159 results match your criteria Bioarchitecture[Journal]


Emergence of Form from Function - Mechanical Engineering Approaches to Probe the Role of Stem Cell Mechanoadaptation in Sealing Cell Fate.

Bioarchitecture 2016 14;6(5):85-103. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

c Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC), Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle , MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, France.

Stem cell "mechanomics" refers to the effect of mechanical cues on stem cell and matrix biology, where cell shape and fate are intrinsic manifestations of form and function. Before specialization, the stem cell itself serves as a sensor and actuator; its structure emerges from its local mechanical milieu as the cell adapts over time. Coupling of novel spatiotemporal imaging and computational methods allows for linking of the energy of adaptation to the structure, biology and mechanical function of the cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1229729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5077068PMC
October 2016
6 Reads

Geometric control and modeling of genome reprogramming.

Bioarchitecture 2016 Jul 19;6(4):76-84. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

b Mechanobiology Institute National University of Singapore , Singapore.

Cell geometry is tightly coupled to gene expression patterns within the tissue microenvironment. This perspective synthesizes evidence that the 3D organization of chromosomes is a critical intermediate for geometric control of genomic programs. Using a combination of experiments and modeling we outline approaches to decipher the mechano-genomic code that governs cellular homeostasis and reprogramming. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19490992.2016.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1201620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085119PMC
July 2016
22 Reads

The impact of tropomyosins on actin filament assembly is isoform specific.

Bioarchitecture 2016 Jul 15;6(4):61-75. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

a Single Molecule Science , School of Medical Sciences and ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales , Sydney , NSW , Australia.

Tropomyosin (Tpm) is an α helical coiled-coil dimer that forms a co-polymer along the actin filament. Tpm is involved in the regulation of actin's interaction with binding proteins as well as stabilization of the actin filament and its assembly kinetics. Recent studies show that multiple Tpm isoforms also define the functional properties of distinct actin filament populations within a cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1201619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085118PMC
July 2016
8 Reads

Where are the limits of the centrosome?

Bioarchitecture 2016 May;6(3):47-52

b Laboratory of Cell Biology and Electron Microscopy, Faculty of Medicine, François Rabelais University , Tours , France.

The centrosome is a key component of the cell is involved in the processes of cell division, cell motility, intracellular transport, organization of the microtubules (MT) network and the production of cilia and flagella. The peculiarity of this organelle is that its boundaries are not clearly defined, the centrioles at the center of the centrosome are surrounded by electron dense pericentriolar material, the size and protein composition of this centrosome component experiences significant transformation during the cell cycle. It has been shown in this study that within the centrosome different proteins occupy different areas corresponding to: MT nucleation region (defined as gamma-tubulin-stained area), regulatory region (defined as kinase pEg2-stained area) and motor proteins region (kinesin-like motor XlEg5-stained area). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054735PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1168957DOI Listing
May 2016
2 Reads

Post-polymerization crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule network.

Bioarchitecture 2016 May;6(3):53-9

a Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda , MD , USA.

Cellular cytoskeletal systems play many pivotal roles in living organisms by controlling cell shape, division, and migration, which ultimately govern morphology, physiology, and functions of animals. Although the cytoskeletal systems are distinct and play different roles, there is growing evidence that these diverse cytoskeletal systems coordinate their functions with each other. This coordination between cytoskeletal systems, often termed cytoskeletal crosstalk, has been identified when the dynamic state of one individual system affects the other system. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054736PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1171428DOI Listing
May 2016
2 Reads

Ankyrin-B in lens architecture and biomechanics: Just not tethering but more.

Bioarchitecture 2016 ;6(2):39-45

a Department of Ophthalmology , Duke University School of Medicine , Durham , NC , USA.

The ankyrins are a family of well-characterized metazoan adaptor proteins that play a key role in linking various membrane-spanning proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton; a mechanistic understanding of their role in tissue architecture and mechanics, however, remains elusive. Here we comment on a recent study demonstrating a key role for ankyrin-B in maintaining the hexagonal shape and radial alignment of ocular lens fiber cells by regulating the membrane organization of periaxin, dystrophins/dystroglycan, NrCAM and spectrin-actin network of proteins, and revealing that ankyrin-B deficiency impairs fiber cell shape and mechanical properties of the ocular lens. These observations indicate that ankyrin-B plays an important role in maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture, cell shape and biomechanical properties via engaging in key protein: protein interactions required for membrane anchoring and organization of the spectrin-actin skeleton, scaffolding proteins and cell adhesive proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1156284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914019PMC
August 2016
5 Reads

Spatiotemporal phosphoregulation of Lgl: Finding meaning in multiple on/off buttons.

Bioarchitecture 2016 ;6(2):29-38

a IBMC, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto , Porto , Portugal.

Intracellular asymmetries, often termed cell polarity, determine how cells organize and divide to ultimately control cell fate and shape animal tissues. The tumor suppressor Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) functions at the core of the evolutionarily conserved cell polarity machinery that controls apico-basal polarization. This function relies on its restricted basolateral localization via phosphorylation by aPKC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2016.1149290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914022PMC
August 2016
2 Reads

Using both strands: The fundamental nature of antisense transcription.

Bioarchitecture 2016 ;6(1):12-21

a Department of Biochemistry ; University of Oxford ; Oxford , UK.

Non-coding transcription across the antisense strands of genes is an abundant, pervasive process in eukaryotes from yeast to humans, however its biological function remains elusive. Here, we provide commentary on a recent study of ours, which demonstrates a genome-wide role for antisense transcription: establishing a unique, dynamic chromatin architecture over genes. Antisense transcription increases the level of nucleosome occupancy and histone acetylation at the promoter and body of genes, without necessarily modulating the level of protein-coding sense transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1130779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914025PMC
July 2016
1 Read

SNAREs in the maturation and function of LROs.

Bioarchitecture 2016 ;6(1):1-11

a Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology ; Indian Institute of Science ; Bangalore , India.

The early/recycling endosomes of an eukaryotic cell perform diverse cellular functions. In addition, the endosomal system generates multiple organelles, including certain cell type-specific organelles called lysosome-related organelles (LROs). The biosynthesis of these organelles possibly occurs through a sequential maturation process in which the cargo-containing endosomal vesicular/tubular structures are fused with the maturing organelle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1131890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914023PMC
October 2016
6 Reads

Mechanoprotection by skeletal muscle caveolae.

Bioarchitecture 2016 ;6(1):22-7

a The University of Queensland; Institute for Molecular Bioscience ; St. Lucia , Queensland , Australia.

Caveolae, small bulb-like pits, are the most abundant surface feature of many vertebrate cell types. The relationship of the structure of caveolae to their function has been a subject of considerable scientific interest in view of the association of caveolar dysfunction with human disease. In a recent study Lo et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1131891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914031PMC
July 2016
1 Read

Possible regulation of caveolar endocytosis and flattening by phosphorylation of F-BAR domain protein PACSIN2/Syndapin II.

Bioarchitecture 2015 ;5(5-6):70-7

b Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Cell Biology; Graduate School of Biosciences; Nara Institute of Science and Technology ; Ikoma , Japan.

Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. The BAR domain proteins form crescent-shaped dimers, and their oligomeric filaments are considered to form spirals at the necks of invaginations, such as clathrin-coated pits and caveolae. PACSIN2/Syndapin II is one of the BAR domain-containing proteins, and is localized at the necks of caveolae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1128604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832444PMC
November 2016
4 Reads

Leukocyte adhesion and polarization: Role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

Bioarchitecture 2015 ;5(5-6):61-9

a Deptartment of Molecular Cell Biology ; Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory; University of Amsterdam ; Amsterdam , Netherlands.

Leukocyte traffic out of the blood stream is crucial for an adequate immune response. Leukocyte extravasation is critically dependent on the binding of leukocyte integrins to their endothelial counterreceptors. This interaction enables the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the luminal side of the vascular wall and allows for leukocyte polarization, crawling and diapedesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1127466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832445PMC
November 2016

High-content analysis of Rab protein function at the ER-Golgi interface.

Bioarchitecture 2015 22;5(3-4):44-53. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

a School of Biology and Environmental Science & UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research; University College Dublin ; Dublin , Ireland.

The Rab family of small GTPases play fundamental roles in the regulation of trafficking pathways between intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells. In this short commentary we highlight a recent high-content screening study that investigates the roles of Rab proteins in retrograde trafficking from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum, and we discuss how the findings of this work and other literature might influence our thoughts on how the architecture of the Golgi complex is regulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1102826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910929PMC
October 2016
2 Reads

Composite biopolymer scaffolds shape muscle nucleus: Insights and perspectives from Drosophila.

Bioarchitecture 2015 ;5(3-4):35-43

a Department of Molecular Genetics ; Weizmann Institute of Science ; Rehovot , Israel.

Contractile muscle fibers produce enormous intrinsic forces during contraction/relaxation waves. These forces are directly applied to their cytoplasmic organelles including mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and multiple nuclei. Data from our analysis of Drosophila larval somatic muscle fibers suggest that an intricate network of organized microtubules (MT) intermingled with Spectrin-Repeat-Containing Proteins (SRCPs) are major structural elements that protect muscle organelles and maintain their structure and position during muscle contraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1106061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910917PMC
October 2016
7 Reads

Intracellular transport and cell surface delivery of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM).

Bioarchitecture 2015 ;5(3-4):54-60

a School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences ; The University of New South Wales ; Sydney , NSW , Australia.

The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates differentiation and functioning of neurons by accumulating at the cell surface where it mediates the interactions of neurons with the extracellular environment. NCAM also induces a number of intracellular signaling cascades, which coordinate interactions at the cell surface with intracellular processes including changes in gene expression, transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. Since NCAM functions at the cell surface, its transport and delivery to the cell surface play a critical role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1118194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910936PMC
October 2016

Cortical depth and differential transport of vegetally localized dorsal and germ line determinants in the zebrafish embryo.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;5(1-2):13-26

a Laboratory of Genetics; University of Wisconsin - Madison ; Madison , WI USA.

In zebrafish embryos, factors involved in both axis induction and primordial germ cell (PGC) development are localized to the vegetal pole of the egg. However, upon egg activation axis induction factors experience an asymmetric off-center shift whereas PGC factors undergo symmetric animally-directed movement. We examined the spatial relationship between the proposed dorsal genes wnt8a and grip2a and the PGC factor dazl at the vegetal cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1080891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832442PMC

How the SAC gets the axe: Integrating kinetochore microtubule attachments with spindle assembly checkpoint signaling.

Bioarchitecture 2015 2;5(1-2):1-12. Epub 2015 Oct 2.

a Department of Cell and Molecular Biology ; Feinberg School of Medicine; Northwestern University ; Chicago , IL USA.

Mitosis entails the bona fide segregation of duplicated chromosomes. This process is accomplished by the attachment of kinetochores on chromosomes to microtubules (MTs) of the mitotic spindle. Once the appropriate attachment is achieved, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that delays the premature onset of anaphase needs to be silenced for the cell to proceed to anaphase and cytokinesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1090669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832446PMC
August 2016
3 Reads

Competition and collaboration between different actin assembly pathways allows for homeostatic control of the actin cytoskeleton.

Bioarchitecture 2014 2;5(1-2):27-34. Epub 2015 Oct 2.

a UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ; Chapel Hill , NC USA.

Tremendous insight into actin-associated proteins has come from careful biochemical and cell biological characterization of their activities and regulation. However, many studies of their cellular behavior have only considered each in isolation. Recent efforts reveal that assembly factors compete for polymerization-competent actin monomers, suggesting that actin is homeostatically regulated. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19490992.2015.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1090670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832443PMC
April 2016
1 Read

Comparative analysis of tools for live cell imaging of actin network architecture.

Bioarchitecture 2014 28;4(6):189-202. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

a Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology; University of California ; San Francisco , CA USA.

Fluorescent derivatives of actin and actin-binding domains are powerful tools for studying actin filament architecture and dynamics in live cells. Growing evidence, however, indicates that these probes are biased, and their cellular distribution does not accurately reflect that of the cytoskeleton. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used live-cell probes--fluorescent protein fusions of actin, Lifeact, F-tractin, and actin-binding domains from utrophin--we compared their distributions in cells derived from various model organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2014.1047714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914014PMC
May 2016
3 Reads

Tropomodulin3 as the link between insulin-activated AKT2 and cortical actin remodeling in preparation of GLUT4 exocytosis.

Bioarchitecture 2014 17;4(6):210-4. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

a Laboratory of Metabolic Medicine; Singapore Bioimaging Consortium ; Agency for Science; Technology and Research ; Singapore , Republic of Singapore.

It is well established that insulin-induced remodeling of actin filaments into a cortical mesh is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 exocytosis. Akt2 and its downstream effectors play a pivotal role in mediating the translocation and membrane fusion of GLUT4-storage vesicle (GSV). However, the direct downstream effector underlying the event of cortical actin reorganization has not been elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1031949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914018PMC
February 2016
3 Reads

Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(6):169-88

a Laboratory of Molecular Physiology; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health ; Bethesda , MD USA.

The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1054092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914028PMC
May 2016
7 Reads

Gene expression homeostasis and chromosome architecture.

Bioarchitecture 2014 21;4(6):221-5. Epub 2015 May 21.

a National Center for Biological Sciences; Tata Institute of Fundamental Research ; Bangalore , India.

In rapidly growing populations of bacterial cells, including those of the model organism Escherichia coli, genes essential for growth--such as those involved in protein synthesis--are expressed at high levels; this is in contrast to many horizontally-acquired genes, which are maintained at low transcriptional levels. (1) This balance in gene expression states between 2 distinct classes of genes is established by a galaxy of transcriptional regulators, including the so-called nucleoid associated proteins (NAP) that contribute to shaping the chromosome. (2) Besides these active players in gene regulation, it is not too far-fetched to anticipate that genome organization in terms of how genes are arranged on the chromosome, (3) which is the result of long-drawn transactions among genome rearrangement processes and selection, and the manner in which it is structured inside the cell, plays a role in establishing this balance. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19490992.2015.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1040213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914021PMC
May 2016
1 Read

A role for novel lipid interactions in the dynamic recruitment of SNX27 to the T-cell immune synapse.

Bioarchitecture 2014 21;4(6):215-20. Epub 2015 May 21.

a Lipid Signaling Laboratory ; Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB)/CSIC ; Madrid , Spain.

SNX27 is a member of the sorting nexin family that plays an important role in the recycling of receptors from endosomes to the cell surface. In addition to a PX (Phox homology) domain that regulates its endosomal localization, SNX27 has a unique PDZ (Psd-95/Dlg/ZO1) domain and an atypical FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain that both function to bind short peptide sequence motifs in the cytoplasmic domains of the cargo receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1031950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914015PMC
May 2016
28 Reads

Imperfect asymmetry: The mechanism governing asymmetric partitioning of damaged cellular components during mitosis.

Bioarchitecture 2014 5;4(6):203-9. Epub 2015 May 5.

a Department of Cell and Developmental Biology ; Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences; Hebrew University of Jerusalem ; Jerusalem , Israel.

Aging is universally associated with organism-wide dysfunction and a decline in cellular fitness. From early development onwards, the efficiency of self-repair, energy production, and homeostasis all decrease. Due to the multiplicity of systems that undergo agingrelated decline, the mechanistic basis of organismal aging has been difficult to pinpoint. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19490992.2015.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1014213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914029PMC
May 2016
5 Reads

A moving ParA gradient on the nucleoid directs subcellular cargo transport via a chemophoresis force.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(4-5):154-9

a Laboratory of Molecular Biology ; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; National Institutes of Health ; Bethesda , MD USA.

DNA segregation is a critical process for all life, and although there is a relatively good understanding of eukaryotic mitosis, the mechanism in bacteria remains unclear. The small size of a bacterial cell and the number of factors involved in its subcellular organization make it difficult to study individual systems under controlled conditions in vivo. We developed a cell-free technique to reconstitute and visualize bacterial ParA-mediated segregation systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/19490992.2014.987581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914017PMC
October 2015
3 Reads

Emergent properties of composite semiflexible biopolymer networks.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(4-5):138-43

a School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ; Harvard University ; Cambridge , Massachusetts USA.

The semiflexible polymers filamentous actin (F-actin) and intermediate filaments (IF) both form complex networks within the cell, and together are key determinants of cellular stiffness. While the mechanics of F-actin networks together with stiff microtubules have been characterized, the interplay between F-actin and IF networks is largely unknown, necessitating the study of composite networks using mixtures of semiflexible biopolymers. We employ bulk rheology in a simplified in vitro system to uncover the fundamental mechanical interactions between networks of the 2 semiflexible polymers, F-actin and vimentin IF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/19490992.2014.989035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914020PMC
October 2015
3 Reads

Beyond apoptosis: the mechanism and function of phosphatidylserine asymmetry in the membrane of activating mast cells.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(4-5):127-37

a Laboratory of Immunology and Signal Transduction ; Department of Biology; Chaminade University ; Honolulu , Hawai'i USA.

Loss of plasma membrane asymmetry is a hallmark of apoptosis, but lipid bilayer asymmetry and loss of asymmetry can contribute to numerous cellular functions and responses that are independent of programmed cell death. Exofacial exposure of phosphatidylserine occurs in lymphocytes and mast cells after antigenic stimulation and in the absence of apoptosis, suggesting that there is a functional requirement for phosphatidylserine exposure in immunocytes. In this review we examine current ideas as to the nature of this functional role in mast cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2014.995516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914033PMC
October 2015
4 Reads

Force-control at cellular membranes.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(4-5):164-8

a Cells-In-Motion Cluster of Excellence (EXC1003 -CiM); University of Münster , Germany.

Force-regulation at cellular membranes relies on dynamic molecular platforms that integrate intra- and extracellular signals to control cell shape and function. To correctly respond to a continuously changing environment, activity of these platforms needs to be tightly controlled in space and time. Over the last few years, curvature-dependent mechano-chemical signal translation—a receptor-independent signaling mechanism where physical forces at the plasma membrane trigger nanoscale membrane deformations that are then translated into chemical signal transduction cascades—has emerged as a new signaling principle that cells use to regulate forces at the membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490992.2015.1005524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914016PMC
October 2015
9 Reads

Nuclear architecture and gene silencing in olfactory sensory neurons.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(4-5):160-3

a Department of Biochemistry ; University of São Paulo ; São Paulo , Brazil.

Odorants are discriminated by hundreds of odorant receptor (OR) genes, which are dispersed throughout the mammalian genome. The OR genes are expressed in a highly specialized type of cell, the olfactory sensory neuron. Each one of these neurons expresses one of the 2 alleles from one single OR gene type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/19490992.2014.982934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914026PMC
May 2015
1 Read

Synthetic polyamines: new compounds specific to actin dynamics for mammalian cell and fission yeast.

Bioarchitecture 2014 9;4(4-5):144-8. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

a Laboratory of Cell Physics; ISIS/IGBMC; Université de Strasbourg and CNRS (UMR 7006) ; Strasbourg , France.

Actin is a major actor in the determination of cell shape. On the one hand, site-directed assembly/disassembly cycles of actin filaments drive protrusive force leading to lamellipodia and filopodia dynamics. Force produced by actin similarly contributes in membrane scission in endocytosis or Golgi remodeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/19490992.2014.965111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914024PMC
October 2015
2 Reads

Plant pathogenic bacteria target the actin microfilament network involved in the trafficking of disease defense components.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(4-5):149-53

a Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology ; The University of Chicago ; Chicago , IL USA.

Cells of infected organisms transport disease defense-related molecules along actin filaments to deliver them to their sites of action to combat the pathogen. To accommodate higher demand for intracellular traffic, plant F-actin density increases transiently during infection or treatment of Arabidopsis with pathogen-associated molecules. Many animal and plant pathogens interfere with actin polymerization and depolymerization to avoid immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/19490992.2014.980662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914032PMC
October 2015

Organized chaos in Kupffer's vesicle: how a heterogeneous structure achieves consistent left-right patterning.

Bioarchitecture 2014 ;4(3):119-25

a School of Mathematics ; University of Birmingham ; Birmingham , UK.

Successful establishment of left-right asymmetry is crucial to healthy vertebrate development. In many species this process is initiated in a ciliated, enclosed cavity, for example Kupffer's vesicle (KV) in zebrafish. The microarchitecture of KV is more complex than that present in the left-right organizer of many other species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/19490992.2014.956593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279767PMC
April 2015
1 Read

Cadherin juxtamembrane region derived peptides inhibit TGFβ1 induced gene expression.

Bioarchitecture 2014 9;4(3):103-10. Epub 2014 Aug 9.

UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research; University College Dublin; Dublin, Ireland; UCD Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory; University College Dublin; Dublin, Ireland; School of Medicine and Medical Science; University College Dublin; Dublin, Ireland.

Bioactive peptides in the juxtamembrane regions of proteins are involved in many signaling events. The juxtamembrane regions of cadherins were examined for the identification of bioactive regions. Several peptides spanning the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane regions of E- and N-cadherin were synthesized and assessed for the ability to influence TGFβ responses in epithelial cells at the gene expression and protein levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.32143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201599PMC
April 2015
38 Reads

Therapies for sarcopenia and regeneration of old skeletal muscles: more a case of old tissue architecture than old stem cells.

Bioarchitecture 2014 28;4(3):81-7. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology; University of Western Australia; Crawley, Australia.

Age related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) reduces independence and the quality of life for individuals, and leads to falls and fractures with escalating health costs for the rapidly aging human population. Thus there is much interest in developing interventions to reduce sarcopenia. One area that has attracted recent attention is the proposed use of myogenic stem cells to improve regeneration of old muscles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201602PMC
April 2015
4 Reads

The role of vertebrate nonmuscle Myosin II in development and human disease.

Bioarchitecture 2014 6;4(3):88-102. Epub 2014 Aug 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, MD USA.

Three different genes each located on a different chromosome encode the heavy chains of nonmuscle myosin II in humans and mice. This review explores the functional consequences of the presence of three isoforms during embryonic development and beyond. The roles of the various isoforms in cell division, cell-cell adhesion, blood vessel formation and neuronal cell migration are addressed in animal models and at the cellular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201603PMC
April 2015
5 Reads

0.1 kilopascal difference for mechanophenotyping: soft matrix precisely regulates cellular architecture for invasion.

Authors:
Zhizhan Gu

Bioarchitecture 2014 21;4(3):116-8. Epub 2014 May 21.

Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy; Department of Medicine; Brigham and Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School; Boston, MA USA.

Current knowledge understands the mesenchymal cell invasion in a 3D matrix as a combined process of cell-to-matrix adhesion based cell migration and matrix remodeling. Excluding cell invasion stimulated by cytokines and chemokines, the basal cell invasion itself is a complicated process that can be regulated by matrix ligand type, density, geometry, and stiffness, etc. Understanding such a complicated biological process requires delicate dissections into simplified model studies by altering only one or two elements at a time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201601PMC
April 2015
30 Reads

Coordinating the cytoskeleton and endocytosis for regulated plasma membrane growth in the early Drosophila embryo.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):68-74. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology; University of Toronto; Toronto, ON CA.

Plasma membrane organization is under the control of cytoskeletal networks and endocytic mechanisms, and a growing literature is showing how closely these influences are interconnected. Here, we review how plasma membranes are formed around individual nuclei of the syncytial Drosophila embryo. Specifically, we outline the pathways that promote and maintain the growth of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, as well as specific pathways that keep furrow growth in check. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199814PMC
January 2015
20 Reads

Protein Kinase D family kinases: roads start to segregate.

Bioarchitecture 2014 21;4(3):111-5. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department of Internal Medicine I; Ulm University; Ulm, Germany.

Highly invasive pancreatic tumors are often recognized in late stages due to a lack of clear symptoms and pose major challenges for treatment and disease management. Broad-band Protein Kinase D (PKD) inhibitors have recently been proposed as additional treatment option for this disease. PKDs are implicated in the control of cancer cell motility, angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201600PMC
April 2015
6 Reads

Cytoskeletal self-organization in neuromorphogenesis.

Authors:
Leif Dehmelt

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):75-80. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department of Systemic Cell Biology; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology; Dortmund, Germany; Fakultät für Chemie und Chemische Biologie; Dortmund University of Technology; Dortmund, Germany.

Self-organization of dynamic microtubules via interactions with associated motors plays a critical role in spindle formation. The microtubule-based mechanisms underlying other aspects of cellular morphogenesis, such as the formation and development of protrusions from neuronal cells is less well understood. In a recent study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that underlies the massive reorganization of microtubules induced in non-neuronal cells by expression of the neuronal microtubule stabilizer MAP2c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199815PMC
January 2015
6 Reads

A membrane reservoir at the cell surface: unfolding the plasma membrane to fuel cell shape change.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):39-46. Epub 2014 May 20.

Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Baylor College of Medicine; Houston, TX USA; Integrative Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program; Baylor College of Medicine; Houston, TX USA.

Cell surface expansion is a necessary part of cell shape change. One long-standing hypothesis proposes that membrane for this expansion comes from the flattening out of cell surface projections such as microvilli and membrane folds. Correlative EM data of cells undergoing phagocytosis, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis has hinted at the existence of such an unfolding mechanism for decades; but unfolding has only recently been confirmed using live-cell imaging and biophysical approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199810PMC
January 2015

The special case of hepatocytes: unique tissue architecture calls for a distinct mode of cell division.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):47-52. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology; Albert Einstein College of Medicine; The Bronx, NY, USA.

Columnar epithelia (e.g., kidney, intestine) and hepatocytes embody the two major organizational phenotypes of non-stratified epithelial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.29012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199811PMC
January 2015
4 Reads

Gradual recruitment and selective clearing generate germ plasm aggregates in the zebrafish embryo.

Bioarchitecture 2013 Jul-Aug;3(4):125-32

Laboratory of Genetics; University of Wisconsin-Madison; Madison, WI USA.

Determination of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is one of the earliest decisions in animal embryogenesis. In many species, PGCs are determined through maternally-inherited germ plasm ribonucleoparticles (RNPs). In zebrafish, these are transmitted during oogenesis as dispersed RNPs, which after fertilization multimerize and become recruited as large aggregates at furrows for the first and second cell cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.26538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201607PMC
January 2015
2 Reads

In vivo evidence for mTORC2-mediated actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in neurons.

Bioarchitecture 2013 Jul-Aug;3(4):113-8

Biozentrum; University of Basel; Basel, Switzerland.

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multi-protein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. While mTORC1 controls the signaling pathways important for cell growth, the physiological function of mTORC2 is only partially known. Here we comment on recent work on gene-targeted mice lacking mTORC2 in the cerebellum or the hippocampus that provided strong evidence that mTORC2 plays an important role in neuron morphology and synapse function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.26497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201605PMC
January 2015
3 Reads

Why does endocytosis in single cells care which side up?

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):62-7. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Molecular Mechanisms of Intracellular Transport; Unité Mixte de Recherche 144 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; Institut Curie; Paris, France.

Eukaryotic cells display an asymmetric distribution of cellular compartments relying on their adhesion and the underlying anisotropy of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Studies using a minimal cell culture system based on confined adhesion on micropatterns have illustrated that trafficking compartments are well organized at the single cell level in response to the geometry of cellular adhesion cues. Expanding our analysis on cellular uptake processes, we have found that cellular adhesion additionally defines the topology of endocytosis and signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5115219PMC
January 2015
20 Reads

Filamin A and Big2: a shared endocytic pathway.

Authors:
Volney L Sheen

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):53-7. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School; Boston, MA USA.

Neural proliferation, migration and differentiation require reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of vesicle trafficking to provide stability in maintaining cell adhesions, allow for changes in cell shape, and establishing cell polarity. Human disorders involving the actin-binding Filamin A (FLNA) and vesicle trafficking Brefeldin-associated guanine exchange factor 2 (BIG2 is encoded by the ARFGEF2 gene) proteins are implicated in these various developmental processes, resulting in a malformation of cortical development called periventricular heterotopia (nodules along the ventricular lining) and microcephaly (small brain). Here we discuss several recent reports from our laboratory that demonstrate a shared role for both proteins in actin-associated vesicle trafficking, which is required to maintain the expression and stability of cell adhesion and cell cycle associated molecules during cortical development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199812PMC
January 2015
2 Reads

The marriage of quantitative genetics and cell biology: a novel screening approach reveals people have genetically encoded variation in microtubule stability.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Mar-Apr;4(2):58-61. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology; School of Medicine; Duke University; Durham, NC USA.

Microtubules play a central role in many essential cellular processes, including chromosome segregation, intracellular transport, and cell polarity. As these dynamic polymers are crucial components of eukaryotic cellular architecture, we were surprised by our recent discovery that a common human genetic difference leads to variation in microtubule stability in cells from different people. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the TUBB6 gene, encoding class V β-tubulin, is associated with the expression level of this protein, which reduces microtubule stability at higher levels of expression. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/bioa.28481
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199813PMC
January 2015
7 Reads

Getting myosin-V on the right track: tropomyosin sorts transport in yeast.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Jan-Feb;4(1):35-8. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics; University of Vermont; Burlington, VT USA.

Recent studies have revealed a novel mechanism of myosin regulation in which the actin-binding protein tropomyosin converts atypical type-V myosins into processive cargo transporters. To achieve this, tropomyosin's primary role appears to lie in its ability to influence myosin's enzyme kinetics, prolonging the strong actin-bound ADP/apo state to enable hand-over-hand walking of myosin-V dimers along actin tracks. Activation of myosin-V mediated transport by tropomyosin underscores its function in helping to direct cargos to specific actin tracks and subcellular destinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199802PMC
November 2014

Dynamin-dependent maintenance of epithelial integrity is essential for zebrafish epiboly.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Jan-Feb;4(1):31-4. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology; University of Toronto; Toronto, ON CA.

Epiboly, the thinning and spreading of one tissue over another, is a widely employed morphogenetic movement that is essential for the development of many organisms. In the zebrafish embryo, epiboly describes the coordinated vegetal movement of the deep cells, enveloping layer (EVL) and yolk syncytial layer (YSL) to engulf the yolk cell. Recently, we showed that the large GTPase Dynamin plays a fundamental role in epiboly in the early zebrafish embryo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199801PMC
November 2014
2 Reads

Microtubules CLASP to Adherens Junctions in epidermal progenitor cells.

Bioarchitecture 2014 Jan-Feb;4(1):25-30. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Epithelial Cell Biology Lab; Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA) Foundation; Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) Cancer Cell Biology Program; Madrid, Spain.

Cadherin-mediated cell adhesion at Adherens Junctions (AJs) and its dynamic connections with the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton are important regulators of cellular architecture. However, the functional relevance of these interactions and the molecular players involved in different cellular contexts and cellular compartments are still not completely understood. Here, we comment on our recent findings showing that the MT plus-end binding protein CLASP2 interacts with the AJ component p120-catenin (p120) specifically in progenitor epidermal cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bioa.28177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199800PMC
November 2014