148 results match your criteria BioScience [Journal]


A Science Products Inventory for Citizen-Science Planning and Evaluation.

Bioscience 2018 Jun 5;68(6):436-444. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

US Geological Survey, in Tucson, Arizona.

Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. Read More

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A Science Products Inventory for Citizen-Science Planning and Evaluation.

Bioscience 2018 Jun 5;68(6):436-444. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

US Geological Survey, in Tucson, Arizona.

Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. Read More

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From Bottleneck to Breakthrough: Urbanization and the Future of Biodiversity Conservation.

Bioscience 2018 Jun 22;68(6):412-426. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Living Landscapes Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, US.

For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy. Building on the scholarship of others in demography, economics, sociology, and conservation biology, here, we articulate a theory of social-environmental change that describes the simultaneous and interacting effects of urban lifestyles on fertility, poverty alleviation, and ideation. Read More

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Addressing Criticisms of Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas.

Bioscience 2018 May 5;68(5):359-370. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Professor at the Environment Department at the University of York, in the United Kingdom.

Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Read More

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May 2018
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A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation.

Bioscience 2018 May 18;68(5):336-347. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Professor at the University of Oxford's Department of Zoology, in Oxford, United Kingdom.

Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. Read More

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Educating as if Survival Matters.

Bioscience 2018 May 22;68(5):324-326. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Associate professor in the School of Integrative Studies, George Mason University.

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Population Abundance and Ecosystem Service Provision: The Case of Birds.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 7;68(4):264-272. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Environmental and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

Although there is a diversity of concerns about recent persistent declines in the abundances of many species, the implications for the associated delivery of ecosystem services to people are surprisingly poorly understood. In principle, there are a broad range of potential functional relationships between the abundance of a species or group of species and the magnitude of ecosystem-service provision. Here, we identify the forms these relationships are most likely to take. Read More

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Corrigendum: Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 28;68(4):237. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/bix133.]. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 21;68(4):294-304. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Peoria, Illinois.

Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy.

Bioscience 2018 Apr 29;68(4):281-287. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park.

Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

The Nitrogen Balancing Act: Tracking the Environmental Performance of Food Production.

Bioscience 2018 Mar 7;68(3):194-203. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Soil and Crop Sciences Section of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Farmers, food supply-chain entities, and policymakers need a simple but robust indicator to demonstrate progress toward reducing nitrogen pollution associated with food production. We show that nitrogen balance-the difference between nitrogen inputs and nitrogen outputs in an agricultural production system-is a robust measure of nitrogen losses that is simple to calculate, easily understood, and based on readily available farm data. Nitrogen balance provides farmers with a means of demonstrating to an increasingly concerned public that they are succeeding in reducing nitrogen losses while also improving the overall sustainability of their farming operation. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Urban Mind: Using Smartphone Technologies to Investigate the Impact of Nature on Mental Well-Being in Real Time.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 10;68(2):134-145. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Reader, PhD student at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King's College London, United Kingdom.

Existing evidence on the beneficial effects of nature on mental health comes from studies using cross-sectional designs. We developed a smartphone-based tool (Urban Mind; ) to examine how exposure to natural features within the built environment affects mental well-being in real time. The tool was used to monitor 108 individuals who completed 3013 assessments over a 1-week period. Read More

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February 2018
5 Reads

Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio): The Biocollections Community's Citizen-Science Space on the Calendar.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 17;68(2):112-124. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Department of Biological Science at Florida State University, in Tallahassee.

The digitization of biocollections is a critical task with direct implications for the global community who use the data for research and education. Recent innovations to involve citizen scientists in digitization increase awareness of the value of biodiversity specimens; advance science, technology, engineering, and math literacy; and build sustainability for digitization. In support of these activities, we launched the first global citizen-science event focused on the digitization of biodiversity specimens: Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio). Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

The Future of Landscape Conservation.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 6;68(2):60-63. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

The Nature Conservancy, Boston, Massachusetts.

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February 2018
3 Reads

Global Biodiversity Threatened by Science Budget Cuts in Brazil.

Bioscience 2018 Jan 7;68(1):11-12. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Gerhard E. Overbeck is affiliated with the Departamento de Botânica at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Helena Godoy Bergallo is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Carlos E. V. Grelle is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. William E. Magnusson is affiliated with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Alberto Akama is affiliated with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Guarino R. Colli is affiliated with the Departamento de Zoologia at the Universidade de Brasília, in Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Walfrido Moraes Tomas is affiliated with the Laboratório de Vida Selvagem of the Embrapa Pantanal, in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Freddy Bravo is affiliated with the Departamento de Ciências Biológicas at the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. G. Wilson Fernandes is affiliated with the Laboratório de Ecologia Evolutiva e Biodiversidade at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The authors are coordinators of the regional networks of Brazil's PPBio program.

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January 2018
1 Read

Shipbuilding Docks as Experimental Systems for Realistic Assessments of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Organisms.

Bioscience 2017 Sep 6;67(9):853-859. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Rick Bruintjes Fiona Birch, Jessica Lister, Charles R. Tyler, and Stephen D. Simpson are affiliated with the Department of Biosciences in the College of Life and Environmental Sciences at the University of Exeter, in the United Kingdom. RB, Tom Benson, Kate Rossington, and Diane Jones are affiliated with HR Wallingford, in Wallingford, United Kingdom. Harry R. Harding, Tom Bunce, and Andrew N. Radford are with the School of Biological Science at the University of Bristol, in the United Kingdom; HRH is also affiliated with Marine Scotland, in Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Ilaria Spiga is with the School of Marine Science and Technology at the University of Newcastle, in the United Kingdom.

Empirical investigations of the impacts of anthropogenic stressors on marine organisms are typically performed under controlled laboratory conditions, onshore mesocosms, or via offshore experiments with realistic (but uncontrolled) environmental variation. These approaches have merits, but onshore setups are generally small sized and fail to recreate natural stressor fields, whereas offshore studies are often compromised by confounding factors. We suggest the use of flooded shipbuilding docks to allow studying realistic exposure to stressors and their impacts on the intra- and interspecific responses of animals. Read More

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September 2017
3 Reads

International Wildlife Law: Understanding and Enhancing Its Role in Conservation.

Bioscience 2017 Sep 8;67(9):784-790. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Arie Trouwborst is affiliated with the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University, in The Netherlands. Andrew Blackmore is affiliated with Scientific Services, Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, in Cascades, South Africa. Luigi Boitani is affiliated with the Department of Biology and Biotechnology at the Sapienza University of Rome, in Italy. Michael Bowman is affiliated with the Treaty Center in the School of Law at the University of Nottingham, in the United Kingdom. Richard Caddell is affiliated with the Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea at Utrecht University, in The Netherlands. Guillaume Chapron is affiliated with the Grimsö Wildlife Research Station at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Riddarhyttan. An Cliquet is affiliated with the Department of European, Public, and International Law at Ghent University, in Belgium. Ed Couzens is affiliated with the Australian Centre for Climate and Environmental Law, Sydney Law School, at the University of Sydney, in Australia. Yaffa Epstein is affiliated with the Department of Law at Uppsala University, in Sweden. Eladio Fernández-Galiano is affiliated with the Council of Europe, in Strasbourg, France. Floor M. Fleurke is affiliated with the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University, in The Netherlands. Royal Gardner is affiliated with the Institute for Biodiversity Law and Policy at Stetson University, in Gulfport, Florida. Luke Hunter is affiliated with Panthera, in New York, New York. Kim Jacobsen is affiliated with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) at University of Oxford, in Tubney, the United Kingdom. Miha Krofel is affiliated with the Department of Forestry at the University of Ljubljana, in Slovenia. Melissa Lewis is affiliated with the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University, in The Netherlands. José Vicente López-Bao is affiliated with the Research Unit of Biodiversity at Oviedo University, in Mieres, Spain. David Macdonald is with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) at University of Oxford, in Tubney, United Kingdom. Stephen Redpath is with the Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences at the University of Aberdeen, in the United Kingdom. Geoffrey Wandesforde-Smith is with the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Davis. John D. C. Linnell is affiliated with the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), in Trondheim.

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September 2017
2 Reads

Corrigendum: Assessing National Biodiversity Trends for Rocky and Coral Reefs through the Integration of Citizen Science and Scientific Monitoring Programs.

Bioscience 2017 Aug 13;67(8):774. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Rick D. Stuart-Smith Graham J. Edgar, Neville S. Barrett, Nicholas J. Bax, Just Berkhout, Julia L. Blanchard, Antonia T. Cooper, Paul B. Day, Stuart Kininmonth, and Scott D. Ling are affiliated with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Amanda E. Bates is with Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom. Susan C. Baker is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Mikel A. Becerro is with the BITES Lab of the Natural Products and Agrobiology Institute (IPNA-CSIC), in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Daniel J. Brock is affiliated with the Science, Monitoring, and Knowledge Branch of South Australia's Department of Environment, Water, and Natural Resources, in Adelaide. Graeme F. Clark is with the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Tom R. Davis is with the National Marine Science Centre at Southern Cross University, in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. J. Emmett Duffy is affiliated with the Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network of the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Thomas H. Holmes is affiliated with the Marine Science Program, Science and Conservation Division, Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Kensington, Australia, and with the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley, Australia. Steffan A. Howe is with Parks Victoria, in Melbourne, Australia. Alan Jordan is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Nelson Bay, Australia. Nathan A. Knott is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Huskisson, Australia. Jonathan S. Lefcheck is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Amanda Parr is affiliated with Parks Australia, in Kingston, Tasmania, Australia. Elisabeth Strain is with the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, in Mosman, New South Wales, Australia. Hugh Sweatman is affiliated with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Russell Thomson is with the Centre for Research in Mathematics in the School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics at Western Sydney University, in Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biw180.]. Read More

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August 2017
3 Reads

Google Haul Out: Earth Observation Imagery and Digital Aerial Surveys in Coastal Wildlife Management and Abundance Estimation.

Bioscience 2017 Aug 14;67(8):760-768. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Jerry H. Moxley completed this work during his dissertation at the Duke University Marine Lab, a division of the Nicholas School of the Environment in Beaufort, NC USA. He is currently a research scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, CA USA. Andrea Bogomolni is affiliated with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, in Woods Hole, USA. Mike O. Hammill is affiliated with the Maurice-Lamontagne Institute, in Department of Fisheries and Oceans, in Mont-Joli, Canada. Kathleen M.T. Moore is affiliated with the Marine Mammal Rescue and Research Program, at International Fund for Animal Welfare, in Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts, USA. Michael J. Polito is affiliated with the Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, at Louisiana State University, in Baton Rouge, USA. Lisa Sette is affiliated with the Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies, in Provincetown, USA. W. Brian Sharp is affiliated with the Marine Mammal Rescue and Research Program, at International Fund for Animal Welfare, in Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts, USA. Gordon T. Waring is affiliated with the Protected Species Branch, retired, at Northeast Fisheries Science Center, in Woods Hole, USA. James R. Gilbert is affiliated with the Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Conservation Biology, emeritus, at University of Maine, in Orono, USA. Patrick N. Halpin is affiliated with the Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab, at Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, in Durham, USA. David W. Johnston is affiliated with the Division of Marine Science and Conservation, at Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine Lab, in Beaufort, USA.

As the sampling frequency and resolution of Earth observation imagery increase, there are growing opportunities for novel applications in population monitoring. New methods are required to apply established analytical approaches to data collected from new observation platforms (e.g. Read More

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August 2017
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Grant-Writing Bootcamp: An Intervention to Enhance the Research Capacity of Academic Women in STEM.

Bioscience 2017 Jul 7;67(7):638-645. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Jessi L. Smith is a professor in the Department of Psychology, Chatanika Stoop is a grant training coordinator with the Center for Faculty Excellence of the Office of the Provost, Micaela Young is a pre-award specialist with the Office of Sponsored Programs, Rebecca Belou is an equity-data analyst with the Office of Planning and Analysis, and Suzanne Held is a professor in the Department of Health and Human Development at Montana State University, in Bozeman.

Broadening the participation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) fields is more than a social-justice issue; diversity is paramount to a thriving national research agenda. However, women face several obstacles to fully actualizing their research potential. Enhancing the research capacity and opportunity of women faculty requires purposeful changes in university practice. Read More

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July 2017
1 Read

Society Is Ready for a New Kind of Science-Is Academia?

Bioscience 2017 Jul 24;67(7):591-592. Epub 2017 May 24.

Bonnie L. Keeler is with the Natural Capital Project at the Institute on the Environment at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer and Anne D. Guerry are with the Natural Capital Project at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment in Stanford, California. ADG is also affiliated with the Natural Capital Project at the School of Environment and Forest Sciences at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Prue F. E. Addison is with the Interdisciplinary Centre for Conservation Science, Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom. Charles Bettigole, Ingrid C. Burke, and Brad Gentry are with the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut. Lauren Chambliss and Carrie Young are with the Department of Communication and Alexander J. Travis is with the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York. Chris T. Darimont is with the Department of Geography at the University of Victoria, and with the Raincoast Conservation Foundation, in British Columbia, Canada. Doria R. Gordon is with the Environmental Defense Fund, in Washington, DC, and the Department of Biology at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, Florida. Jessica Hellmann is with the Institute on the Environment at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Peter Kareiva is with the Institute on Environment and Sustainability at the University of California, Los Angeles. Steve Monfort is with the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, in Washington, DC. Lydia Olander and Tim Profeta are with the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina. Hugh P. Possingham is with The Nature Conservancy, in Arlington, Virginia, and with the Center of Excellence for Enviromental Decisions at the University of Queensland, in Brisbane, Australia. Carissa Slotterback is with the Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis. Eleanor Sterling is with the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, New York. Tamara Ticktin is with the Department of Botany at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, in Honolulu, Hawaii. Bhaskar Vira is with the University of Cambridge Conservation Research Institute, and the Department of Geography, at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom.

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July 2017
1 Read

Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat.

Bioscience 2017 Oct 20;67(10):919-927. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Dr. Sonja Jähnig is a group leader, Vanessa Bremerich a technician, Dr. Jörg Freyhof a project leader, Dr. Simone D. Langhans a postdoctoral researcher, and Fengzhi He a doctoral student at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, in Berlin, Germany; FH is also affiliated with the Institute of Biology at Freie Universität Berlin. Dr. Savrina F. Carrizo was a program officer with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Species Programme's Freshwater Biodiversity Unit at the time of this research. Dr. Ian Harrison is working for the IUCN Freshwater Fish Specialist Group, in Flagstaff, Arizona. Professor Klement Tockner currently serves as the president of the Austrian Science Fund, in Vienna. Dr. Christiane Zarfl is a junior professor at the Center for Applied Geosciences at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, in Germany. Dr. William Darwall is the head of the IUCN Global Species Programme's Freshwater Biodiversity Unit, in Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Read More

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October 2017
2 Reads

From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks.

Bioscience 2017 Oct 28;67(10):912-918. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Silke Bauer is affiliated with the Swiss Ornithological Institute, in Sempach, Switzerland. Jason W. Chapman is affiliated with the Centre for Ecology and Conservation and with the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom. Don R. Reynolds is with the Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich, in Chatham, United Kingdom. José A. Alves is affiliated with CESAM at the University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, in Portugal, and with the South Iceland Research Centre at the University of Iceland, in Selfoss. Adriaan M. Dokter and Judy Shamoun-Baranes are affiliated with the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics at the University of Amsterdam, in The Netherlands. AMD is also affiliated with the Lab of Ornithology at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York. Myles M. H. Menz is affiliated with the Institute of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Bern, in Switzerland, and with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley. Nir Sapir is with the Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology at the University of Haifa, in Israel. Michał Ciach is affiliated with the Department of Forest Biodiversity at the University of Agriculture, in Krakow, Poland. Lars B. Pettersson is with the Biodiversity Unit, Department of Biology, at the University of Lund, in Sweden. Jeffrey F. Kelly is affiliated with the Oklahoma Biological Survey and the Department of Biology at the University of Oklahoma, in Norman. Hidde Leijnse is with the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, in De Bilt, The Netherlands.

Migratory animals provide a multitude of services and disservices-with benefits or costs in the order of billions of dollars annually. Monitoring, quantifying, and forecasting migrations across continents could assist diverse stakeholders in utilizing migrant services, reducing disservices, or mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Radars are powerful tools for such monitoring as they can assess directional intensities, such as migration traffic rates, and biomass transported. Read More

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October 2017
1 Read

The Multitrophic Effects of Climate Change and Glacier Retreat in Mountain Rivers.

Bioscience 2017 Oct 20;67(10):897-911. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Sarah Fell is a PhD student studying alpine-river ecosystem response to glacier retreat. Dr. Lee Brown is an associate professor of aquatic science with a research interest in the population and community ecology, hydrology, and geomorphology of cold-environment river systems. Dr. Jonathan Carrivick is a senior lecturer in geomorphology, with a research focus spanning Earth-surface processes and landforms in polar, Arctic, and alpine environments. All authors are affiliated with the School of Geography and water@leeds at the University of Leeds, in the United Kingdom.

Climate change is driving the thinning and retreat of many glaciers globally. Reductions of ice-melt inputs to mountain rivers are changing their physicochemical characteristics and, in turn, aquatic communities. Glacier-fed rivers can serve as model systems for investigations of climate-change effects on ecosystems because of their strong atmospheric-cryospheric links, high biodiversity of multiple taxonomic groups, and significant conservation interest concerning endemic species. Read More

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October 2017
1 Read

An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 5;67(6):534-545. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Eric Dinerstein David Olson, Carly Vynne Eric Wikramanayake, Nathan Hahn, Suzanne Palminteri, Lori Price, and Nadia de Souza are conservation biologists at RESOLVE's Biodiversity and Wildlife Solutions Program, in Washington, DC. Anup Joshi is a research associate and program coordinator at the Conservation Biology Program at the University of Minnesota, in St. Paul. Neil D. Burgess and Yara Shennan-Farpón are with the Science Programme at the United Nations Environment Program-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Prashant Hedao is in the Geography Graduate Group at the University of California, Davis. Reed Noss is a professor of biological sciences at the University of Central Florida, in Orlando. Matthew Hansen is a remote sensing scientist at the University of Maryland, in College Park. Harvey Locke is cofounder of the Nature Needs Half Movement and cofounder and strategic advisor of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative, in Banff, Alberta. Erle C. Ellis is a professor of geography and environmental systems at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Charles Victor Barber is the director of the Forest Legality Initiative, Crystal Davis is the director of Global Forest Watch, and Benjamin Jones is a senior fellow at World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Randy Hayes is the executive director of Foundation Earth, in Washington, DC. Cyril Kormos and Vance Martin are vice president for policy and president, respectively, at the Wild Foundation, in Boulder, Colorado. Eileen Crist is an associate professor in the Department of Science and Technology in Society at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Wes Sechrest is the chief scientist and CEO at Global Wildlife Conservation, in Austin, Texas. Jonathan E. M. Baillie is chief scientist and senior vice president at National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. Don Weeden is the executive director of the Weeden Foundation, in Bedford Hills, New York. Kierán Suckling is the executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity, in Tucson, Arizona. Nigel Sizer is president of the Rainforest Alliance, in New York. Rebecca Moore, David Thau, and Tanya Birch are with the Google Earth Outreach and Google Earth Engine programs, in Mountain View, California. Lilian Pintea is the vice president for science at the Jane Goodall Institute, in Vienna, Virginia. José C. Brito is a researcher with CIBIO-InBIO, in Vairão, Portugal. Othman A. Llewellyn is an environmental planner in the Department of Protected Area Planning at the Saudi Wildlife Authority, in Saudi Arabia. Anthony G. Miller is the director of the Centre for Middle Eastern Plants at the Royal Botanic Garden, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Annette Patzelt is the scientific director at the Oman Botanic Garden, in the Sultanate of Oman. Shahina A. Ghazanfar is research leader in identification and naming-Asia and Jonathan Timberlake is a botanist at the Royal Botanic Gardens, in Kew, Surrey, United Kingdom. Heinz Klöser is at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, in Bremerhaven, Bremen, Germany. Roeland Kindt is a scientist at the World Agroforestry Centre, in Nairobi, Kenya. Jens-Peter Barnekow Lillesø and Paulo van Breugel are at the University of Copenhagen, in Denmark. Lars Graudal is a senior advisor at the University of Copenhagen, in Denmark, and science domain leader at ICRAF (the World Agroforestry Centre), in Nairobi. Maianna Voge is a geospatial analyst at Greeninfo Network. Khalaf F. Al-Shammari and Mohammed Saleem are information specialists with the Environmental Information Unit of the General Department of Studies and Research at the Saudi Wildlife Authority.

We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature-a companion to the Paris Climate Deal-to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands. Read More

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June 2017
11 Reads

Metaresearch for Evaluating Reproducibility in Ecology and Evolution.

Bioscience 2017 Mar 13;67(3):282-289. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Associate Professor Fiona Fidler holds a joint appointment in the School of BioSciences and the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies (History and Philosophy of Science Discipline) at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Fiona is interested in how scientists and experts make decisions. Bonnie C. Wintle is a postdoctoral fellow and Mark Burgman and Michael McCarthy are professors in the School of BioSciences at the University of Melbourne, Australia; they are interested in a broad range of topics related to environmental decisionmaking. Bonnie Wintle is now a research fellow at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Cambridge. Yung En Chee is a senior research fellow in the School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Yung applies ecological and decision-analytic theory and models to conservation problems. Ascelin Gordon is a senior research fellow in the Interdisciplinary Conservation Science Research Group in the School of Global, Urban, and Social Studies at RMIT University, in Melbourne, Australia; Ascelin is broadly interested in modeling approaches for understanding the impacts of environmental policies. FF, YC, BW, MB and MM were involved in discussion group about reproducibility and type 1 errors in ecology in 2014, which helped develop the outline for this article. AG and FF independently discussed the application of open science initiatives in ecology. FF wrote the first draft; YC wrote sections on data and code sharing with substantial input from AG. BW, MB, and MM made edits throughout.

Recent replication projects in other disciplines have uncovered disturbingly low levels of reproducibility, suggesting that those research literatures may contain unverifiable claims. The conditions contributing to irreproducibility in other disciplines are also present in ecology. These include a large discrepancy between the proportion of "positive" or "significant" results and the average statistical power of empirical research, incomplete reporting of sampling stopping rules and results, journal policies that discourage replication studies, and a prevailing publish-or-perish research culture that encourages questionable research practices. Read More

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March 2017
3 Reads

Using Social Network Measures in Wildlife Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, and Management.

Bioscience 2017 Mar 1;67(3):245-257. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Matthew J. Silk and Robbie A. McDonald are affiliated with the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom. Darren P. Croft is with the Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour at the University of Exeter, in the United Kingdom. Richard J. Delahay is affiliated with the National Wildlife Management Centre of the Animal and Plant Health Agency at Woodchester Park, in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. David J. Hodgson, Mike Boots, and Nicola Weber are with the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter, in Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom; MB is also affiliated with the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.

Contact networks, behavioral interactions, and shared use of space can all have important implications for the spread of disease in animals. Social networks enable the quantification of complex patterns of interactions; therefore, network analysis is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of infectious disease in animals, including wildlife. We present an introductory guide to using social-network-analytical approaches in wildlife disease ecology, epidemiology, and management. Read More

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March 2017
3 Reads

Assessing National Biodiversity Trends for Rocky and Coral Reefs through the Integration of Citizen Science and Scientific Monitoring Programs.

Bioscience 2017 Feb;67(2):134-146

Rick D. Stuart-Smith Graham J. Edgar, Neville S. Barrett, Nicholas J. Bax, Just Berkhout, Julia L. Blanchard, Antonia T. Cooper, Paul B. Day, Stuart Kininmonth, and Scott D. Ling are affiliated with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Amanda E. Bates is with Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom. Susan C. Baker is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Mikel A. Becerro is with the BITES Lab of the Natural Products and Agrobiology Institute (IPNA-CSIC), in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Daniel J. Brock is affiliated with the Science, Monitoring, and Knowledge Branch of South Australia's Department of Environment, Water, and Natural Resources, in Adelaide. Graeme F. Clark is with the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Tom R. Davis is with the National Marine Science Centre at Southern Cross University, in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. J. Emmett Duffy is affiliated with the Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network of the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Thomas H. Holmes is affiliated with the Marine Science Program, Science and Conservation Division, Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Kensington, Australia, and with the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley, Australia. Steffan A. Howe is with Parks Victoria, in Melbourne, Australia. Alan Jordan is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Nelson Bay, Australia. Nathan A. Knott is affiliated with Marine Ecosystem Research, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, in Huskisson, Australia. Jonathan S. Lefcheck is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Amanda Parr is affiliated with Parks Australia, in Kingston, Tasmania, Australia. Elisabeth Strain is with the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, in Mosman, New South Wales, Australia. Hugh Sweatman is affiliated with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Russell Thomson is with the Centre for Research in Mathematics in the School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics at Western Sydney University, in Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.

Reporting progress against targets for international biodiversity agreements is hindered by a shortage of suitable biodiversity data. We describe a cost-effective system involving Reef Life Survey citizen scientists in the systematic collection of quantitative data covering multiple phyla that can underpin numerous marine biodiversity indicators at high spatial and temporal resolution. We then summarize the findings of a continental- and decadal-scale State of the Environment assessment for rocky and coral reefs based on indicators of ecosystem state relating to fishing, ocean warming, and invasive species and describing the distribution of threatened species. Read More

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February 2017
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The Arctic in the Twenty-First Century: Changing Biogeochemical Linkages across a Paraglacial Landscape of Greenland.

Bioscience 2017 Feb;67(2):118-133

N. John Anderson is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Jasmine E. Saros, is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Joanna E. Bullard, is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Sean M.P. Cahoon, was at the Department of Biology at Penn State University, in University Park, Pennsylvania. He is presently affiliated with the Environment and Natural Resources Institute at the University of Alaska Anchorage, AK. Suzanne McGowan is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham in Nottingham, UK. Elizabeth A. Bagshaw is affiliated with the Earth and Ocean Sciences at Cardiff University in Cardiff, UK. Christopher D. Barry, is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at Queen's University in Belfast, UK. Richard Bindler is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Environmental Science at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden. Benjamin T. Burpee is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Jonathan L. Carrivick, is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Leeds in Leeds, UK. Rachel A. Fowler, is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Anthony D. Fox is affiliated with the Department of Bioscience, at Aarhus University in Rønde, Denmark. Sherilyn C. Fritz is affiliated with the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska. Madeleine E. Giles, is affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Essex in Colchester, UK. Ladislav Hamerlik, was affiliated with the Department of Biology and Ecology at Matthias Belius University in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia. He is presently affiliated with the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen is affiliated with the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark in Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Antonia C. Law is affiliated with the Department of Geography, Geology and the Environment at Keele University in Keele, UK. Sebastian H. Mernild is affiliated with the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. He also has positions at Faculty of Engineering and Science, Sogn og Fjordane University College, Sogndal, Norway and Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Program, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile. Faculty of Engineering and Science at Sogn og Fjordane University College in Sogndal, Norway. Robert M. Northington is affiliated with the School of Biology & Ecology at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. Christopher L. Osburn is affiliated with the School of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences at NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Sergi Pla-Rabès is affiliated with the Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplications Forestals in Cerdanyola del Vallés, Spain. Eric Post is affiliated with the Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology at the University of California in Davis, California. Jon Telling was affiliated with the School of Geographical Sciences at the University of Bristol in Bristol, UK. He is presently affiliated with the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, UK. David A. Stroud is affiliated with the UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee in Peterborough, UK. Erika J. Whiteford is affiliated with the Department of Geography at Loughborough University in Loughborough, UK. Marian L. Yallop is affiliated with the School of Biological Science, at University of Bristol in Bristol, UK. Jacob C. Yde is affiliated with the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Sogn og Fjordane University College in Sogndal, Norway.

The Kangerlussuaq area of southwest Greenland encompasses diverse ecological, geomorphic, and climate gradients that function over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Ecosystems range from the microbial communities on the ice sheet and moisture-stressed terrestrial vegetation (and their associated herbivores) to freshwater and oligosaline lakes. These ecosystems are linked by a dynamic glacio-fluvial-aeolian geomorphic system that transports water, geological material, organic carbon and nutrients from the glacier surface to adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems. Read More

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February 2017
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Skills and Knowledge for Data-Intensive Environmental Research.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 3;67(6):546-557. Epub 2017 May 3.

Stephanie E. Hampton is affiliated with the Center for Environmental Research, Education and Outreach at Washington State University, in Pullman. Matthew B. Jones is affiliated with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Leah A. Wasser is affiliated with EarthLab at the University of Colorado, in Boulder. Mark P. Schildhauer is with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Sarah R. Supp is affiliated with the University of Maine's School of Biology and Ecology, in Orono. Julien Brun is with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Rebecca R. Hernandez is affiliated with the Land, Air, and Water Resources Department at the University of California, Davis; with the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California, Berkeley; and with the Climate and Carbon Science Program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, in Berkeley, California. Carl Boettiger is affiliated with the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at the University of California, Berkeley. Scott L. Collins is with the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Louis J. Gross is affiliated with the Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics at the University of Tennessee, in Knoxville. Denny S. Fernández is with the Department of Biology at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao. Amber Budden is affiliated with DataONE at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Ethan P. White is with the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation and The Informatics Institute at the University of Florida, in Gainesville. Tracy K. Teal is affiliated with Data Carpentry, in Davis, California. Stephanie G. Labou is with the Center for Environmental Research, Education and Outreach, at Washington State University, in Pullman. Juliann E. Aukema is affiliated with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

The scale and magnitude of complex and pressing environmental issues lend urgency to the need for integrative and reproducible analysis and synthesis, facilitated by data-intensive research approaches. However, the recent pace of technological change has been such that appropriate skills to accomplish data-intensive research are lacking among environmental scientists, who more than ever need greater access to training and mentorship in computational skills. Here, we provide a roadmap for raising data competencies of current and next-generation environmental researchers by describing the concepts and skills needed for effectively engaging with the heterogeneous, distributed, and rapidly growing volumes of available data. Read More

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June 2017
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Mapping Conservation Strategies under a Changing Climate.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 5;67(6):494-497. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

R. Travis Belote is a research ecologist with The Wilderness Society (TWS) in Bozeman, Montana. Matthew S. Dietz is lead ecologist with TWS in San Francisco, California. Peter S. McKinley is a climate adaptation ecologist with TWS in Hallowell, Maine. Anne A. Carlson is a climate adaptation specialist with TWS in Bozeman, Montana. Carlos Carroll is conservation scientist with the Klamath Center for Conservation Research. Clinton N. Jenkins is a professor of conservation science at the Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (IPÊ), in Nazaré Paulista, Brazil. Dean L. Urban is a professor of landscape ecology at Duke University. Timothy J. Fullman is a senior ecologist and Jason C. Leppi is an aquatic ecologist with TWS in Anchorage, Alaska. Gregory H. Aplet is senior science director at TWS in Denver, Colorado.

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June 2017
8 Reads

How to Produce Translational Research to Guide Arctic Policy.

Bioscience 2017 Jun 18;67(6):490-493. Epub 2017 Feb 18.

Alyson H. Fleming is a postdoctoral fellow studying the ecological and policy implications of global change on marine mammals and Nicholas D. Pyenson is curator of fossil marine mammals at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, DC.

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June 2017
3 Reads

Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States.

Bioscience 2017 May 1;67(5):418-428. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Julia G. Mason is a PhD candidate and Larry B. Crowder is a professor at Stanford University Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California. Mason studies the interacting effects of climate and management on fisheries resilience. Crowder, also the science director at the Center for Ocean Solutions, in Monterey, California, works with interdisciplinary approaches to marine conservation. Murray A. Rudd is an associate professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia. His research focuses on conservation social science and the environmental science-policy interface. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Read More

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May 2017
5 Reads

Ecological Consequences of Shoreline Hardening: A Meta-Analysis.

Bioscience 2016 09 10;66(9):763-773. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Rachel K. Gittman Steven B. Scyphers, and Jonathan H. Grabowski are affiliated with the Marine Science Center at Northeastern University, in Nahant, Massachusetts. Carter S. Smith and Isabelle P. Neylan are affiliated with the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in Morehead City.

Protecting coastal communities has become increasingly important as their populations grow, resulting in increased demand for engineered shore protection and hardening of over 50% of many urban shorelines. Shoreline hardening is recognized to reduce ecosystem services that coastal populations rely on, but the amount of hardened coastline continues to grow in many ecologically important coastal regions. Therefore, to inform future management decisions, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the ecosystem services of biodiversity (richness or diversity) and habitat provisioning (organism abundance) along shorelines with versus without engineered-shore structures. Read More

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September 2016
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Why Do the Boreal Forest Ecosystems of Northwestern Europe Differ from Those of Western North America?

Bioscience 2016 09 20;66(9):722-734. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Rudy Boonstra is a professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Toronto Scarborough. He studies the factors that regulate and limit animal populations in temperate and boreal ecosystems, and especially the role of stress in natural populations. Harry Andreassen is the dean and a professor, Jan Hušek is a postdoctoral fellow, Christina Skarpe is a professor, and Petter Wabakken is an associate professor at Hedmark University College, in Evenstad, Norway. HA studies the causes of population fluctuations in the boreal forest, with special emphasis on the interaction between social factors and predation. JH studies avian ecology and behavior. CS's research deals with large herbivores and their ecological significance for soil and plants, predators, and each other. PW studies the behavioral ecology and population dynamics of large carnivores and avian predators. Stan Boutin is a professor of biological sciences at the University of Alberta. He studies the population dynamics and management of mammals in the boreal forest. Rolf Ims is a professor of Arctic and marine biology at the University of Tromsø. He studies the dynamics of ecological interactions in Arctic ecosystems and how these are shaped by climate change and other anthropogenic impacts. Charles Krebs is an emeritus professor of zoology at the University of British Columbia. He studies boreal forest community dynamics in the southwestern Yukon.

The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes on Earth. Conifers normally dominate the tree layer across the biome, but other aspects of ecosystem structure and dynamics vary geographically. The cause of the conspicuous differences in the understory vegetation and the herbivore-predator cycles between northwestern Europe and western North America presents an enigma. Read More

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September 2016
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Accelerating Tropicalization and the Transformation of Temperate Seagrass Meadows.

Bioscience 2016 11 14;66(11):938-948. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Glenn Hyndes is an associate professor, Paul Lavery is a professor, and Kathryn MacMahon is a senior lecturer at the Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research of the School of Natural Sciences at Edith Cowan University, in Western Australia. Kenneth L. Heck Jr. is a professor at the Dauphin Island Sea Lab and at the University of South Alabama. Euan Harvey is a professor in the Department of Environment and Agriculture at Curtin University, in Western Australia. Gary Kendrick is a professor and Thomas Wernberg is an associate professor at the Oceans Institute and School of Plant Biology at the University of Western Australia. Robert Orth is a professor in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William & Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. The late Alan Pearce was a principal research scientist at the Western Australian Department of Fisheries. Mathew Vanderklift is a research scientist at CSIRO Wealth Oceans Flagship, in Western Australia. Adriana Vergés is a senior lecturer at the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences and the Evolution and Ecology Research Centre at the University of New South Wales, in Australia. Scott Whiting and Shaun Wilson are principal research scientists at the Department of Parks and Wildlife, in Western Australia. We dedicate this article to Alan Pearce, who passed away in the late stages of this article's development.

Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores. Read More

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November 2016
7 Reads

National Ecosystem Assessments in Europe: A Review.

Bioscience 2016 10 17;66(10):813-828. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Matthias Schröter is a postdoctoral researcher and environmental scientist at UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; his expertise is in spatial modeling and the assessment of ecosystem services. Christian Albert is a junior professor in landscape planning at Leibniz Universität Hanover; he studies the integration of ecosystem services in spatial planning and management. He is also affiliated with the UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research. Alexandra Marques is a postdoctoral researcher and Wolke Tobon is a researcher at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv). Alexandra is also affiliated with the Institute of Biology at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and the Institute of Environmental Sciences CML at Leiden University. Alexandra's expertise is in the ecological-economic analysis of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Wolke works on spatial prioritization of conservation and restoration. Sandra Lavorel is a senior researcher at CNRS and Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine; she is a functional ecologist with expertise in biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and services. Joachim Maes is a scientific and technical officer at the Joint Research Council of the European Commission; he is leading the Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystem Services initiative of the European Union. Claire Brown is a senior program officer for ecosystem assessments at UNEP-WCMC. Stefan Klotz is a community ecologist at UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; his expertise is in biodiversity assessment. Aletta Bonn is professor of ecosystem services at UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; her focus is on ecosystem services and participatory conservation research at the science-policy interface.

National ecosystem assessments form an essential knowledge base for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze eight European (sub-)national ecosystem assessments (Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Norway, Flanders, Netherlands, Finland, and Germany) and compare their objectives, political context, methods, and operationalization. We observed remarkable differences in breadth of the assessment, methods employed, variety of services considered, policy mandates, and funding mechanisms. Read More

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October 2016
15 Reads

Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna.

Bioscience 2016 Oct 27;66(10):807-812. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

William J. Ripple Robert L. Beschta, Michael Paul Nelson, Luke Painter Christopher Wolf, and Thomas M. Newsome are affiliated with the Global Trophic Cascades Program of the Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State University, in Corvallis; TMN is also with the Desert Ecology Research Group of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Sydney, in Australia; the Centre for Integrative Ecology at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences at Deakin University, in Geelong, Australia; and the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Guillaume Chapron is affiliated with the Department of Ecology at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Riddarhyttan. José Vicente López-Bao is with the Research Unit of Biodiversity at Oviedo University, in Mieres, Spain. Sarah M. Durant and Rosie Woodroffe are with the Institute of Zoology at the Zoological Society of London, Regents Park. David W. Macdonald and Amy J. Dickman are with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit of the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford and the Recanati-Kaplan Centre, in Abingdon, United Kingdom. Peter A. Lindsey and Luke T. B. Hunter are affiliated with Panthera, in New York. PAL is also affiliated with the Mammal Research Institute of the Department of Zoology and Entomology at the University of Pretoria, in Gauteng, South Africa; and LTBH is also affiliated with the School of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. Elizabeth L. Bennett, Simon Hedges, and Fiona Maisels are affiliated with the Wildlife Conservation Society, in New York; FM is also with the School of Natural Sciences at the University of Stirling, in the United Kingdom. Holly T. Dublin is affiliated with IUCN Species Survival Commission's African Elephant Specialist Group at the IUCN Eastern and Southern African Regional Office in Nairobi, Kenya. Jeremy T. Bruskotter is affiliated with the School of Environment and Natural Resources at The Ohio State University, in Columbus. Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz is with the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. Richard T. Corlett is affiliated with the Center for Integrative Conservation of the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Menglun, Yunnan, China. Chris T. Darimont is with the Department of Geography at the University of Victoria and the Raincoast Conservation Foundation, in British Columbia, Canada. Rodolfo Dirzo is affiliated with the Department of Biology at Stanford University, in California. James A. Estes is with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, in Santa Cruz. Kristoffer T. Everatt, Matt W. Hayward, and Graham I. H. Kerley are affiliated with the Centre for African Conservation Ecology at Nelson Mandela University, in Port Elizabeth, South Africa; MWH is also with the School of Biological Science and the School of Environment, Natural Resources, and Geography at Bangor University, in Gwynedd, United Kingdom, and the Centre for Wildlife Management at the University of Pretoria, in South Africa. Mauro Galetti is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade Estadual Paulista, in Rio Claro, Brazil. Varun R. Goswami is with the Wildlife Conservation Society, India Program, in Bangalore, India. Michael Hoffmann is with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission, in Gland, Switzerland. Mike Letnic is affiliated with the Centre for Ecosystem Science at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Taal Levi is affiliated with the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University, in Corvallis. John C. Morrison is affiliated with the World Wildlife Fund-US, in Hope, Maine. Robert M. Pringle is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Princeton University, in New Jersey. Christopher J. Sandom is with the School of Life Sciences at the University of Sussex, in Brighton, United Kingdom. John Terborgh is affiliated with the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina. Adrian Treves is with the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, in Madison. Blaire Van Valkenburgh is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Los Angeles. John A. Vucetich is with the School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science at Michigan Technological University, in Houghton. Aaron J. Wirsing is with the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Arian D. Wallach is with the Centre for Compassionate Conservation in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Technology, in Sydney, Australia. Hillary Young is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Li Zhang is affiliated with the Institute of Ecology at the Beijing Normal University, in PR China.

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October 2016
21 Reads

Harmonizing Biodiversity Conservation and Productivity in the Context of Increasing Demands on Landscapes.

Bioscience 2016 Oct 17;66(10):890-896. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Ralf Seppelt Michael Beckmann, Anna F. Cord, and Katharina Gerstner are affiliated with the Department of Computational Landscape Ecology at the UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, in Leipzig, Germany; RS is also with the Institute of Geoscience and Geography at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, in Germany. Silvia Ceauşu, Stefan Klotz, and Marten Winter are affiliated with iDiv, the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, in Leipzig, Germany; SC is also with the Institute for Biology at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, in Germany, and SK is also with the Department Community Ecology at the UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, in Germany. Jessica Gurevitch is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University, in New York. Stephan Kambach is with the Institute for Biology at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, and the Department of Community Ecology at the UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research. Chase Mendenhall is affiliated with the Center for Conservation Biology and the Department of Biology at Stanford University, in California. Helen R. P. Phillips is with the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial College London and the Department of Life Sciences at the Natural History Museum, in London, United Kingdom. Kristin Powell is affiliated with the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, in Annapolis, Maryland. Peter H. Verburg and Willem Verhagen are affiliated with the Department of Earth Sciences at VU University Amsterdam, in The Netherlands. Tim Newbold is affiliated with the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Biodiversity conservation and agricultural production are often seen as mutually exclusive objectives. Strategies for reconciling them are intensely debated. We argue that harmonization between biodiversity conservation and crop production can be improved by increasing our understanding of the underlying relationships between them. Read More

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October 2016
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Conceptions of Good Science in Our Data-Rich World.

Bioscience 2016 Oct 9;66(10):880-889. Epub 2016 Oct 9.

Kevin C. Elliott is an associate professor in Lyman Briggs College, the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and the Department of Philosophy; Kendra S. Cheruvelil is an associate professor in Lyman Briggs College and the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Georgina M. Montgomery is an associate professor in Lyman Briggs College and the Department of History; and Patricia A. Soranno is a professor in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University, in East Lansing. All authors contributed equally to the conceptualization of the paper and the supporting research. KCE organized the collaboration and initiated the writing process. All authors contributed text, reviewed manuscript drafts, and approved the final version.

Scientists have been debating for centuries the nature of proper scientific methods. Currently, criticisms being thrown at data-intensive science are reinvigorating these debates. However, many of these criticisms represent long-standing conflicts over the role of hypothesis testing in science and not just a dispute about the amount of data used. Read More

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October 2016
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Critical Uncertainties and Gaps in the Environmental- and Social-Impact Assessment of the Proposed Interoceanic Canal through Nicaragua.

Bioscience 2016 Aug 2;66(8):632-645. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Jorge A. Huete-Pérez Manuel Ortega-Hegg Katherine Vammen, Julio C. Miranda, Sergio Espinoza-Corriols, Adolfo Acevedo, María L. Acosta, Jaime Incer-Barquero, Jean Michel Maes, Salvador Montenegro-Guillén, and Pedro J. J. Alvarez are all affiliated with the Academy of Sciences of Nicaragua, in Managua, Nicaragua. JAH-P, MO-H, and KV are also affiliated with the University of Central America, in Managua, Nicaragua, as is Juan P. Gómez. JCM is also affiliated with CH2M Hill, in San Jose, California. MLA is also with the Center for Legal Assistance to Indigenous Peoples (CALPI), in Managua, Nicaragua. JI-B is also with the Nicaraguan Foundation for Sustainable Development, Fondo Natura, in Managua. JMM is also affiliated with the Entomology Museum, in León, Nicaragua. PJJA and Mason B. Tomson are with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. Gerald R. Urquhart is with the Lyman Briggs College and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University, in East Lansing. Alan P. Covich is affiliated with the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia, in Atlanta. Bruce E. Rittmann is with the Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology at Arizona State University, in Tempe. Michael T. Brett is affiliated with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Michael Hanemann is with the Department of Economics at Arizona State University, in Tempe. Andreas Härer and Axel Meyer are affiliated with the Laboratory for Zoology and Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Biology at the University of Konstanz, in Germany. Frank J. Joyce is with the Tropical Biology and Conservation Program and the Education Abroad Program at the University of California, in Goleta. J. Wesley Lauer is affiliated with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and W. Lindsay Whitlow with the Department of Biology at Seattle University, in Washington. Jerald L. Schnoor is affiliated with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Iowa, in Iowa City.

The proposed interoceanic canal will connect the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean, traversing Lake Nicaragua, the major freshwater reservoir in Central America. If completed, the canal would be the largest infrastructure-related excavation project on Earth. In November 2015, the Nicaraguan government approved an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) for the canal. Read More

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August 2016
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Prospects for Increasing Sugarcane and Bioethanol Production on Existing Crop Area in Brazil.

Bioscience 2016 Apr 17;66(4):307-316. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Fábio R. Marin is affiliated with the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ) at the University of São Paulo, in Brazil. Geraldo B. Martha Jr is affiliated with the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Labex-USA, in Beltsville, MD, United States. Kenneth G. Cassman and Patricio Grassini are with the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) and Fellows of the Daugherty Water for Food Institute at UNL.

This article assesses sugarcane yield gaps (YG) in Brazil to determine the degree to which production can be increased without land expansion. In our scenario assessments, we evaluated how much of the projected sugarcane demand to 2024 (for both sugar and bioethanol) can be satisfied through YG closure. The current national average yield is 62% of yield potential estimated for rainfed conditions (i. Read More

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April 2016
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Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts.

Bioscience 2016 Feb 16;66(2):156-163. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Avigdor Abelson ( ) is with the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University, in Israel. Benjamin S. Halpern is with the Bren School of Environmental Science and Management at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Daniel C. Reed is with the Marine Science Institute at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Robert J. Orth is with the School of Marine Science at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary, in Gloucester Point, Virginia. Gary A. Kendrick is with the School of Plant Biology at the University of Western Australia, in Crawley. Michael W. Beck is with the Global Marine Team of The Nature Conservancy at the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Jonathan Belmaker is with the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University. Gesche Krause is with the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP), in Bremerhaven, Germany. Graham J. Edgar is with the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, in Australia. Laura Airoldi is with the Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and the Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali at the Università di Bologna, in Ravenna, Italy. Eran Brokovich is with the Israel Society of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Israel. Robert France is with the Department of Environmental Sciences at Dalhousie University, in Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada. Nadav Shashar and Noga Stambler are with the Eilat Campus at Ben-Gurion University, in Eilat, Israel; NS is also with the Israel Society of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Arianne de Blaeij is with the LEI at Wageningen University and Research Centre, in The Hague, The Netherlands. Pierre Salameh is with the Department of Fisheries at the Ministry of Agriculture, in Kiryat Haim, Israel. Mordechai Shechter is with the Natural Resource and Environmental Research Center at the University of Haifa, in Israel. Peter A. Nelson is a senior fish ecologist at H. T. Harvey and Associates, in Los Gatos, California.

Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that , the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Read More

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February 2016
17 Reads

Climate Warming and Soil Carbon in Tropical Forests: Insights from an Elevation Gradient in the Peruvian Andes.

Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):906-921. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Andrew T. Nottingham ( ) is affiliated with the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom. Jeanette Whitaker is with the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology at the Lancaster Environment Centre, in Lancaster, United Kingdom. Benjamin L. Turner is affiliated with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, in Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama. Norma Salinas is with the Seccion Química at the Universidad La Católica, in Lima, Peru. Michael Zimmermann is affiliated with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, in Vienna, Austria. Yadvinder Malhi is with the Environmental Change Institute in the School of Geography and the Environment at the University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom. Patrick Meir is affiliated with the Research School of Biology at Australian National University, in Canberra, and with the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom.

The temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in tropical forests will influence future climate. Studies of a 3.5-kilometer elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes, including short-term translocation experiments and the examination of the long-term adaptation of biota to local thermal and edaphic conditions, have revealed several factors that may regulate this sensitivity. Read More

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September 2015
3 Reads

Threshold Responses to Soil Moisture Deficit by Trees and Soil in Tropical Rain Forests: Insights from Field Experiments.

Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):882-892. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Patrick Meir is affiliated with the Research School of Biology at Australian National University, in Canberra, and with the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom. Tana E. Wood is affiliated with the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, and with the Fundación Puertorriqueña de Conservación, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. David R. Galbraith is affiliated with the School of Geography at the University of Leeds, in the United Kingdom. Paulo M. Brando is with the Instituto Pesquisa Ambiental Amazonia, in Belém, Brazil. Antonio C. L. da Costa is affiliated with the Universidade Federal de Para, in Belém, Brazil. Lucy Rowland is with the Research School of Biology at Australian National University, in Canberra. Leandro V. Ferreira is affiliated with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in Belém, Brazil.

Many tropical rain forest regions are at risk of increased future drought. The net effects of drought on forest ecosystem functioning will be substantial if important ecological thresholds are passed. However, understanding and predicting these effects is challenging using observational studies alone. Read More

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September 2015
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Do Ground-Dwelling Vertebrates Promote Diversity in a Neotropical Forest? Results from a Long-Term Exclosure Experiment.

Bioscience 2015 Sep 31;65(9):862-870. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Erin L. Kurten is affiliated with the Department of Biology at Stanford University, in California. Walter P. Carson is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania .

Using a decade-long exclosure experiment in Panama, we tested the hypothesis that ground-dwelling vertebrate herbivores and seed predators are crucial determinants of tropical tree diversity and abundance within the understory. Our exclosure experiment is a community-level test of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Therefore, we predicted that vertebrate exclusion would (a) increase plant densities and (b) lower richness, diversity, and evenness. Read More

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September 2015
4 Reads

High Time for Conservation: Adding the Environment to the Debate on Marijuana Liberalization.

Bioscience 2015 Aug 19;65(8):822-829. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Jennifer K. Carah is an ecologist, Jeanette K. Howard is the lead freshwater scientist, Lisa L. Hulette is a senior project director, and Stefanie L. Martin was an associate project director at The Nature Conservancy of California, in San Francisco. Jennifer works on stream and salmonid habitat conservation and restoration. Jeanette works on freshwater systems conservation planning and water resource sustainability. Lisa directs The Nature Conservancy of California's Salmon Program, and Stefanie is a conservation program manager who focuses on evaluating the economic value of conservation and the effects of market dynamics on conservation approaches. Sally E. Thompson is an ecohydrologist who studies hydrology, spatial ecology, and water resource sustainability and David N. Dralle is a graduate student who studies mathematical methods in ecohydrology in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Stephanie M. Carlson is an ecologist who studies ecology and conservation of freshwater fishes in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management and Mary E. Power is an ecologist who studies river food webs and upland river-coastal ocean linkages in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Anne G. Short Gianotti is a geographer in the Department of Earth and Environment at Boston University; she studies human-environment relations, environmental governance, and sustainable development. Scott D. Bauer is a senior environmental scientist with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) in Eureka; he works on CDFW's Watershed Enforcement Team, a program created in the summer of 2014 to regulate and enforce existing environmental laws at marijuana cultivation sites. Mourad W. Gabriel is the executive director for the Integral Ecology Research Center, a nonprofit research organization in Blue Lake, California; he studies wildlife disease ecology and the environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation. Brian J. Johnson is California director of Trout Unlimited in Berkeley. Curtis A. Knight is executive director of California Trout in San Francisco. Sarah J. Kupferberg is an ecologist with McBain Associates, in Arcata, California. Sarah studies stream ecology, amphibian biology, and the impacts of hydropower facilities on aquatic resources. Rosamond L. Naylor is an economist in the Department of Environmental Earth Science at Stanford University. She studies the economic and biophysical dimensions of food security and the environmental impacts of crop and animal production. E-mail:

The liberalization of marijuana policies, including the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana, is sweeping the United States and other countries. Marijuana cultivation can have significant negative collateral effects on the environment that are often unknown or overlooked. Focusing on the state of California, where by some estimates 60%-70% of the marijuana consumed in the United States is grown, we argue that (a) the environmental harm caused by marijuana cultivation merits a direct policy response, (b) current approaches to governing the environmental effects are inadequate, and Read More

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August 2015
8 Reads

Extracellular Vesicles: Composition, Biological Relevance, and Methods of Study.

Bioscience 2015 Aug 26;65(8):783-797. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Mikołaj P. Zaborowski ( ; ), Leonora Balaj ( ), Xandra O. Breakefield ( ), and Charles P. Lai ( ) are affiliated with the Department of Neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Charlestown, and with the Harvard NeuroDiscovery Center at Harvard Medical School, in Boston, Massachusetts. XOB is also affiliated with the Department of Radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Charlestown, and MPZ is also affiliated with the Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Gynecologic Oncology at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences, in Poland.

The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, is a phenomenon shared by many cell types as a means of communicating with other cells and also potentially removing cell contents. The cargo of EVs includes the proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and membrane receptors of the cells from which they originate. EVs released into the extracellular space can enter body fluids and potentially reach distant tissues. Read More

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August 2015
8 Reads

Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus.

Bioscience 2015 Jul 1;65(7):651-666. Epub 2015 May 1.

Scott Carver ( ) and Rachel L. Harris are affiliated with the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Tasmania, in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. James N. Mills is affiliated with the Special Pathogens Branch of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution Group at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia. Cheryl A. Parmenter is affiliated with the Museum of Southwestern Biology in the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. Robert R. Parmenter is affiliated with the Department of the Interior (National Park Service), in Jemez Springs, New Mexico. Kyle Richardson is affiliated with the Hopkirk Research Institute, at Massey University, in Palmerston North, New Zealand. SC, KR, Richard J. Douglass, and Amy J. Kuenzi are affiliated with the Department of Biology at Montana Tech of the University of Montana, in Butte. Angela D. Luis is affiliated with the College of Forestry and Conservation at the University of Montana, in Missoula.

Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human-reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. Read More

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July 2015
4 Reads

Global Protected Area Expansion: Creating More than Paper Parks.

Bioscience 2015 Jul 20;65(7):637-638. Epub 2015 May 20.

Enrico Di Minin ( ) is affiliated with the Department of Biosciences at the University of Helsinki, in Finland, and the School of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, in Durban, South Africa. Tuuli Toivonen is affiliated with the Department of Geography at the University of Helsinki, in Finland.

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July 2015
3 Reads