviviruses, which include Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), Japanese Encephalitis (JEV), West Nile (WNV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, infect a broad range of hosts, cells and tissues. Flaviviruses are largely transmitted by mosquito bites and humans are usually incidental, dead-end hosts, with the notable exceptions of YFV, DENV and ZIKV. Read More

    Modelling phosphorus uptake in microalgae.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr;46(2):483-490
    Institute for Quantitative and Theoretical Biology, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
    Phosphorus (P) is an essential non-renewable nutrient that frequently limits plant growth. It is the foundation of modern agriculture and, to a large extent, demand for P is met from phosphate rock deposits which are limited and becoming increasingly scarce. Adding an extra stroke to this already desolate picture is the fact that a high percentage of P, through agricultural runoff and waste, makes its way into rivers and oceans leading to eutrophication and collapse of ecosystems. Read More

    Molecular mechanisms involved in plant photoprotection.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr;46(2):467-482
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into biomass and oxygen. When in excess, light can be dangerous for the photosynthetic apparatus because it can cause photo-oxidative damage and decreases the efficiency of photosynthesis because of photoinhibition. Plants have evolved many photoprotective mechanisms in order to face reactive oxygen species production and thus avoid photoinhibition. Read More

    Progress towards platform chemical production using .
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, U.K.
    Since 2013, there has been an explosion in the number of research articles published on , an acetogen capable of producing platform chemicals such as ethanol and 2,3-butanediol from greenhouse gases. However, no review focusing solely on has appeared in the literature. This review outlines the research conducted into this organism in three broad categories (Enzymology, Genetics, and Systems Biology) and suggestions for future research are offered. Read More

    Control of pancreatic β-cell bioenergetics.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    School of Biomedical and Healthcare Sciences, University of Plymouth, The John Bull Building, Plymouth Science Park, 16 Research Way, PL6 8BU Plymouth, U.K.
    The canonical model of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β-cells predicts a glucose-induced rise in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio. Such bioenergetic sensitivity to metabolic fuel is unusual as it implies that ATP flux is governed, to a significant extent, by ATP supply, while it is predominantly demand-driven in other cell types. Metabolic control is generally shared between different processes, but potential control of ATP consumption over β-cell bioenergetics has been largely ignored to date. Read More

    Metabolic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a mini-review.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.
    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Read More

    ESCRT-mediated sorting and intralumenal vesicle concatenation in plants.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A.
    The degradation of plasma membrane and other membrane-associated proteins require their sorting at endosomes for delivery to the vacuole. Through the endocytic pathway, ubiquitinated membrane proteins (cargo) are delivered to endosomes where the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery sorts them into intralumenal vesicles for degradation. Plants contain both conserved and plant-specific ESCRT subunits. Read More

    New insights into the interplay between the translation machinery and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factors.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, U.K.
    Faulty mRNAs with a premature stop codon (PTC) are recognized and degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Recognition of a nonsense mRNA depends on translation and on the presence of NMD-enhancing or the absence of NMD-inhibiting factors in the 3'-untranslated region. Our review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular function of the conserved NMD factors UPF3B and UPF1, and of the anti-NMD factor Poly(A)-binding protein, and their interactions with ribosomes translating PTC-containing mRNAs. Read More

    Nucleosome-level 3D organization of the genome.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Laboratory for Single Cell Gene Dynamics, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874, Japan
    Nucleosomes are the unitary structures of chromosome folding, and their arrangements are intimately coupled to the regulation of genome activities. Conventionally, structural analyses using electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have been used to study such spatial nucleosome arrangements. In contrast, recent improvements in the resolution of sequencing-based methods allowed investigation of nucleosome arrangements separately at each genomic locus, enabling exploration of gene-dependent regulation mechanisms. Read More

    Exploring the combinatorial space of complete pathways to chemicals.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, U.S.A.
    Computational pathway design tools often face the challenges of balancing the stoichiometry of co-metabolites and cofactors, and dealing with reaction rule utilization in a single workflow. To this end, we provide an overview of two complementary stoichiometry-based pathway design tools optStoic and novoStoic developed in our group to tackle these challenges. optStoic is designed to determine the stoichiometry of overall conversion first which optimizes a performance criterion (e. Read More

    Constraint-based modeling in microbial food biotechnology.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 27;46(2):249-260. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Discovery, R&D Microbial Platform, Chr. Hansen A/S, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
    Genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction offers a means to leverage the value of the exponentially growing genomics data and integrate it with other biological knowledge in a structured format. Constraint-based modeling (CBM) enables both the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the reconstructed networks. The rapid advancements in these areas can benefit both the industrial production of microbial food cultures and their application in food processing. Read More

    Probing ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 27;46(2):423-436. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins including small Ubl modifier (SUMO) are small proteins which are covalently linked to target proteins to regulate their functions. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art and point out what we feel this field urgently needs in order to delineate the wiring of the system. We discuss what is needed to unravel the connections between different components of the conjugation machineries for ubiquitylation and SUMOylation, and to unravel the connections between the conjugation machineries and their substrates. Read More

    Non-vesicular lipid trafficking at the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interface.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 27;46(2):437-452. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex 91198, France
    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles involved in various cellular processes such as energy production, regulation of calcium homeostasis, lipid trafficking, and apoptosis. To fulfill all these functions and preserve their morphology and dynamic behavior, mitochondria need to maintain a defined protein and lipid composition in both their membranes. The maintenance of mitochondrial membrane identity requires a selective and regulated transport of specific lipids from/to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and across the mitochondria outer and inner membranes. Read More

    Logic-gated approaches to extend the utility of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell technology.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 14;46(2):391-401. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Translational Oncology Laboratory, Centre for Cancer Biology, University of South Australia and SA Pathology, Frome Road, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has been clinically validated as a curative treatment for the difficult to treat malignancies of relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphoma. Here, the CAR-T cells are re-directed towards a single antigen, CD19, which is recognised as a virtually ideal CAR target antigen because it has strong, uniform expression on cancer cells, and is otherwise expressed only on healthy B cells, which are 'dispensable'. Notwithstanding the clinical success of CD19-CAR-T cell therapy, its single specificity has driven therapeutic resistance in 30% or more of cases with CD19-negative leukaemic relapses. Read More

    Membrane re-modelling by BAR domain superfamily proteins via molecular and non-molecular factors.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 14;46(2):379-389. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma 630-0192, Japan
    Lipid membranes are structural components of cell surfaces and intracellular organelles. Alterations in lipid membrane shape are accompanied by numerous cellular functions, including endocytosis, intracellular transport, and cell migration. Proteins containing Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains (BAR proteins) are unique, because their structures correspond to the membrane curvature, that is, the shape of the lipid membrane. Read More

    Review and perspective on mathematical modeling of microbial ecosystems.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 14;46(2):403-412. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Understanding microbial ecosystems means unlocking the path toward a deeper knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of life. Engineered microbial communities are also extremely relevant to tackling some of today's grand societal challenges. Advanced meta-omics experimental techniques provide crucial insights into microbial communities, but have been so far mostly used for descriptive, exploratory approaches to answer the initial 'who is there?'

    Question: An ecosystem is a complex network of dynamic spatio-temporal interactions among organisms as well as between organisms and the environment. Read More

    Insights into toxic blooms: the role of sugars and algal viruses.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 14;46(2):413-421. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, U.K.
    is a toxin-producing microalga that causes harmful algal blooms globally, which often result in large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. Although many toxins have previously been isolated from , ambiguity still surrounds the responsible ichthyotoxins in blooms and the biotic and abiotic factors that promote bloom toxicity. A major fish kill attributed to occurred in Spring 2015 on the Norfolk Broads, a low-lying set of channels and lakes (Broads) found on the East of England. Read More

    The multiple lives of DEAD-box RNA helicase DP103/DDX20/Gemin3.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 9;46(2):329-341. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
    Gemin3, also known as DDX20 or DP103, is a DEAD-box RNA helicase which is involved in more than one cellular process. Though RNA unwinding has been determined , it is surprisingly not required for all of its activities in cellular metabolism. Gemin3 is an essential gene, present in Amoeba and Metazoa. Read More

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) in respiratory disease.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 9;46(2):361-369. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.
    Defining features of chronic airway diseases include abnormal and persistent inflammatory processes, impaired airway epithelial integrity and function, and increased susceptibility to recurrent respiratory infections. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are lipid kinases, which contribute to multiple physiological and pathological processes within the airway, with abnormal PI3K signalling contributing to the pathogenesis of several respiratory diseases. Consequently, the potential benefit of targeting PI3K isoforms has received considerable attention, being viewed as a viable therapeutic option in inflammatory and infectious lung disorders. Read More

    Glycosylation pathways at the ocular surface.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 9;46(2):343-350. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Schepens Eye Research Institute of Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, U.S.A.
    Glycosylation is a major form of enzymatic modification of organic molecules responsible for multiple biological processes in an organism. The biosynthesis of glycans is controlled by a series of glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and glycan-modifying enzymes that collectively assemble and process monosaccharide moieties into a diverse array of structures. Many studies have provided insight into various pathways of glycosylation at the ocular surface, such as those related to the biosynthesis of mucin-type -glycans and -glycans on proteins, but many others still remain largely unknown. Read More

    Glycobiology of syndecan-1 in bacterial infections.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 9;46(2):371-377. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, U.S.A.
    Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is a major cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan of epithelial cells, a cell type targeted by many bacterial pathogens early in their pathogenesis. Loss of Sdc1 in mice is a gain-of-function mutation that significantly decreases the susceptibility to several bacterial infections, suggesting that subversion of Sdc1 is an important virulence strategy. HS glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of cell surface Sdc1 promote bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host cells. Read More

    Metabolic regulation of photosynthesis.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 9;46(2):321-328. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
    Photosynthesis is fundamental to biomass production, but is a dynamic process sensitive to environmental constraints. In recent years, approaches to increase biomass and grain yield by altering photosynthetically related processes in the plant have received considerable attention. However, improving biomass yield requires a predictive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow photosynthesis to be adjusted. Read More

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1): oversight for neurodegenerative disorders.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 9;46(2):351-360. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Cellular and Molecular Signaling, Newark, NJ 07101, U.S.A.
    As a result of the advancing age of the global population and the progressive increase in lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders continue to increase in incidence throughout the world. New strategies for neurodegenerative disorders involve the novel pathways of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 () (SIRT1) that can modulate pathways of apoptosis and autophagy. The pathways of mTOR and SIRT1 are closely integrated. Read More

    The fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily of enzymes: multifunctional enzymes from microbes to mitochondria.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 27;46(2):295-309. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Research Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, University of Innsbruck, Rennweg 10, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.
    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily members, sharing conserved regions that form the so-called FAH-domain, catalyze a remarkable variety of reactions. These enzymes are essential in the metabolic pathways to degrade aromatic compounds in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It appears that prokaryotic FAH superfamily members evolved mainly to allow microbes to generate energy and useful metabolites from complex carbon sources. Read More

    Structure of the plant photosystem I.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 27;46(2):285-294. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Plant photosystem I (PSI) is one of the most intricate membrane complexes in nature. It comprises two complexes, a reaction center and light-harvesting complex (LHC), which together form the PSI-LHC supercomplex. The crystal structure of plant PSI was solved with two distinct crystal forms. Read More

    Nesprin-1/2: roles in nuclear envelope organisation, myogenesis and muscle disease.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 27;46(2):311-320. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Cardiovascular Division, James Black Centre, 125 Coldharbour Lane, London SE5 9NU, U.K.
    Nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) are multi-isomeric scaffolding proteins. Nesprin-1 and -2 are highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and together with SUN (Sad1p/UNC84) domain-containing proteins form the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex at the nuclear envelope in association with lamin A/C and emerin. Mutations in nesprin-1/2 have been found in patients with autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Read More

    Diverse exocytic pathways for mast cell mediators.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 22;46(2):235-247. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of Fundamental Neurobiology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8.
    Mast cells play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunities but are also culprits in allergy, autoimmunity, and cardiovascular diseases. Mast cells respond to environmental changes by initiating regulated exocytosis/secretion of various biologically active compounds called mediators (e.g. Read More

    Signaling through plant lectins: modulation of plant immunity and beyond.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 22;46(2):217-233. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Glycobiology, Department of Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Lectins constitute an abundant group of proteins that are present throughout the plant kingdom. Only recently, genome-wide screenings have unraveled the multitude of different lectin sequences within one plant species. It appears that plants employ a plurality of lectins, though relatively few lectins have already been studied and functionally characterized. Read More

    Model-based metabolism design: constraints for kinetic and stoichiometric models.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 22;46(2):261-267. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Biosystems Group, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela Iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia.
    The implementation of model-based designs in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology may fail. One of the reasons for this failure is that only a part of the real-world complexity is included in models. Still, some knowledge can be simplified and taken into account in the form of optimization constraints to improve the feasibility of model-based designs of metabolic pathways in organisms. Read More

    Competitive resource allocation to metabolic pathways contributes to overflow metabolisms and emergent properties in cross-feeding microbial consortia.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 22;46(2):269-284. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Microbiology and Immunology, or Mathematics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, U.S.A.
    Resource scarcity is a common stress in nature and has a major impact on microbial physiology. This review highlights microbial acclimations to resource scarcity, focusing on resource investment strategies for chemoheterotrophs from the molecular level to the pathway level. Competitive resource allocation strategies often lead to a phenotype known as overflow metabolism; the resulting overflow byproducts can stabilize cooperative interactions in microbial communities and can lead to cross-feeding consortia. Read More

    1 OF 327