374,408 results match your criteria Biochemical Journal[Journal]


Efficacy of calcium excretion and calcium/creatinine clearance ratio in the differential diagnosis of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Section of Endocrine Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Twenty-four-hour renal calcium-excretion (CE) and calcium/creatinine-clearance-ratio (CCCR), respectively, are widely used to rule out familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism before surgery. The aim was to evaluate the practicability of CE compared to CCCR.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed biochemical parameters, surgical treatment, gene mutation results, and long-term follow-up data of 198 patients (including 14 patients with FHH) and the discriminative power of CE and CCCR. Read More

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December 2018

Fucoxanthin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice via AMPK- NF-κB pathway.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of toxicology and pharmacology, Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, 315000, China.

Fucoxanthin (FX), a natural carotenoid abundant in edible brown seaweeds, has been shown the great anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects in vivo and in vitro. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced behavioral defects in mice. In depressive behavior tests, the increased immobility time of forced swimming test and tail suspension test by LPS treatment in mice, which were significantly reversed by FX treatment (200 mg/kg, i. Read More

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December 2018

Gut microbiome approaches to treat obesity in humans.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The rising worldwide prevalence of obesity has become a major concern having many implications for the public health and the economy. It is well known that many factors such as lifestyle, increased intake of foods high in fat and sugar and a host's genetic profile can lead to obesity. Besides these factors, recent studies have pointed to the gut microbiota composition as being responsible for the development of obesity. Read More

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December 2018

Is There A Relation Between Serum Uric Acid Values and Prostatic Calculi Presence?

Urol Int 2018 Dec 14:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Meram Medical Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.

Objective: We planned to examine the connection between serum uric acid (UA) values and prostatic calculi (PCal) presence and to evaluate the relation between PCal and other etiological factors.

Methods: Patients between 20 and 60 years of age who were referred to the clinic with any reason and had non-contrast abdominal tomography (NCACT) for PCal were included in the study. While the patients were separated into 2 groups based on their serum UA level as ≥7 mg/dL (Group 1) and < 7 mg/dL (Group 2), NCACT was also divided into 2 groups as PCal presence (PCal+) and lack (PCal-) serum UA, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, prostate-specific antigen levels and urinary analysis results of the patients were evaluated and compared. Read More

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December 2018

Daily Supplementation with 4000 IU Vitamin D3 for Three Years Does Not Modify Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure: The Effect of Vitamin D on Mortality in Heart Failure Trial.

Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Dec 14;74(1):62-68. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Ruhr University Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany.

Background/aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of a moderately high vitamin D dose on lipid parameters and biochemical markers of vascular calcification (VC) in patients with established cardiovascular disease.

Methods: We included in this pre-specified secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial 161 patients with advanced heart failure and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations < 75 nmol/L (vitamin D group: n = 80; placebo group: n = 81), who received a daily vitamin D3 supplement of 4,000 IU for 3 years. We assessed between-group differences of the lipid parameters total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and the VC markers fetuin-A and non-phosphorylated undercarboxylated matrix gla protein (MGP) at study termination, with adjustment for baseline values. Read More

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December 2018

A serine in the first transmembrane domain of the human E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH9 is critical for down-regulation of its protein substrates.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Structural Biology, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Australia.

The membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases regulates the levels of cell-surface membrane proteins, many of which are involved in immune responses. Although their role in ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and degradation of cell-surface proteins is extensively documented, the features of MARCH proteins and their substrates that drive the molecular recognition events leading to ubiquitin transfer remain poorly defined. In this study, we sought to determine the features of human MARCH9 that are required for regulating the surface levels of its substrate proteins. Read More

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December 2018

Seasonal changes in amino acids and phenolic compounds in fruits from hybrid cross populations of American grapes differing in disease resistance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 3;135:182-193. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Plant Biology and Horticulture Sections, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA. Electronic address:

The production of wine grapes in upstate New York (USA) is limited by diseases that are promoted by the cool and sometimes rainy climate. A breeding program has been introducing disease resistance from related species into the cultivated stock. Previous work has indicated that such resistance may be based on biochemical reactions rather than on a hypersensitive reaction. Read More

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December 2018

A novel experimental approach for liver analysis in rats exposed to Bisphenol A by means of LC-mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Dec 10;165:207-212. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli", Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138, Naples, Italy.

An innovative complementary approach using a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometer method and infrared spectroscopy is proposed for measuring internal biological exposure to dangerous chemical contaminants and for monitoring biochemical changes in target organs. The proposed methodologies were validated and applied in the case of rats exposed to low-doses of Bisphenol A (BPA). A liquid chromatographic method coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer was used in order to measure BPA concentration in rat livers. Read More

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December 2018

Proteomics turns functional.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Science and High Technology, Center of Bioinformatics, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio, Italy. Electronic address:

Proteomics is acquiring a pivotal role in the comprehensive understanding of human biology. Biochemical processes involved in complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and cancer, can be identified by combining proteomics analysis and bioinformatics tools. In the last ten years, the main output of differential proteomics investigations evolved from long lists of proteins to the generation of new hypotheses and their functional verification. Read More

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December 2018

The concentration of dissolved organic matter impacts the metabolic response in Daphnia magna exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol and perfluorooctane sulfonate.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:468-478. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3H6; Environmental NMR Centre and Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4. Electronic address:

The pharmaceutical 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and the industrial chemical perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are organic contaminants frequently detected in freshwater environments. It is hypothesized that hydrophobic organic contaminants can sorb to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and this may reduce the toxicity of these contaminants by reducing the contaminants' bioavailability. To investigate this hypothesis, H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to determine how the metabolome of Daphnia magna changes when a range of DOM concentrations are added during EE2 and PFOS exposure experiments. Read More

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December 2018

Biodegradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA by insolubilized laccase and identification of enzymatic byproduct using MALDI-ToF-MS: Toxicity assessment studies by Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:453-460. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biochemical Processing and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey.

The presented paper describes a detailed study on the use of immobilized laccase for effective degradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA dye. The amount of laccase loading on the cyclic carbonate groups containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-vinylene carbonate), p(HEMA-co-VC), microbeads was 27.8 mg g, and the retained immobilized enzyme activity was 73% compared to free enzyme. Read More

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December 2018

Reduction of stool bacterial counts and prevention of diarrhea using an oral homeopathic product in newborn lambs.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Animal Science, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Brazil; Graduate Program in Animal Science, UDESC, Brazil. Electronic address:

Lamb farming is generally a secondary activity for farmers, and many breeding systems suffer from management failures that impair production. One reason for decline in performance is enteritis, usually affecting newborn lambs. Enteritis can be fatal, especially in dairy herds. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of dietary supplementation with apple cider vinegar and propionic acid on hemolymph chemistry, intestinal microbiota and histological structure of hepatopancreas in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute. Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Ecology Research Center, Persian Gulf Mollusks Research Station, Bandar-e- Lengeh, Iran.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and propionic acid (PA) on biochemical parameters of hemolymph, intestinal microbiota and histology of hepatopancreas in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Five experimental diets were evaluated in this study including diets supplemented with 1.0, 2. Read More

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December 2018

Comparative estrogenicity of endogenous, environmental and dietary estrogens in pregnant women II: Total estrogenicity calculations accounting for competitive protein and receptor binding and potency.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Health Effects and Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352, USA; Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 93771, USA. Electronic address:

Evaluating the biological significance of human-relevant exposures to environmental estrogens involves assessing the individual and total estrogenicity of endogenous and exogenous estrogens found in serum, for example from biomonitoring studies. We developed a method for this assessment by integrating approaches for (i) measuring total hormone concentrations by mass spectrometry (Fleck et al., 2017), (ii) calculating hormone bioavailable concentrations in serum and, (iii) solving multiple equilibria between estrogenic ligands and receptors, and (iv) quantitatively describing key elements of estrogen potency. Read More

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December 2018

Maini's Many Contributions to Mathematical Enzyme Kinetics: A Review.

Authors:
Meghan A Burke

J Theor Biol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Mathematics, Kennesaw State University, 370 Paulding Ave. NW Kennesaw. GA 30144, UK.

Modelling enzyme kinetics has a long history, as one of the earliest areas where mathematics was utilized to understand biological (in this case, biochemical) phenomena. By using differential equations and the law of mass action, many researchers have discovered information about the mechanisms of enzyme workings in the more than 100 years since Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten published their classic paper in 1913. This work uses the laws obeyed by molecules during a reaction, translates them into mathematical equations, and then compares the results predicted by the equations to data obtained in laboratory conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Enteromorpha prolifera oligomers relieve pancreatic injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 11;206:403-411. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Production & Formulation Engineering, PLA, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, PR China. Electronic address:

The polysaccharides of Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) displayed various bioactivities such as anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and immune-regulative effects. However, no studies were performed on the biological effect of Enteromorpha prolifera oligomers (EPO). In this study, we prepared EPO and evaluated their anti-diabetic effect. Read More

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February 2019

Tough and conductive bio-based artificial nacre via synergistic effect between water-soluble cellulose acetate and graphene.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 1;206:319-327. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, PR China.

Inspired by the hierarchical structure of natural nacre, a binary artificial nacre with excellent mechanical performance, tensile strength and toughness was successfully constructed based on water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The tensile strength and toughness of the hybrid films were markedly improved by the introduction of rGO, and the tensile strength and toughness of the rGO/WSCA composite films reached 499.3 MPa and 9. Read More

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February 2019

Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide regionally regulates intestinal mucosal barrier function and intestinal microbiota in mice.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 6;206:149-162. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the effects of a homogeneous Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (GXG) on mucosal barrier function and microbiota composition in different intestinal regions of mice. Results exhibited, besides changing the intestinal physiological status, orally administrated GXG could improve the intestinal physical barrier function by modulating mucosal structures and up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins, reinforce the intestinal biochemical barrier function by elevating the expression and secretion of mucin-2, β-defensins and sIgA, and regulate the intestinal immunological barrier function by stimulating the production of cytokines and the functional development of immune cells. Simultaneously, GXG could differentially impact the composition and metabolism of microbiota along intestinal tract. Read More

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February 2019

Low molecule weight fucoidan mitigates atherosclerosis in ApoE (-/-) mouse model through activating multiple signal pathway.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 31;206:110-120. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and many factors are implicated in its progression. This work aims to study the preventive effects and the regulatory mechanism of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF), which is obtained from Saccharina japonica, on the development of AS. Serum biochemical indices and pathological analyses were determined via ELISA, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Oil Red O staining. Read More

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February 2019

Cranberry juice decreases disease activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 10;60:112-117. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Internal Medicine,University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects; however, to our knowledge, the effects of cranberry juice consumption have not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of cranberry juice consumption on several inflammatory biomarkers and on the disease activity of patients with RA.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted with 41 women diagnosed with RA. Read More

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October 2018
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The renoprotective effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on adenine-induced kidney disease in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 12;110:667-676. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Al Khod, 123, Oman.

We assessed the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Six equal groups of rats were given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w for five weeks) to induce CKD. Read More

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December 2018

Plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.

Nutrition 2018 Aug 21;58:194-200. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Nutrition Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Read More

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August 2018
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A comprehensive analysis and optimization of continuous twin-screw granulation processes via sequential experimentation strategy.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA; Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Nowadays twin-screw granulation has been emerging as an attractive continuous wet granulation technique. This study was geared towards better process design and understanding with emphasis on bridging the knowledge gap between input and output variables by employing sequential experimentation strategy. A low-dose formulation for granulation experiments contained anhydrous caffeine as the model drug. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of cellular differentiation in human primary bronchial epithelial cells: Metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, United States. Electronic address:

Many of the toxicants in tobacco smoke undergo biotransformation in the lungs of smokers, both to reactive and to detoxified derivatives. Human air-liquid-interface (ALI) airway tissue models have emerged as an advanced in vitro model for evaluating the toxicity of inhaled substances; however, the metabolic potential of these cultures has not been evaluated extensively. In this study, we compared the metabolic activities of an ALI tissue model to the undifferentiated normal human primary bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells from which it was derived. Read More

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December 2018
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Osteoarthritis Year in Review 2018: biomarkers (biochemical markers).

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Biomarker and research, Nordic Bioscience, Herlev, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this narrative review is to summarize important findings from biochemical marker studies relevant to osteoarthritis (OA) in the context of new discoveries and clinical and scientific need.

Design: We conducted a systematic search of electronic medical databases (Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane central) between 01-03-2017 and 31-03-2018. The search was restricted to human studies, English language and full text available publications while reviews were excluded. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti from Colombia.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas CIDEIM, Carrera 125 N 19-225, Cali, Colombia; Universidad ICESI, Cali,Colombia. Electronic address:

In Colombia Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of urban arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. This urban mosquito has a well-established capacity to develop insecticide resistance to different types of insecticides (pyrethroids, organochlorides, organophosphates), using multiple resistance mechanisms. An understanding of ongoing resistance mechanisms is critical to determining the activities of vector control programs. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of two steroid hydroxylases from different Streptomyces spp. and their ligand-bound and -unbound crystal structures.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Life Science and Biochemical Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asansi, 31460, Republic of Korea.

Bacterial cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in the hydroxylation of various endogenous substrates while using a heme molecule as a cofactor. CYPs have gained biotechnological interest as useful biocatalysts capable of altering chemical structures by adding a hydroxyl group in a regiospecific manner. Here, we identified, purified, and characterized two CYP154C4 proteins from Streptomyces sp. Read More

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December 2018

Impacts of warming and water deficit on antioxidant responses in Panicum maximum Jacq.

Physiol Plant 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agrarias e Veterinárias -FCAV, Departamento de Biologia Aplicada a Agropecuária (DBAA), 14884-900 Jaboticabal São Paulo, Brazil.

Agricultural activities are affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses associated with global climate change. Predicting the response of plants to abiotic stress under future climate scenarios requires an understanding of plant biochemical performance in simulated stress conditions. In this study the antioxidant response of Panicum maximum Jacq. Read More

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December 2018
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Sensitivity of physiological and biochemical endpoints in early ontogenetic stages of crops under diclofenac and paracetamol treatments.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Metabolomics and Isotope Analyses, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Early stages of ontogenesis determining subsequent growth, development, and productivity of crops can be affected by wastewater and sludge contaminated with pharmaceuticals. Diclofenac (DCF) and paracetamol (PCT; both 0.0001 to 10 mg/L) did not affect seed germination and primary root length of onion, lettuce, pea, and tomato. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Electrophysiology of the pancreatic islet β-cell sweet taste receptor TIR3.

Pflugers Arch 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan.

Over recent years, the presence of the sweet taste receptor TIR3 in rodent and human insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells was documented. The activation of this receptor by sweet-tasting sucralose mimics several biochemical and functional effects of D-glucose in the β-cells. The present study extends this analogy to the bioelectrical response of β-cells. Read More

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December 2018

Sex-specific differences in genotoxic and epigenetic effects of 1,3-butadiene among mouse tissues.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Exposure to environmental chemicals has been shown to have an impact on the epigenome. One example is a known human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene which acts primarily by a genotoxic mechanism, but also disrupts the chromatin structure by altering patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and histone modifications. Sex-specific differences in 1,3-butadiene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are well established; however, it remains unknown whether 1,3-butadiene-associated epigenetic alterations are also sex dependent. Read More

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December 2018

MoVE identifies metabolic valves to switch between phenotypic states.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5332. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5, Canada.

Metabolism is highly regulated, allowing for robust and complex behavior. This behavior can often be achieved by controlling a small number of important metabolic reactions, or metabolic valves. Here, we present a method to identify the location of such valves: the metabolic valve enumerator (MoVE). Read More

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December 2018

Molecular characterization of LysPBC2, a novel endolysin harboring a spore binding domain.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea

To control a spore-forming human pathogen , we isolated and characterized a novel endolysin, LysPBC2, from a newly isolated phage PBC2. Compared to the narrow host range of phage PBC2, LysPBC2 showed very broad lytic activity against all , , and species tested. In addition to a catalytic domain and a cell wall binding domain, LysPBC2 has a spore binding domain (SBD) partially overlapped with its catalytic domain, which specifically binds to spores but not to vegetative cells of Both immunogold electron microscopy and binding assay indicate that the SBD binds the external region of the spore cortex layer. Read More

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December 2018
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Piercing the lipid raft: the case of cytolysin.

Authors:
Normand Cyr

Biochem J 2018 Dec 14;475(24):3917-3919. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Département de Biochimie et Médecine Moléculaire, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada

In a recent issue of , Kathuria et al [ (2018) , 3039-3055] report that membrane binding of the pore-forming toxin cytolysin (VCC) is facilitated by the presence of cholesterol, and the presence of this sterol within the lipid bilayer is key for the formation of a functional pore. Yet, in the presence of accessory non-lipid components, VCC retains its membrane-binding capability likely through membrane lipid raft structures. In light of their results, the authors provide new insights into the roles of cholesterol and of membrane microstructures in the binding, the oligomeric assembly and the cytolytic pore formation of VCC which all take place following infection by . Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of interaction and ubiquitination of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase by E3 ligase UBR5.

Biol Open 2018 Dec 14;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biochemical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK1) is ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5, which was thought to be facilitated by the acetylation of Lys70, Lys71 and Lys594 in PEPCK1. Here, we made a series of UBR5 HECT domain truncation variants and, through pull-down assay, showed that the N-terminal lobe of the UBR5 HECT domain is largely responsible for interacting with PEPCK1. We mutated all three lysine residues thought to be acetylated in PEPCK1 but were surprised to observe no loss of binding to UBR5 HECT domain. Read More

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December 2018

Transcription factor TFAP2B up-regulates human corneal endothelial cell-specific genes during corneal development and maintenance.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

The corneal endothelium, which originates from the neural crest via the periocular mesenchyme (PM), is crucial for maintaining corneal transparency. The development of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) from the neural crest is accompanied by the expression of several transcription factors, but the contribution of some of these transcriptional regulators to CEC development is incompletely understood. Here, we focused on activating enhancer-binding protein 2 (TFAP2, AP-2), a neural crest-expressed transcription factor. Read More

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December 2018

APOPT1/COA8 assists COX assembly and is oppositely regulated by UPS and ROS.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

MRC-Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Loss-of-function mutations in , a gene exclusively found in higher eukaryotes, cause a characteristic type of cavitating leukoencephalopathy associated with mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency. Although the genetic association of APOPT1 pathogenic variants with isolated COX defects is now clear, the biochemical link between APOPT1 function and COX has remained elusive. We investigated the molecular role of APOPT1 using different approaches. Read More

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December 2018

The surgical management of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park Way, Cardiff, CF14 4XW, UK. Electronic address:

Sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is the commonest cause of hypercalcaemia in the ambulatory population. It has a female preponderance and its incidence is increasing. In 85% of cases it is caused by a single parathyroid adenoma, with four gland hyperplasia in up to 20%. Read More

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December 2018

Parathyroid carcinoma.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Medicine and Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare disease with an indolent behavior due to the low malignant potential. The etiology is unknown. Somatic mutations of CDC73 gene, the same gene involved in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, can be identified in up to 70% of patients with PC and in one-third of cases the mutations are germline. Read More

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December 2018

Design and assessment of an active anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) single chain variable fragment (ScFv) with improved solubility.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

ScFv is emerging as a therapeutic alternative to the full-length monoclonal antibodies due to its small size and low production cost, but its low solubility remains a limiting factor toward wider use. Here, we increased the solubility of an Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor ScFv (Anti-EGFR ScFv) by attaching, a short 12-residue solubility enhancing peptide (SEP) tag at its C terminus. We first estimated the solubility increase by running 500-ns Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of Brucella abortus biovar 4 of bovine origin in Colombia.

Rev Argent Microbiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria AGROSAVIA, Centro de investigación Tibaitatá, Km 14 vía Mosquera-Bogotá, Mosquera, Colombia. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to identify twelve Brucella abortus isolates of bovine origin from the department of Nariño in Colombia up to the biovar level. These isolates are included in the collection of the Germplasm Bank of Microorganisms of Animal Health Interest - Bacteria and Virus (BGSA-BV). The identification was carried out through conventional methods such as macro and microscopic morphological descriptions, enzymatic activity, biochemical profile, substrate use and sensitivity to dyes. Read More

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December 2018

Succinate dehydrogenase mutations: paraganglioma imaging and at-risk population screening.

Clin Radiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiology, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Paragangliomas are rare vascular tumours of the autonomic nervous system. They can be classified as sympathetic or parasympathetic. Sympathetic paragangliomas, which include phaeochromocytomas, tend to be functional and symptomatic. Read More

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December 2018

Zebrafish Mutants Carrying Leptin a (lepa) Gene Deficiency Display Obesity, Anxiety, Less Aggression and Fear, and Circadian Rhythm and Color Preference Dysregulation.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan.

Leptin, a hormone secreted by peripheral adipose tissues, regulates the appetite in animals. Recently, evidence has shown that leptin also plays roles in behavioral response in addition to controlling appetite. In this study, we examined the potential function of leptin on non-appetite behaviors in zebrafish model. Read More

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December 2018
2.862 Impact Factor

MicroRNA Expression is Associated with Sepsis Disorders in Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients.

Cells 2018 Dec 13;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Medicine, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

A critically ill polytrauma patient is one of the most complex cases to be admitted to the intensive care unit, due to both the primary traumatic complications and the secondary post-traumatic interactions. From a molecular, genetic, and epigenetic point of view, numerous biochemical interactions are responsible for the deterioration of the clinical status of a patient, and increased mortality rates. From a molecular viewpoint, microRNAs are one of the most complex macromolecular systems due to the numerous modular reactions and interactions that they are involved in. Read More

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December 2018
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Structural Features and Binding Modes of Thioether-Cyclized Peptide Ligands.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 13;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, 113-0033 Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

Macrocyclic peptides are an emerging class of bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. In part, this is because they are capable of high potency and excellent target affinity and selectivity. Over the last decade, several biochemical techniques have been developed for the identification of bioactive macrocyclic peptides, allowing for the rapid isolation of high affinity ligands to a target of interest. Read More

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December 2018

Coenzyme Q10 attenuates lung and liver fibrosis via modulation of autophagy in methotrexate treated rat.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:892-901. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, P.O. box 11381, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

The present study was conducted to investigate the potential protective effects of coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10) administration on methotrexate induced lung and liver fibrosis in rat model, and to explore our hypothesis regarding its possible mechanism of action through reactivation of autophagy pathway. Methotrexate induced fibrosis was achieved by intraperitoneal injections twice a week for 4 weeks. A combined treatment of CoQ10 and methotrexate were used. Read More

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January 2019

Protective effect of Centella asiatica against -galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats: Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:853-864. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest cause of dementia among the aged people. -galactose (D-gal) is a senescence agent, while aluminium is a known neurotoxin linked to pathogenesis of AD. The combined administration of rats with d-gal and aluminium chloride (AlCl) is considered to be an easy and a cheap method to obtain an animal model of AD. Read More

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January 2019

Effect of gemfibrozil on cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in male experimental rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:530-535. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Physiology-Pharmacology Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Cardiotoxicity is an adverse effect of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Gemfibrozil (GEM) is a lipid-lowering drug with a number of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, we decided to investigate the effect of GEM on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Read More

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January 2019
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Protective effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. (Darchini) in acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mouse model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 28;109:2285-2292. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a widely used spice and flavor, is used in the treatment and prevention of many diseases. In the current study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with cinnamon bark aqueous extract (200 mg/kg/day i.g. Read More

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January 2019