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    An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm.
    Bioscience 2017 Jun 5;67(6):534-545. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Eric Dinerstein David Olson, Carly Vynne Eric Wikramanayake, Nathan Hahn, Suzanne Palminteri, Lori Price, and Nadia de Souza are conservation biologists at RESOLVE's Biodiversity and Wildlife Solutions Program, in Washington, DC. Anup Joshi is a research associate and program coordinator at the Conservation Biology Program at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Neil D. Burgess and Yara Shennan-Farpón are with the Science Programme at the United Nations Environment Program-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Prashant Hedao is in the Geography Graduate Group at the University of California, Davis. Reed Noss is a professor of biological sciences at the University of Central Florida, in Orlando. Matthew Hansen is a remote sensing scientist at the University of Maryland, in College Park. Harvey Locke is cofounder of the Nature Needs Half Movement and cofounder and strategic advisor of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative, in Banff, Alberta. Erle C. Ellis is a professor of geography and environmental systems at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Charles Victor Barber is the director of the Forest Legality Initiative, Crystal Davis is the director of Global Forest Watch, and Benjamin Jones is a senior fellow at World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Randy Hayes is the executive director of Foundation Earth, in Washington, DC. Cyril Kormos and Vance Martin are vice president for policy and president, respectively, at the Wild Foundation, in Boulder, Colorado. Eileen Crist is an associate professor in the Department of Science and Technology in Society at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Wes Sechrest is the chief scientist and CEO at Global Wildlife Conservation, in Austin, Texas. Jonathan E. M. Baillie is chief scientist and senior vice president at National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. Don Weeden is the executive director of the Weeden Foundation, in Bedford Hills, New York. Kierán Suckling is the executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity, in Tucson, Arizona. Nigel Sizer is president of the Rainforest Alliance, in New York. Rebecca Moore, David Thau, and Tanya Birch are with the Google Earth Outreach and Google Earth Engine programs, in Mountain View, California. Lilian Pintea is the vice president for science at the Jane Goodall Institute, in Vienna, Virginia. José C. Brito is a researcher with CIBIO-InBIO, in Vairão, Portugal. Othman A. Llewellyn is an environmental planner in the Department of Protected Area Planning at the Saudi Wildlife Authority, in Saudi Arabia. Anthony G. Miller is the director of the Centre for Middle Eastern Plants at the Royal Botanic Garden, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Annette Patzelt is the scientific director at the Oman Botanic Garden, in the Sultanate of Oman. Shahina A. Ghazanfar is research leader in identification and naming-Asia and Jonathan Timberlake is a botanist at the Royal Botanic Gardens, in Kew, Surrey, United Kingdom. Heinz Klöser is at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, in Bremerhaven, Bremen, Germany. Roeland Kindt is a scientist at the World Agroforestry Centre, in Nairobi, Kenya. Jens-Peter Barnekow Lillesø and Paulo van Breugel are at the University of Copenhagen, in Denmark. Lars Graudal is a senior advisor at the University of Copenhagen, in Denmark, and science domain leader at ICRAF (the World Agroforestry Centre), in Nairobi. Maianna Voge is a geospatial analyst at Greeninfo Network. Khalaf F. Al-Shammari and Mohammed Saleem are information specialists with the Environmental Information Unit of the General Department of Studies and Research at the Saudi Wildlife Authority.
    We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature-a companion to the Paris Climate Deal-to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands. Read More

    Metaresearch for Evaluating Reproducibility in Ecology and Evolution.
    Bioscience 2017 Mar 13;67(3):282-289. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Associate Professor Fiona Fidler holds a joint appointment in the School of BioSciences and the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies (History and Philosophy of Science Discipline) at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Fiona is interested in how scientists and experts make decisions. Bonnie C. Wintle is a postdoctoral fellow and Mark Burgman and Michael McCarthy are professors in the School of BioSciences at the University of Melbourne, Australia; they are interested in a broad range of topics related to environmental decisionmaking. Bonnie Wintle is now a research fellow at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Cambridge. Yung En Chee is a senior research fellow in the School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Yung applies ecological and decision-analytic theory and models to conservation problems. Ascelin Gordon is a senior research fellow in the Interdisciplinary Conservation Science Research Group in the School of Global, Urban, and Social Studies at RMIT University, in Melbourne, Australia; Ascelin is broadly interested in modeling approaches for understanding the impacts of environmental policies. FF, YC, BW, MB and MM were involved in discussion group about reproducibility and type 1 errors in ecology in 2014, which helped develop the outline for this article. AG and FF independently discussed the application of open science initiatives in ecology. FF wrote the first draft; YC wrote sections on data and code sharing with substantial input from AG. BW, MB, and MM made edits throughout.
    Recent replication projects in other disciplines have uncovered disturbingly low levels of reproducibility, suggesting that those research literatures may contain unverifiable claims. The conditions contributing to irreproducibility in other disciplines are also present in ecology. These include a large discrepancy between the proportion of "positive" or "significant" results and the average statistical power of empirical research, incomplete reporting of sampling stopping rules and results, journal policies that discourage replication studies, and a prevailing publish-or-perish research culture that encourages questionable research practices. Read More

    Using Social Network Measures in Wildlife Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, and Management.
    Bioscience 2017 Mar 1;67(3):245-257. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Matthew J. Silk and Robbie A. McDonald are affiliated with the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom. Darren P. Croft is with the Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour at the University of Exeter, in the United Kingdom. Richard J. Delahay is affiliated with the National Wildlife Management Centre of the Animal and Plant Health Agency at Woodchester Park, in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. David J. Hodgson, Mike Boots, and Nicola Weber are with the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom; MB is also affiliated with the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.
    Contact networks, behavioral interactions, and shared use of space can all have important implications for the spread of disease in animals. Social networks enable the quantification of complex patterns of interactions; therefore, network analysis is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of infectious disease in animals, including wildlife. We present an introductory guide to using social-network-analytical approaches in wildlife disease ecology, epidemiology, and management. Read More

    Assessing National Biodiversity Trends for Rocky and Coral Reefs through the Integration of Citizen Science and Scientific Monitoring Programs.
    Bioscience 2017 Feb;67(2):134-146
    Rick D. Stuart-Smith Graham J. Edgar, Neville S. Barrett, Nicholas J. Bax, Just Berkhout, Julia L. Blanchard, Antonia T. Cooper, Paul B. Day, Stuart Kininmonth, and Scott D. Ling are affiliated with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Amanda E. Bates is with Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom. Susan C. Baker is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Mikel A. Becerro is with the BITES Lab of the Natural Products and Agrobiology Institute (IPNA-CSIC), in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Daniel J. Brock is affiliated with the Science, Monitoring, and Knowledge Branch of South Australia's Department of Environment, Water, and Natural Resources, in Adelaide. Graeme F. Clark is with the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Tom R. Davis is with the National Marine Science Centre at Southern Cross University, in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. J. Emmett Duffy is affiliated with the Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network of the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Thomas H. Holmes is affiliated with the Marine Science Program, Science and Conservation Division, Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Kensington, Australia, and with the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley, Australia. Steffan A. Howe is with Parks Victoria, in Melbourne, Australia. Alan Jordan is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Nelson Bay, Australia. Nathan A. Knott is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Huskisson, Australia. Jonathan S. Lefcheck is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Amanda Parr is affiliated with Parks Australia, in Kingston, Tasmania, Australia. Elisabeth Strain is with the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, in Mosman, New South Wales, Australia. Hugh Sweatman is affiliated with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Russell Thomson is with the Centre for Research in Mathematics in the School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics at Western Sydney University, in Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.
    Reporting progress against targets for international biodiversity agreements is hindered by a shortage of suitable biodiversity data. We describe a cost-effective system involving Reef Life Survey citizen scientists in the systematic collection of quantitative data covering multiple phyla that can underpin numerous marine biodiversity indicators at high spatial and temporal resolution. We then summarize the findings of a continental- and decadal-scale State of the Environment assessment for rocky and coral reefs based on indicators of ecosystem state relating to fishing, ocean warming, and invasive species and describing the distribution of threatened species. Read More

    The Arctic in the Twenty-First Century: Changing Biogeochemical Linkages across a Paraglacial Landscape of Greenland.
    Bioscience 2017 Feb;67(2):118-133
    N. John Anderson is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Jasmine E. Saros, is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Joanna E. Bullard, is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Sean M.P. Cahoon, was at the Department of Biology at Penn State University, in University Park, Pennsylvania. He is presently affiliated with the Environment and Natural Resources Institute at the University of Alaska Anchorage, AK. Suzanne McGowan is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham in Nottingham, UK. Elizabeth A. Bagshaw is affiliated with the Earth and Ocean Sciences at Cardiff University in Cardiff, UK. Christopher D. Barry, is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at Queen's University in Belfast, UK. Richard Bindler is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Environmental Science at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden. Benjamin T. Burpee is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Jonathan L. Carrivick, is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Leeds in Leeds, UK. Rachel A. Fowler, is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Anthony D. Fox is affiliated with the Department of Bioscience, at Aarhus University in Rønde, Denmark. Sherilyn C. Fritz is affiliated with the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska. Madeleine E. Giles, is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Essex in Colchester, UK. Ladislav Hamerlik, was affiliated with the Department of Biology and Ecology at Matthias Belius University in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia. He is presently affiliated with the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen is affiliated with the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark in Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Antonia C. Law is affiliated with the Department of Geography, Geology and the Environment at Keele University in Keele, UK. Sebastian H. Mernild is affiliated with the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. He also has positions at Faculty of Engineering and Science, Sogn og Fjordane University College, Sogndal, Norway and Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Program, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile. Faculty of Engineering and Science at Sogn og Fjordane University College in Sogndal, Norway. Robert M. Northington is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Christopher L. Osburn is affiliated with the School of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences at NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Sergi Pla-Rabès is affiliated with the Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplications Forestals in Cerdanyola del Vallés, Spain. Eric Post is affiliated with the Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology at the University of California in Davis, California. Jon Telling was affiliated with the School of Geographical Sciences at the University of Bristol in Bristol, UK. He is presently affiliated with the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, UK. David A. Stroud is affiliated with the UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee in Peterborough, UK. Erika J. Whiteford is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Marian L. Yallop is affiliated with the School of Biological Science, at University of Bristol in Bristol, UK. Jacob C. Yde is affiliated with the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Sogn og Fjordane University College in Sogndal, Norway.
    The Kangerlussuaq area of southwest Greenland encompasses diverse ecological, geomorphic, and climate gradients that function over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Ecosystems range from the microbial communities on the ice sheet and moisture-stressed terrestrial vegetation (and their associated herbivores) to freshwater and oligosaline lakes. These ecosystems are linked by a dynamic glacio-fluvial-aeolian geomorphic system that transports water, geological material, organic carbon and nutrients from the glacier surface to adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems. Read More

    Skills and Knowledge for Data-Intensive Environmental Research.
    Bioscience 2017 Jun 3;67(6):546-557. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Stephanie E. Hampton is affiliated with the Center for Environmental Research, Education and Outreach at Washington State University, in Pullman. Matthew B. Jones is affiliated with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Leah A. Wasser is affiliated with EarthLab at the University of Colorado, in Boulder. Mark P. Schildhauer is with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Sarah R. Supp is affiliated with the University of Maine's School of Biology and Ecology, in Orono. Julien Brun is with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Rebecca R. Hernandez is affiliated with the Land, Air, and Water Resources Department at the University of California, Davis; with the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California, Berkeley; and with the Climate and Carbon Science Program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, in Berkeley, California. Carl Boettiger is affiliated with the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at the University of California, Berkeley. Scott L. Collins is with the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Louis J. Gross is affiliated with the Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics at the University of Tennessee, in Knoxville. Denny S. Fernández is with the Department of Biology at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao. Amber Budden is affiliated with DataONE at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Ethan P. White is with the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation and The Informatics Institute at the University of Florida, in Gainesville. Tracy K. Teal is affiliated with Data Carpentry, in Davis, California. Stephanie G. Labou is with the Center for Environmental Research, Education and Outreach, at Washington State University, in Pullman. Juliann E. Aukema is affiliated with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
    The scale and magnitude of complex and pressing environmental issues lend urgency to the need for integrative and reproducible analysis and synthesis, facilitated by data-intensive research approaches. However, the recent pace of technological change has been such that appropriate skills to accomplish data-intensive research are lacking among environmental scientists, who more than ever need greater access to training and mentorship in computational skills. Here, we provide a roadmap for raising data competencies of current and next-generation environmental researchers by describing the concepts and skills needed for effectively engaging with the heterogeneous, distributed, and rapidly growing volumes of available data. Read More

    Mapping Conservation Strategies under a Changing Climate.
    Bioscience 2017 Jun 5;67(6):494-497. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    R. Travis Belote is a research ecologist with The Wilderness Society (TWS) in Bozeman, Montana. Matthew S. Dietz is lead ecologist with TWS in San Francisco, California. Peter S. McKinley is a climate adaptation ecologist with TWS in Hallowell, Maine. Anne A. Carlson is a climate adaptation specialist with TWS in Bozeman, Montana. Carlos Carroll is conservation scientist with the Klamath Center for Conservation Research. Clinton N. Jenkins is a professor of conservation science at the Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (IPÊ), in Nazaré Paulista, Brazil. Dean L. Urban is a professor of landscape ecology at Duke University. Timothy J. Fullman is a senior ecologist and Jason C. Leppi is an aquatic ecologist with TWS in Anchorage, Alaska. Gregory H. Aplet is senior science director at TWS in Denver, Colorado.

    Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States.
    Bioscience 2017 May 1;67(5):418-428. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Julia G. Mason is a PhD candidate and Larry B. Crowder is a professor at Stanford University Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California. Mason studies the interacting effects of climate and management on fisheries resilience. Crowder, also the science director at the Center for Ocean Solutions, in Monterey, California, works with interdisciplinary approaches to marine conservation. Murray A. Rudd is an associate professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia. His research focuses on conservation social science and the environmental science-policy interface. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
    Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Read More

    Ecological Consequences of Shoreline Hardening: A Meta-Analysis.
    Bioscience 2016 Sep 10;66(9):763-773. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Rachel K. Gittman Steven B. Scyphers, and Jonathan H. Grabowski are affiliated with the Marine Science Center at Northeastern University, in Nahant, Massachusetts. Carter S. Smith and Isabelle P. Neylan are affiliated with the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in Morehead City.
    Protecting coastal communities has become increasingly important as their populations grow, resulting in increased demand for engineered shore protection and hardening of over 50% of many urban shorelines. Shoreline hardening is recognized to reduce ecosystem services that coastal populations rely on, but the amount of hardened coastline continues to grow in many ecologically important coastal regions. Therefore, to inform future management decisions, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the ecosystem services of biodiversity (richness or diversity) and habitat provisioning (organism abundance) along shorelines with versus without engineered-shore structures. Read More

    Why Do the Boreal Forest Ecosystems of Northwestern Europe Differ from Those of Western North America?
    Bioscience 2016 Sep 20;66(9):722-734. Epub 2016 Jul 20.
    Rudy Boonstra is a professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Toronto Scarborough. He studies the factors that regulate and limit animal populations in temperate and boreal ecosystems, and especially the role of stress in natural populations. Harry Andreassen is the dean and a professor, Jan Hušek is a postdoctoral fellow, Christina Skarpe is a professor, and Petter Wabakken is an associate professor at Hedmark University College, in Evenstad, Norway. HA studies the causes of population fluctuations in the boreal forest, with special emphasis on the interaction between social factors and predation. JH studies avian ecology and behavior. CS's research deals with large herbivores and their ecological significance for soil and plants, predators, and each other. PW studies the behavioral ecology and population dynamics of large carnivores and avian predators. Stan Boutin is a professor of biological sciences at the University of Alberta. He studies the population dynamics and management of mammals in the boreal forest. Rolf Ims is a professor of Arctic and marine biology at the University of Tromsø. He studies the dynamics of ecological interactions in Arctic ecosystems and how these are shaped by climate change and other anthropogenic impacts. Charles Krebs is an emeritus professor of zoology at the University of British Columbia. He studies boreal forest community dynamics in the southwestern Yukon.
    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes on Earth. Conifers normally dominate the tree layer across the biome, but other aspects of ecosystem structure and dynamics vary geographically. The cause of the conspicuous differences in the understory vegetation and the herbivore-predator cycles between northwestern Europe and western North America presents an enigma. Read More

    Accelerating Tropicalization and the Transformation of Temperate Seagrass Meadows.
    Bioscience 2016 Nov 14;66(11):938-948. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Glenn Hyndes is an associate professor, Paul Lavery is a professor, and Kathryn MacMahon is a senior lecturer at the Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research of the School of Natural Sciences at Edith Cowan University, in Western Australia. Kenneth L. Heck Jr. is a professor at the Dauphin Island Sea Lab and at the University of South Alabama. Euan Harvey is a professor in the Department of Environment and Agriculture at Curtin University, in Western Australia. Gary Kendrick is a professor and Thomas Wernberg is an associate professor at the Oceans Institute and School of Plant Biology at the University of Western Australia. Robert Orth is a professor in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William & Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. The late Alan Pearce was a principal research scientist at the Western Australian Department of Fisheries. Mathew Vanderklift is a research scientist at CSIRO Wealth Oceans Flagship, in Western Australia. Adriana Vergés is a senior lecturer at the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences and the Evolution and Ecology Research Centre at the University of New South Wales, in Australia. Scott Whiting and Shaun Wilson are principal research scientists at the Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Western Australia. We dedicate this article to Alan Pearce, who passed away in the late stages of this article's development.
    Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores. Read More

    National Ecosystem Assessments in Europe: A Review.
    Bioscience 2016 Oct 17;66(10):813-828. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Matthias Schröter is a postdoctoral researcher and environmental scientist at UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; his expertise is in spatial modeling and the assessment of ecosystem services. Christian Albert is a junior professor in landscape planning at Leibniz Universität Hanover; he studies the integration of ecosystem services in spatial planning and management. He is also affiliated with the UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research. Alexandra Marques is a postdoctoral researcher and Wolke Tobon is a researcher at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv). Alexandra is also affiliated with the Institute of Biology at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and the Institute of Environmental Sciences CML at Leiden University. Alexandra's expertise is in the ecological-economic analysis of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Wolke works on spatial prioritization of conservation and restoration. Sandra Lavorel is a senior researcher at CNRS and Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine; she is a functional ecologist with expertise in biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and services. Joachim Maes is a scientific and technical officer at the Joint Research Council of the European Commission; he is leading the Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystem Services initiative of the European Union. Claire Brown is a senior program officer for ecosystem assessments at UNEP-WCMC. Stefan Klotz is a community ecologist at UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; his expertise is in biodiversity assessment. Aletta Bonn is professor of ecosystem services at UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; her focus is on ecosystem services and participatory conservation research at the science-policy interface.
    National ecosystem assessments form an essential knowledge base for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze eight European (sub-)national ecosystem assessments (Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Norway, Flanders, Netherlands, Finland, and Germany) and compare their objectives, political context, methods, and operationalization. We observed remarkable differences in breadth of the assessment, methods employed, variety of services considered, policy mandates, and funding mechanisms. Read More

    Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna.
    Bioscience 2016 Oct 27;66(10):807-812. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    William J. Ripple Robert L. Beschta, Michael Paul Nelson, Luke Painter Christopher Wolf, and Thomas M. Newsome are affiliated with the Global Trophic Cascades Program of the Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State University, in Corvallis; TMN is also with the Desert Ecology Research Group of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Sydney, in Australia; the Centre for Integrative Ecology at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences at Deakin University, in Geelong, Australia; and the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Guillaume Chapron is affiliated with the Department of Ecology at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Riddarhyttan. José Vicente López-Bao is with the Research Unit of Biodiversity at Oviedo University, in Mieres, Spain. Sarah M. Durant and Rosie Woodroffe are with the Institute of Zoology at the Zoological Society of London, Regents Park. David W. Macdonald and Amy J. Dickman are with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit of the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford and the Recanati-Kaplan Centre, in Abingdon, United Kingdom. Peter A. Lindsey and Luke T. B. Hunter are affiliated with Panthera, in New York. PAL is also affiliated with the Mammal Research Institute of the Department of Zoology and Entomology at the University of Pretoria, in Gauteng, South Africa; and LTBH is also affiliated with the School of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. Elizabeth L. Bennett, Simon Hedges, and Fiona Maisels are affiliated with the Wildlife Conservation Society, in New York; FM is also with the School of Natural Sciences at the University of Stirling, in the United Kingdom. Holly T. Dublin is affiliated with IUCN Species Survival Commission's African Elephant Specialist Group at the IUCN Eastern and Southern African Regional Office in Nairobi, Kenya. Jeremy T. Bruskotter is affiliated with the School of Environment and Natural Resources at The Ohio State University, in Columbus. Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz is with the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. Richard T. Corlett is affiliated with the Center for Integrative Conservation of the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Menglun, Yunnan, China. Chris T. Darimont is with the Department of Geography at the University of Victoria and the Raincoast Conservation Foundation, in British Columbia, Canada. Rodolfo Dirzo is affiliated with the Department of Biology at Stanford University, in California. James A. Estes is with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, in Santa Cruz. Kristoffer T. Everatt, Matt W. Hayward, and Graham I. H. Kerley are affiliated with the Centre for African Conservation Ecology at Nelson Mandela University, in Port Elizabeth, South Africa; MWH is also with the School of Biological Science and the School of Environment, Natural Resources, and Geography at Bangor University, in Gwynedd, United Kingdom, and the Centre for Wildlife Management at the University of Pretoria, in South Africa. Mauro Galetti is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade Estadual Paulista, in Rio Claro, Brazil. Varun R. Goswami is with the Wildlife Conservation Society, India Program, in Bangalore, India. Michael Hoffmann is with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission, in Gland, Switzerland. Mike Letnic is affiliated with the Centre for Ecosystem Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Taal Levi is affiliated with the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University, in Corvallis. John C. Morrison is affiliated with the World Wildlife Fund-US, in Hope, Maine. Robert M. Pringle is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Princeton University, in New Jersey. Christopher J. Sandom is with the School of Life Sciences at the University of Sussex, in Brighton, United Kingdom. John Terborgh is affiliated with the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina. Adrian Treves is with the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, in Madison. Blaire Van Valkenburgh is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Los Angeles. John A. Vucetich is with the School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science at Michigan Technological University, in Houghton. Aaron J. Wirsing is with the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Arian D. Wallach is with the Centre for Compassionate Conservation in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Technology, in Sydney, Australia. Hillary Young is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Li Zhang is affiliated with the Institute of Ecology at the Beijing Normal University, in PR China.

    Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts.
    Bioscience 2016 Feb 16;66(2):156-163. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
    Avigdor Abelson ( ) is with the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University, in Israel. Benjamin S. Halpern is with the Bren School of Environmental Science and Management at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Daniel C. Reed is with the Marine Science Institute at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Robert J. Orth is with the School of Marine Science at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Gary A. Kendrick is with the School of Plant Biology at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley. Michael W. Beck is with the Global Marine Team of The Nature Conservancy at the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Jonathan Belmaker is with the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University. Gesche Krause is with the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP), in Bremerhaven, Germany. Graham J. Edgar is with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Australia. Laura Airoldi is with the Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and the Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali at the Università di Bologna, in Ravenna, Italy. Eran Brokovich is with the Israel Society of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Israel. Robert France is with the Department of Environmental Sciences at Dalhousie University, in Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada. Nadav Shashar and Noga Stambler are with the Eilat Campus at Ben-Gurion University, in Eilat, Israel; NS is also with the Israel Society of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Arianne de Blaeij is with the LEI at Wageningen University and Research Centre, in The Hague, The Netherlands. Pierre Salameh is with the Department of Fisheries at the Ministry of Agriculture, in Kiryat Haim, Israel. Mordechai Shechter is with the Natural Resource and Environmental Research Center at the University of Haifa, in Israel. Peter A. Nelson is a senior fish ecologist at H. T. Harvey and Associates, in Los Gatos, California.
    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Read More

    Climate Warming and Soil Carbon in Tropical Forests: Insights from an Elevation Gradient in the Peruvian Andes.
    Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):906-921. Epub 2015 Aug 31.
    Andrew T. Nottingham ( ) is affiliated with the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom. Jeanette Whitaker is with the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology at the Lancaster Environment Centre, in Lancaster, United Kingdom. Benjamin L. Turner is affiliated with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, in Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama. Norma Salinas is with the Seccion Química at the Universidad La Católica, in Lima, Peru. Michael Zimmermann is affiliated with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, in Vienna, Austria. Yadvinder Malhi is with the Environmental Change Institute in the School of Geography and the Environment at the University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom. Patrick Meir is affiliated with the Research School of Biology at Australian National University, in Canberra, and with the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom.
    The temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in tropical forests will influence future climate. Studies of a 3.5-kilometer elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes, including short-term translocation experiments and the examination of the long-term adaptation of biota to local thermal and edaphic conditions, have revealed several factors that may regulate this sensitivity. Read More

    Threshold Responses to Soil Moisture Deficit by Trees and Soil in Tropical Rain Forests: Insights from Field Experiments.
    Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):882-892. Epub 2015 Aug 31.
    Patrick Meir is affiliated with the Research School of Biology at Australian National University, in Canberra, and with the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom. Tana E. Wood is affiliated with the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, and with the Fundación Puertorriqueña de Conservación, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. David R. Galbraith is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Leeds, in the United Kingdom. Paulo M. Brando is with the Instituto Pesquisa Ambiental Amazonia, in Belém, Brazil. Antonio C. L. da Costa is affiliated with the Universidade Federal de Para, in Belém, Brazil. Lucy Rowland is with the Research School of Biology at Australian National University, in Canberra. Leandro V. Ferreira is affiliated with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in Belém, Brazil.
    Many tropical rain forest regions are at risk of increased future drought. The net effects of drought on forest ecosystem functioning will be substantial if important ecological thresholds are passed. However, understanding and predicting these effects is challenging using observational studies alone. Read More

    Do Ground-Dwelling Vertebrates Promote Diversity in a Neotropical Forest? Results from a Long-Term Exclosure Experiment.
    Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):862-870. Epub 2015 Aug 31.
    Erin L. Kurten is affiliated with the Department of Biology at Stanford University, in California. Walter P. Carson is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania .
    Using a decade-long exclosure experiment in Panama, we tested the hypothesis that ground-dwelling vertebrate herbivores and seed predators are crucial determinants of tropical tree diversity and abundance within the understory. Our exclosure experiment is a community-level test of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Therefore, we predicted that vertebrate exclusion would (a) increase plant densities and (b) lower richness, diversity, and evenness. Read More

    High Time for Conservation: Adding the Environment to the Debate on Marijuana Liberalization.
    Bioscience 2015 Aug 19;65(8):822-829. Epub 2015 Jun 19.
    Jennifer K. Carah is an ecologist, Jeanette K. Howard is the lead freshwater scientist, Lisa L. Hulette is a senior project director, and Stefanie L. Martin was an associate project director at The Nature Conservancy of California, in San Francisco. Jennifer works on stream and salmonid habitat conservation and restoration. Jeanette works on freshwater systems conservation planning and water resource sustainability. Lisa directs The Nature Conservancy of California's Salmon Program, and Stefanie is a conservation program manager who focuses on evaluating the economic value of conservation and the effects of market dynamics on conservation approaches. Sally E. Thompson is an ecohydrologist who studies hydrology, spatial ecology, and water resource sustainability and David N. Dralle is a graduate student who studies mathematical methods in ecohydrology in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Stephanie M. Carlson is an ecologist who studies ecology and conservation of freshwater fishes in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management and Mary E. Power is an ecologist who studies river food webs and upland river-coastal ocean linkages in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Anne G. Short Gianotti is a geographer in the Department of Earth and Environment at Boston University; she studies human-environment relations, environmental governance, and sustainable development. Scott D. Bauer is a senior environmental scientist with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) in Eureka; he works on CDFW's Watershed Enforcement Team, a program created in the summer of 2014 to regulate and enforce existing environmental laws at marijuana cultivation sites. Mourad W. Gabriel is the executive director for the Integral Ecology Research Center, a nonprofit research organization in Blue Lake, California; he studies wildlife disease ecology and the environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation. Brian J. Johnson is California director of Trout Unlimited in Berkeley. Curtis A. Knight is executive director of California Trout in San Francisco. Sarah J. Kupferberg is an ecologist with McBain Associates, in Arcata, California. Sarah studies stream ecology, amphibian biology, and the impacts of hydropower facilities on aquatic resources. Rosamond L. Naylor is an economist in the Department of Environmental Earth Science at Stanford University. She studies the economic and biophysical dimensions of food security and the environmental impacts of crop and animal production. E-mail:
    The liberalization of marijuana policies, including the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana, is sweeping the United States and other countries. Marijuana cultivation can have significant negative collateral effects on the environment that are often unknown or overlooked. Focusing on the state of California, where by some estimates 60%-70% of the marijuana consumed in the United States is grown, we argue that (a) the environmental harm caused by marijuana cultivation merits a direct policy response, (b) current approaches to governing the environmental effects are inadequate, and Read More

    Extracellular Vesicles: Composition, Biological Relevance, and Methods of Study.
    Bioscience 2015 Aug 26;65(8):783-797. Epub 2015 Jun 26.
    Mikołaj P. Zaborowski ( ; ), Leonora Balaj ( ), Xandra O. Breakefield ( ), and Charles P. Lai ( ) are affiliated with the Department of Neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Charlestown, and with the Harvard NeuroDiscovery Center at Harvard Medical School, in Boston, Massachusetts. XOB is also affiliated with the Department of Radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Charlestown, and MPZ is also affiliated with the Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Gynecologic Oncology at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences, in Poland.
    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, is a phenomenon shared by many cell types as a means of communicating with other cells and also potentially removing cell contents. The cargo of EVs includes the proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and membrane receptors of the cells from which they originate. EVs released into the extracellular space can enter body fluids and potentially reach distant tissues. Read More

    Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus.
    Bioscience 2015 Jul 1;65(7):651-666. Epub 2015 May 1.
    Scott Carver ( ) and Rachel L. Harris are affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. James N. Mills is affiliated with the Special Pathogens Branch of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution Group at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia. Cheryl A. Parmenter is affiliated with the Museum of Southwestern Biology in the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Robert R. Parmenter is affiliated with the Department of the Interior (National Park Service), in Jemez Springs, New Mexico. Kyle Richardson is affiliated with the Hopkirk Research Institute, at Massey University, in Palmerston North, New Zealand. SC, KR, Richard J. Douglass, and Amy J. Kuenzi are affiliated with the Department of Biology at Montana Tech of the University of Montana, in Butte. Angela D. Luis is affiliated with the College of Forestry and Conservation at the University of Montana, in Missoula.
    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human-reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. Read More

    Global Protected Area Expansion: Creating More than Paper Parks.
    Bioscience 2015 Jul 20;65(7):637-638. Epub 2015 May 20.
    Enrico Di Minin ( ) is affiliated with the Department of Biosciences at the University of Helsinki, in Finland, and the School of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, in Durban, South Africa. Tuuli Toivonen is affiliated with the Department of Geography at the University of Helsinki, in Finland.

    Predator-Free New Zealand: Conservation Country.
    Bioscience 2015 May 10;65(5):520-525. Epub 2015 Mar 10.
    James Russell ( ) is a senior lecturer in conservation biology at the University of Auckland, in Auckland, New Zealand, whose research focuses on island conservation and rat eradication. John Innes is a wildlife ecologist at Landcare Research, in Hamilton, New Zealand, studying pest control in urban and mainland environments, and the development of ecosanctuaries. Pike Brown is a senior economist and capability leader of the Economics and Land Use Modelling group at Landcare Research. Andrea Byrom is a wildlife ecologist and research portfolio leader for managing invasive weeds, pests, and diseases at Landcare Research in Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. Read More

    A Scientist's Guide to Achieving Broader Impacts through K-12 STEM Collaboration.
    Bioscience 2015 Mar 2;65(3):313-322. Epub 2015 Feb 2.
    Lisa M. Komoroske ( ) is a National Research Council post-doctoral fellow at the NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Sarah O. Hameed is a PhD candidate in the Graduate Group in Ecology at the University of California, Davis' Bodega Marine Laboratory. Amber I. Szoboszlai is a food web ecologist at the Farallon Institute for Advanced Ecosystem Research, in Petaluma, California. Amanda J. Newsom is an environmental specialist at the Washington Department of Fish and Game. Susan L. Williams is a marine ecologist, the director of CAMEOS, and a professor in the Department of Evolution and Ecology at the Bodega Marine Laboratory, at the University of California, Davis.
    The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies are increasingly requiring broader impacts in grant applications to encourage US scientists to contribute to science education and society. Concurrently, national science education standards are using more inquiry-based learning (IBL) to increase students' capacity for abstract, conceptual thinking applicable to real-world problems. Scientists are particularly well suited to engage in broader impacts via science inquiry outreach, because scientific research is inherently an inquiry-based process. Read More

    Strategic Actions to Value, Conserve, and Restore the Natural Capital of Megadiversity Countries: The Case of Mexico.
    Bioscience 2015 Feb 12;65(2):164-173. Epub 2014 Dec 12.
    José Sarukhán is the national coordinator of the National Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO), in Mexico City, Mexico. Tania Urquiza-Haas ( ) is the coordinator of ecosystem assessments at CONABIO. Patricia Koleff is the director of analysis and priorities at CONABIO. Julia Carabias is a professor in the School of Sciences at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, in Mexico City. Rodolfo Dirzo is a professor in the Department of Biology at Stanford University, in Stanford, California. Exequiel Ezcurra is a professor at the University of California and director of the Institute for Mexico and the United States, in Riverside. Sergio Cerdeira-Estrada is the coordinator of marine monitoring at CONABIO. Jorge Soberón is a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and a senior scientist at the Biodiversity Institute at Kansas University, in Lawrence.
    Decisionmakers need updated, scientifically sound and relevant information to implement appropriate policy measures and make innovative commitments to halt biodiversity loss and improve human well-being. Here, we present a recent science-based synthesis on the biodiversity and ecosystem services of Mexico, intended to be a tool for policymakers. We describe the methodological approach used to undertake such an assessment and highlight the major findings. Read More

    Making Predictions in a Changing World: The Benefits of Individual-Based Ecology.
    Bioscience 2015 Feb 12;65(2):140-150. Epub 2014 Dec 12.
    Richard A. Stillman is a professor in the Department of Life and Environmental Sciences at Bournemouth University, in Dorset, UK. Steven F. Railsback is an environmental scientist with Lang, Railsback, and Associates and an adjunct professor in the Department of Mathematics at Humboldt State University, in Arcata, California. Jarl Giske is a professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Bergen and at the Hjort Centre for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics, in Bergen, Norway. Uta Berger is a professor at the Institute of Forest Growth and Forest Computer Sciences at the Dresden University of Technology, in Tharandt, Germany. Volker Grimm is a researcher in the Department of Ecological Modelling at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, in Leipzig, Germany; is a professor at the Institute for Biochemistry and Biology at the University of Potsdam, Germany; and is a member of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, in Germany .
    Ecologists urgently need a better ability to predict how environmental change affects biodiversity. We examine individual-based ecology (IBE), a research paradigm that promises better a predictive ability by using individual-based models (IBMs) to represent ecological dynamics as arising from how individuals interact with their environment and with each other. A key advantage of IBMs is that the basis for predictions-fitness maximization by individual organisms-is more general and reliable than the empirical relationships that other models depend on. Read More

    Now Hiring! Empirically Testing a Three-Step Intervention to Increase Faculty Gender Diversity in STEM.
    Bioscience 2015 Nov 10;65(11):1084-1087. Epub 2015 Oct 10.
    Jessi L. Smith ( ) and Ian M. Handley are affiliated with the Department of Psychology at Montana State University, in Bozeman. Alexander V. Zale is affiliated with the US Geological Survey, the Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, and the Department of Ecology at Montana State University, in Bozeman. Sara Rushing is affiliated with the Department of Political Science and Martha A. Potvin is with the Office of the Provost and the Department of Ecology at Montana State University, in Bozeman.
    Workforce homogeneity limits creativity, discovery, and job satisfaction; nonetheless, the vast majority of university faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are men. We conducted a randomized and controlled three-step faculty search intervention based in self-determination theory aimed at increasing the number of women faculty in STEM at one US university where increasing diversity had historically proved elusive. Results show that the numbers of women candidates considered for and offered tenure-track positions were significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with those in controls. Read More

    Ecological Networks in Stored Grain: Key Postharvest Nodes for Emerging Pests, Pathogens, and Mycotoxins.
    Bioscience 2015 Oct 9;65(10):985-1002. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
    John F. Hernandez Nopsa ( ) is a postdoctoral research associate in the Institute for Sustainable Food Systems and the Plant Pathology Department at the University of Florida (UF), in Gainesville, and was formerly a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Plant Pathology at Kansas State University (KSU), in Manhattan, and affiliated with the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (CRC), in Canberra, Australia. Gregory J. Daglish is a principal research scientist at the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, in Queensland, and is affiliated with the CRC. David W. Hagstrum is a professor in the Department of Entomology at KSU. John F. Leslie is a university distinguished professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at KSU and is affiliated with the CRC. Thomas W. Phillips is Professor Donald A. Wilbur, Sr. Endowed Professor in Stored-Product Protection in the Department of Entomology at KSU and is affiliated with the CRC. Caterina Scoglio is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at KSU and is affiliated with the CRC. Sara Thomas-Sharma was a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Plant Pathology at KSU and is currently in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Gimme H. Walter is a professor in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Queensland and is affiliated with the CRC. Karen A. Garrett ( ) is a preeminent professor in the Institute for Sustainable Food Systems and Plant Pathology Department at UF, is affiliated with the CRC, and was formerly a professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at KSU.
    Wheat is at peak quality soon after harvest. Subsequently, diverse biota use wheat as a resource in storage, including insects and mycotoxin-producing fungi. Transportation networks for stored grain are crucial to food security and provide a model system for an analysis of the population structure, evolution, and dispersal of biota in networks. Read More

    Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era.
    Bioscience 2015 Nov 10;65(11):1046-1056. Epub 2015 Oct 10.
    David W. McCauley ( ) is affiliated with the Department of Biology at the University of Oklahoma, in Norman. Margaret F. Docker and Steve Whyard are affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Manitoba, in Winnipeg, Canada. Weiming Li is affiliated with the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University, in East Lansing.
    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Read More

    From Talking Heads to Talking Students: Driving the paradigm shift in science education.
    Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):843-848. Epub 2015 Aug 31.
    Lesley Evans Ogden is a freelance science writer-producer based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. She parachuted from the ivory tower following postdoctoral research in ecology, and now enjoys tackling quirky and emerging science stories for a variety of audiences. Say hello on

    The Role of Altruistic Values in Motivating Underrepresented Minority Students for Biomedicine.
    Bioscience 2015 Feb;65(2):183-188
    Department of Psychology at Montana State University, in Bozeman.
    Understanding how cultural values influence undergraduate students' science research experiences and career interest is important in efforts to broaden participation and to diversify the biomedical research workforce. The results from our prospective longitudinal study demonstrated that underrepresented minority student (URM) research assistants who see the altruistic value of conducting biomedical research feel more psychologically involved with their research over time, which, in turn, enhances their interest in pursuing a scientific research career. These altruistic motives are uniquely influential to URM students and appear to play an important role in influencing their interest in scientific research careers. Read More

    Repertoires: How to Transform a Project into a Research Community.
    Bioscience 2015 Jul;65(7):701-708
    School of Humanities, University of Adelaide, Australia,
    How effectively communities of scientists come together and co-operate is crucial both to the quality of research outputs and to the extent to which such outputs integrate insights, data and methods from a variety of fields, laboratories and locations around the globe. This essay focuses on the ensemble of material and social conditions that makes it possible for a short-term collaboration, set up to accomplish a specific task, to give rise to relatively stable communities of researchers. We refer to these distinctive features as repertoires, and investigate their development and implementation across three examples of collaborative research in the life sciences. Read More

    Ionic Current Variability and Functional Stability in the Nervous System.
    Bioscience 2014 Jul;64(7):570-580
    Federated Department of Biological Sciences, at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers University, in Newark.
    Identified neurons in different animals express ionic currents at highly variable levels (population variability). If neuronal identity is associated with stereotypical function, as is the case in genetically identical neurons or in unambiguously identified individual neurons, this variability poses a conundrum: How is activity the same if the components that generate it-ionic current levels-are different? In some cases, ionic current variability across similar neurons generates an output gradient. However, many neurons produce very similar output activity, despite substantial variability in ionic conductances. Read More

    Cilia and Diseases.
    Bioscience 2014 Dec;64(12):1126-1137
    George B. Witman ( ) is a professor of cell and developmental biology and the George F. Booth Chair in Basic Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Jason M. Brown trained as a postdoctoral fellow with GBW and is an assistant professor of biology at Salem State University, in Salem, Massachusetts.
    In recent decades, cilia have moved from relative obscurity to a position of importance for understanding multiple complex human diseases. Now termed the ciliopathies, these diseases inflict devastating effects on millions of people worldwide. In this review, written primarily for teachers and students who may not yet be aware of the recent exciting developments in this field, we provide a general overview of our current understanding of cilia and human disease. Read More

    Electrical Signaling in Motile and Primary Cilia.
    Bioscience 2014 Dec;64(12):1092-1102
    Department of Biology University of Vermont Burlington, VT 05405, USA 1-802-656-0452 (phone) 1-802-656-2914 (FAX).
    Cilia are highly conserved for their structure and also for their sensory functions. They serve as antennae for extracellular information. Whether the cilia are motile or not, they respond to environmental mechanical and chemical stimuli and signal to the cell body. Read More

    The Shape of Ecosystem Management to Come: Anticipating Risks and Fostering Resilience.
    Bioscience 2014 Dec;64(12):1159-1169
    Institute of Silviculture, in the Department of Forest and Soil Sciences at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), in Vienna, Austria.
    Global change is increasingly challenging the sustainable provisioning of ecosystem services to society. Addressing future uncertainty and risk has therefore become a central problem of ecosystem management. With risk management and resilience-based stewardship, two contrasting approaches have been proposed to address this issue. Read More

    Reimagining the Pipeline: Advancing STEM Diversity, Persistence, and Success.
    Bioscience 2014 Jul;64(7):612-618
    Stacy-Ann A. Allen-Ramdial recently received her PhD in molecular virology from Brown University, in Providence, Rhode Island, and served as the program coordinator for the Maximizing Access to Research Careers program (formerly, Minority Access to Research Careers program). She is interested in shaping domestic and international science policy that improves scientific research and education. Andrew G. Campbell is an associate professor of medical science in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at Brown University and director of the Minority Access to Research Careers Program and the Initiative to Maximize Student Development Program. His work is focused on STEM training program development and education.
    Achieving trainee diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics is rapidly becoming a challenge faced by many nations. Success in this area ensures the availability of a workforce capable of engaging in scientific practices that will promote increased production capacity and creativity and will preserve global scientific competitiveness. The near-term vision of achieving this goal is within reach and will capitalize on the growing numbers of underrepresented minority groups in the population. Read More

    It's Good to Share: Why Environmental Scientists' Ethics Are Out of Date.
    Bioscience 2015 Jan 22;65(1):69-73. Epub 2014 Oct 22.
    Patricia A. Soranno ( ) is a professor, and Kendra S. Cheruvelil and Kevin C. Elliott are associate professors in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, KSC and KCE are also associate professors, and Georgina M. Montgomery is an assistant professor, in the Lyman Briggs College, KCE is also an associate professor in the Department of Philosophy, and GMM is also an assistant professor in the Department of History at Michigan State University, in East Lansing.
    Although there have been many recent calls for increased data sharing, the majority of environmental scientists do not make their individual data sets publicly available in online repositories. Current data-sharing conversations are focused on overcoming the technological challenges associated with data sharing and the lack of rewards and incentives for individuals to share data. We argue that the most important conversation has yet to take place: There has not been a strong ethical impetus for sharing data within the current culture, behaviors, and practices of environmental scientists. Read More

    Scientific Reproducibility, Human Error, and Public Policy.
    Bioscience 2015 Jan 27;65(1):5-6. Epub 2014 Nov 27.
    Kevin C. Elliott is affiliated with the Lyman Briggs College, the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and the Department of Philosophy at Michigan State University, in East Lansing. David B. Resnik is affiliated with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina .

    Linking the Primary Cilium to Cell Migration in Tissue Repair and Brain Development.
    Bioscience 2014 Dec 25;64(12):1115-1125. Epub 2014 Nov 25.
    Iben Rønn Veland ( ) is a postdoctoral researcher from the Christensen Lab, at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and she studies the role of primary cilia in cell polarization and migration. Louise Lindbæk ( ) is a PhD student in the Christensen Lab, and she studies the function of primary cilia in neurogenesis and brain development. Søren Tvorup Christensen ( ) is a professor at the University of Copenhagen. He studies how primary cilia coordinate signaling pathways during development and in tissue homeostasis.
    Primary cilia are unique sensory organelles that coordinate cellular signaling networks in vertebrates. Inevitably, defects in the formation or function of primary cilia lead to imbalanced regulation of cellular processes that causes multisystemic disorders and diseases, commonly known as ciliopathies. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that primary cilia coordinate multiple activities that are required for cell migration, which, when they are aberrantly regulated, lead to defects in organogenesis and tissue repair, as well as metastasis of tumors. Read More

    A Structural Basis for How Motile Cilia Beat.
    Bioscience 2014 Dec 25;64(12):1073-1083. Epub 2014 Nov 25.
    Peter Satir ( ) is affiliated with the Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in New York, New York. Thomas Heuser is affiliated with the Electron Microscopy Facility, in the Campus Science Support Facilities of the Campus Vienna Biocenter, in Vienna, Austria. Winfield S. Sale is affiliated with the Department of Cell Biology at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia.
    The motile cilium is a mechanical wonder, a cellular nanomachine that produces a high-speed beat based on a cycle of bends that move along an axoneme made of 9+2 microtubules. The molecular motors, dyneins, power the ciliary beat. The dyneins are compacted into inner and outer dynein arms, whose activity is highly regulated to produce microtubule sliding and axonemal bending. Read More

    Mechanobiology of Ciliogenesis.
    Bioscience 2014 Dec 25;64(12):1084-1091. Epub 2014 Nov 25.
    Hiroaki Ishikawa and Wallace F. Marshall are affiliated with the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California San Francisco .
    Cilia are force-generating and -sensing organelles that serve as mechanical interfaces between the cell and the extracellular environment. Cilia are present in tissues that adaptively respond to mechanical loading and fluid flow, and defects in ciliary function can lead to diseases affecting these tissues. As might be expected for a mechanical interface, the formation of cilia is, itself, regulated by mechanical forces, and these links between mechanics and ciliary formation are providing new entry points for dissecting the regulatory pathways of ciliogenesis. Read More

    The Origin of Invasive Microorganisms Matters for Science, Policy, and Management: The Case of Didymosphenia geminata.
    Bioscience 2014 Jun 6;64(6):531-538. Epub 2014 May 6.
    Brad W. Taylor ( ) is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, and with the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, in Crested Butte, Colorado. Max L. Bothwell is affiliated with Environment Canada, at the Pacific Biological Station, in Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada.
    The value of distinguishing native from nonnative invasive species has recently been questioned. However, this dichotomy is important for understanding whether a species' successful dominance is caused by introductions, changing environmental conditions that facilitate an existing population, or both processes. We highlight the importance of knowing the origin of hard-to-detect invasive microorganisms for scientific research, management, and policy using a case study of recent algal blooms of the stalk-producing diatom Didymosphenia geminata. Read More

    Neurobiology of Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion: Where Do We Stand?
    Bioscience 2014 Jun 6;64(6):476-486. Epub 2014 May 6.
    Julijana Gjorgjieva is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Center for Brain Science of Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She uses theoretical and numerical tools to understand how developing neural circuits wire to perform a particular function, from the mammalian visual system to the motor system of small invertebrates. David Biron is a physicist at the University of Chicago, Illinois. He studies the sleep of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and related problems in biological physics. Gal Haspel ( ) is a neuroethologist at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, in Newark. He studies the activity, connectivity and recovery from injury of the neuronal network that underlie locomotion in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
    Animals use a nervous system for locomotion in some stage of their life cycle. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a major animal model for almost all fields of experimental biology, has long been used for detailed studies of genetic and physiological locomotion mechanisms. Of its 959 somatic cells, 302 are neurons that are identifiable by lineage, location, morphology, and neurochemistry in every adult hermaphrodite. Read More

    Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture.
    Bioscience 2014 May 8;64(5):404-415. Epub 2014 Apr 8.
    G. Philip Robertson ( ) is a professor at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) and in the Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences at Michigan State University (MSU), in East Lansing. Katherine L. Gross is a professor at KBS and in the Department of Plant Biology at MSU. Stephen K. Hamilton is a professor at KBS and in the Department of Zoology at MSU. Douglas A. Landis is a professor in the Department of Entomology at MSU. Thomas M. Schmidt is a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor. Sieglinde S. Snapp is a professor at KBS and in the Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences at MSU. Scott M. Swinton is a professor in the Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics at MSU. All of the authors are lead investigators with the KBS Long-Term Ecological Research Program.
    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Read More

    Biodiversity and Archeological Conservation Connected: Aragonite Shell Middens Increase Plant Diversity.
    Bioscience 2014 Mar 4;64(3):202-209. Epub 2014 Feb 4.
    Sula E. Vanderplank is affiliated with the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, in Fort Worth. Sergio Mata is affiliated with the Society of Native Plants of Baja California, in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Exequiel Ezcurra is affiliated with the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of California, Riverside .
    Natural and cultural heritage sites frequently have nonoverlapping or even conflicting conservation priorities, because human impacts have often resulted in local extirpations and reduced levels of native biodiversity. Over thousands of years, the predictable winter rains of northwestern Baja California have weathered calcium from the clam shells deposited by indigenous peoples in middens along the coast. The release of this calcium has changed soil properties, remediated sodic and saline soils, and resulted in a unique microhabitat that harbors plant assemblages very different from those of the surrounding matrix. Read More

    Synthesis of Experimental Molecular Biology and Evolutionary Biology: An Example from the World of Vision.
    Bioscience 2012 Nov;62(1):939-948
    Department of Biology at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia.
    Natural selection has played an important role in establishing various phenotypes, but the molecular mechanisms of phenotypic adaptation are not well understood. The slow progress is a consequence of mutagenesis experiments in which present-day molecules were used and of the limited scope of statistical methods used to detect adaptive evolution. To fully appreciate phenotypic adaptation, the precise roles of adaptive mutations during phenotypic evolution must be elucidated through the engineering and manipulation of ancestral phenotypes. Read More

    Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy.
    Bioscience 2013 Mar;63(3):164-175
    UCI Distinguished Professor, Mathematics and Economics, Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-5100,
    Government policies are needed when people's behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. Read More

    Microbial Communities as Experimental Units.
    Bioscience 2011 May;61(5):398-406
    Mitch D. Day ( ) is a postdoctoral fellow, Daniel Beck is a doctoral student, and James A. Foster is a professor, all in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Idaho, in Moscow, Idaho. All are affiliated with the Initiative for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies (IBEST), an interdisciplinary center devoted to developing a greater understanding of the patterns and processes of evolution and their relevance to biomedicine. All are also members of the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, BEACON, for the study of evolution in action.
    Artificial ecosystem selection is an experimental technique that treats microbial communities as though they were discrete units by applying selection on community-level properties. Highly diverse microbial communities associated with humans and other organisms can have significant impacts on the health of the host. It is difficult to find correlations between microbial community composition and community-associated diseases, in part because it may be impossible to define a universal and robust species concept for microbes. Read More

    Biological Resource Centers and Systems Biology.
    Bioscience 2009 Feb;59(2):113-125
    Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop, 1604 West, San Antonio TX 78249, United States.
    There are hundreds of Biological Resource Centers (BRCs) around the world, holding many little-studied microorganism. The proportion of bacterial strains that is well represented in the sequence and literature databases may be as low as 1%. This body of unexplored diversity represents an untapped source of useful strains and derived products. Read More

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