549,459 results match your criteria BioMedical Engineering OnLine [Journal]


Centrifugation affects the purity of liquid biopsy-based tumor biomarkers.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1207-1212

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Laboratory of Experimental Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Biomarkers in the blood of cancer patients include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), EV-associated miRNA (EV-miRNA), and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Because the size and density of biomarkers differ, blood is centrifuged to isolate or concentrate the biomarker of interest. Here, we applied a model to estimate the effect of centrifugation on the purity of a biomarker according to published protocols. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Novel endotypes in heart failure: effects on guideline-directed medical therapy.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Aims: We sought to determine subtypes of patients with heart failure (HF) with a distinct clinical profile and treatment response, using a wide range of biomarkers from various pathophysiological domains.

Methods And Results: We performed unsupervised cluster analysis using 92 established cardiovascular biomarkers to identify mutually exclusive subgroups (endotypes) of 1802 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from the BIOSTAT-CHF project. We validated our findings in an independent cohort of 813 patients. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Dynamic Changes of Retinal Microaneurysms in Diabetes Imaged With In Vivo Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5932-5940

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To prospectively monitor microaneurysms (MAs) in three dimensions using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT).

Methods: Patients with diabetes mellitus and parafoveal MAs were included in this longitudinal study. At baseline, MAs were identified in standard fluorescein angiography (FA) and subsequently imaged with an AOOCT prototype, incorporated into an AO fundus camera (RTX1, Imagine Eyes) device. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogue Bimatoprost on Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5912-5923

Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, McKnight Vision Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Purpose: We characterize the effect of bimatoprost on orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) with clinicopathologic correlation.

Methods: Orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs) from types 1 and 2 TAO and control patients with and without exposure to 1 μm bimatoprost were examined via immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot for cell viability, migration capacity, lipid content, adipocyte morphology, mitochondrial content, and levels of adipogenic markers. A retrospective chart review was performed for clinicopathologic correlation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization of Mice With Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing Protein A.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Illinois.

Staphylococcusaureus persistently colonizes the nasopharynx of about one-third of the human population, a key risk factor for community- and hospital-acquired invasive infections. Current strategies for S. aureus decolonization include topical and systemic administration of antibiotics, which is associated with selection for antibiotic resistance and posttreatment recolonization. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Distinct histopathological features at diagnosis of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Philadelphia, PA.

Background And Aims: Children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease represent a unique cohort, often with a severe phenotype that is refractory to conventional medications, and in some cases, have underlying primary immunodeficiencies. Prior work has identified distinct histopathological patterns in the gastrointestinal tract in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. The aim of this study is to characterize the diagnostic histological findings in patients with VEO-IBD as compared to older onset pediatric IBD and determine if there are unique pathological changes that can shed light on the driving forces of the disease, particularly immunodeficiencies. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Vestibular dysfunction as cortical damage with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5;397:4-8. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A prediction method of speed-dependent walking patterns for healthy individuals.

Gait Posture 2018 Dec 5;68:280-284. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Federal University of ABC, Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering Programs, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Gait speed is one of the main biomechanical determinants of human movement patterns. However, in clinical gait analysis, the effect of gait speed is generally not considered, and people with disabilities are usually compared with able-bodied individuals even though disabled people tend to walk slower.

Research Questions: This study proposes a simple way to predict the gait pattern of healthy individuals at a specific speed. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Direct potentiation of NK cell cytotoxicity by 8-azaguanine with potential antineoplastic activity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 11;67:152-159. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea; Microbiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea; Stem Cell Immunomodulation Research Center (SCIRC), Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study identified 8-azaguanine (8-AG) as a novel immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) through a high-throughput screen of the Preswick Chemical Library in a model of human NK cell cytotoxicity against blood cancer cells. 8-AG, originally developed as an antineoplastic agent, significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells and was superior in this activity to previously known IMiDs, such as fluoxetine and amphotericin B, identified from the same library. IFN-γ expression was also slightly increased by 8-AG. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Lecithin doped electrospun poly(lactic acid)-thermoplastic polyurethane fibers for hepatocyte viability improvement.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Sep 28;175:264-271. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

The development of hepatocyte cultures in vitro holds great significance in the study of bioartificial liver support systems. Electrospun fiber cultures have received widespread attention as an effective method to culture hepatocytes in vitro. Polylactic acid (PLA) -a synthetic polymer with high biocompatibility and biodegradability- is widely used to fabricate electrospun fibers in the biomedical field. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Near-infrared AIEgens as transformers to enhance tumor treatment efficacy with controllable self-assembled redox-responsive carrier-free nanodrug.

Biomaterials 2018 Dec 10;193:12-21. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanosized drug delivery systems (nDDS) have been extensively exploited to achieve improved therapeutic performance of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer treatment. Carrier-free nanodrugs have recently emerged as a promising generation of nDDS. In this work, a carrier-free theranostic nanodrug was fabricated by incorporating near-infrared (NIR) emission AIEgens (NPAPF) with redox responsive camptothecin-gemcitabine amphiphilic prodrug (CPT-ss-GEM) to form self-assembled nanoparticles (NCssG NPs). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Distinct regulation pattern of Egr-1, BDNF and Arc during morphine-withdrawal conditioned place aversion paradigm: role of glucocorticoids.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research (IMIB), University of Murcia, Spain.

Negative affective aspects of opiate abstinence contribute to the persistence of substance abuse. Importantly, interconnected brain areas involved in aversive motivational processes, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), become activated when animals are confined to withdrawal-paired environments. In the present study, place aversion was elicited in sham and adrenalectomized (ADX) animals by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal following exposure to chronic morphine. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Carrier-free nanoparticles of cathepsin B-cleavable peptide-conjugated doxorubicin prodrug for cancer targeting therapy.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Cancer nanomedicine using nanoparticle-based delivery systems has shown outstanding promise in recent decades for improving anticancer treatment. However, limited targeting efficiency, low drug loading efficiency and innate toxicity of nanoparticles have caused severe problems, leaving only a few available in the clinic. Here, we newly developed carrier-free nanoparticles of cathepsin B-cleavable peptide (Phe-Arg-Arg-Gly; FRRG)-conjugated doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug (FRRG-DOX) that formed a stable nanoparticle structure with an average diameter of 213 nm in aqueous condition. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Applications of π-π stacking interactions in the design of drug-delivery systems.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Noncovalent forces are of considerable importance in the formation of self-assembled drug-delivery systems. In addition to non-destructively linking the delivery vehicle and guest drug, they provide multiple advantages, including protecting the structure of the drug, maintaining its functional effects, and facilitating its release. In particular, π-π stacking interactions have potential application in a comprehensive range of biomedical and biotechnological fields. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cyclical Treatment of Colorectal Tumor Spheroids Induces Resistance to MEK Inhibitors.

Transl Oncol 2018 Dec 11;12(3):404-416. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA. Electronic address:

Adaptive drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment of colorectal cancers. Physiologic tumor models of drug resistance are crucial to understand mechanisms of treatment failure and improve therapy by developing new therapeutics and treatment strategies. Using our aqueous two-phase system microtechnology, we developed colorectal tumor spheroids and periodically treated them with sub-lethal concentrations of three Mitogen Activated Kinase inhibitors (MEKi) used in clinical trials. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Stromal PTEN Regulates Extracellular Matrix Organization in the Mammary Gland.

Neoplasia 2018 Dec 11;21(1):132-145. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; The James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

The organization of the extracellular matrix has a profound impact on cancer development and progression. The matrix becomes aligned throughout tumor progression, providing "highways" for tumor cell invasion. Aligned matrix is associated with breast density and is a negative prognostic factor in several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating this reorganization remain poorly understood. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Synchronization-induced spike termination in networks of bistable neurons.

Neural Netw 2018 Nov 27;110:131-140. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Physics and Astronomy and The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

We observe and study a self-organized phenomenon whereby the activity in a network of spiking neurons spontaneously terminates. We consider different types of populations, consisting of bistable model neurons connected electrically by gap junctions, or by either excitatory or inhibitory synapses, in a scale-free connection topology. We find that strongly synchronized population spiking events lead to complete cessation of activity in excitatory networks, but not in gap junction or inhibitory networks. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Oncogene addiction as a foundation of targeted cancer therapy: the paradigm of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

Cancer Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland; Department for BioMedical Research, Radiation Oncology, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Following nearly two decades of its conception, the phenomenon of oncogene addiction still represents a key concept of how progresses in basic research can translate to unprecedented translational breakthroughs. Coined by Bernard Weinstein, this term refers to the phenomenon by which cancer cells can exhibit dependence on a single oncogenic protein or signaling pathway for sustaining proliferation and survival, despite the wide burden of genetic lesions characterizing their genomic background, revealing thus a promising Achilles' heel of cancer. Importantly, this concept aided the design and clinical implementation of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies, further supporting the paradigm shift witnessed in clinical oncology towards an individual-based, personalized era. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Occurrence of virulence factors in Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus originated from clinical samples.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Sabha University, Sabha, Libya.

Background: Cronobacter spp. are Gram-negative, facultative-anaerobic, non-spore forming, enteric coliform bacteria, which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Cronobacter spp. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Relationships between Financial Toxicity and Symptom Burden in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Q4059, Australia; Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2 Koret Way - N631Y, San Francisco, CA 94143-0610.

Context: Financial toxicity (FT) is used to describe the financial distress/hardship associated with cancer and its treatment.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between FT and symptom burden.

Method: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Black and Minority Ethnic women's decision-making for risk reduction strategies after BRCA testing: Use of context and knowledge.

Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

King's College London, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Palliative Care, London, United Kingdom; Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Within the field of breast cancer care, women concerned about their family history are offered genetic testing and subsequent treatment options based on several factors which include but are not limited to personal and family cancer disease histories and clinical guidelines. Discussions around decision-making in genetics in Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups are rarely documented in literature, and information regarding interactions with genetics services is usually discussed and linked to lack of scientific knowledge. As such, counselling sessions based only on scientific and medical information miss out the many reasons participants consider in making health decisions, information which can be used to encourage BME women to engage in cancer genetics services. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A ball milling-based one-step transformation of chitin biomass to organo-dispersible strong nanofibers passing highly time and energy consuming processes.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Research Center for Bio-based Chemistry, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Ulsan 44429, Republic of Korea; Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Chitin, a sustainable and functional biological macromolecule, can be converted into chitin nanofibers (ChNFs), and are applicable as a mechanically reinforcing and bioactive filler for polymer matrices. Improving the performance of ChNFs typically relies on their nanofibrilization and miscibility with matrices. To transform chitin biomass into organo-dispersible ChNFs, a series of time-/energy-consuming chemical and mechanical treatments are required: 1) deacetylation, 2) disintegration, 3) surface modification to minimize their aggregation through hydrogen bonds, 4) drying, and 5) re-dispersion. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Treatment of Active Crohn's Disease With an Ordinary Food-based Diet That Replicates Exclusive Enteral Nutrition.

Gastroenterology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the only established dietary treatment for Crohn's disease (CD), but its acceptability is limited. There is a need for novel dietary treatments for CD.

Methods: We evaluated the effects of an individualized, food-based diet (CD-TREAT), with similar composition to EEN, on the gut microbiome, inflammation and clinical response in a rat model, healthy adults, and children with relapsing CD. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Predicting drug-target interactions using Lasso with random forest based on evolutionary information and chemical structure.

Genomics 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Mathematics and Physics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China; Artificial Intelligence and Biomedical Big Data Research Center, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China; School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China. Electronic address:

The identification of drug-target interactions has great significance for pharmaceutical scientific research. Since traditional experimental methods identifying drug-target interactions is costly and time-consuming, the use of machine learning methods to predict potential drug-target interactions has attracted widespread attention. This paper presents a novel drug-target interactions prediction method called LRF-DTIs. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Virus and host interactions critical for filoviral RNA synthesis as therapeutic targets.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Modulation of the unfolded protein response pathway as an antiviral approach in airway epithelial cells.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Virology and Immunology, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Rhinovirus (RV) infection is a major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung morbidity with limited therapeutic options. Various diseases involving chronic inflammatory response and infection are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive response to maintain cellular homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests impaired ER stress response in CF airway epithelial cells, this might be a reason for recurrent viral infection in CF. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Organoid Modeling of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1972-1988.e16

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In vitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Comparative Flavivirus-Host Protein Interaction Mapping Reveals Mechanisms of Dengue and Zika Virus Pathogenesis.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1931-1945.e18

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute (QBI), University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; The J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are a growing public health concern. Systems-level analysis of how flaviviruses hijack cellular processes through virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides information about their replication and pathogenic mechanisms. We used affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to compare flavivirus-host interactions for two viruses (DENV and ZIKV) in two hosts (human and mosquito). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Protein Interaction Mapping Identifies RBBP6 as a Negative Regulator of Ebola Virus Replication.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1917-1930.e13

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Ebola virus (EBOV) infection often results in fatal illness in humans, yet little is known about how EBOV usurps host pathways during infection. To address this, we used affinity tag-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to generate an EBOV-host protein-protein interaction (PPI) map. We uncovered 194 high-confidence EBOV-human PPIs, including one between the viral transcription regulator VP30 and the host ubiquitin ligase RBBP6. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Why are children different in their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels? A multilevel analysis.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Desporto, Porto, Portugal.

Objective: Children's differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels are not at random. This study investigates the relevance of individual- and school-level characteristics in explaining these differences.

Methods: In total, 307 children (154 girls) aged 5-10 years, from 19 Portuguese schools, were sampled. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Clinicopathological and molecular analysis of multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors of the cerebrum.

Hum Pathol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Neuroscience, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) of the cerebrum is a recently recognized rare neuronal tumor, and its pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed 7 cases of histologically typical MVNT: six were adults [mean age: 43.0years (range: 23-56)] and one was a child (10-year-old). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Phosphodiesterase expression in the normal and failing heart.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Electronic address:

The number of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing, and for HFpEF, no therapies have clinical benefit. It has been hypothesized that PKG attenuates pathological remodelling, and increasing cGMP would be beneficial for patients with HF. However, neither the RELAX nor NEAT-HFpEF trial showed benefit. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Optogenetic control of iPS cell-derived neurons in 2D and 3D culture systems using channelrhodopsin-2 expressed by the SYN1 and CaMKII promoters.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, UK.

Development of optogenetically controllable human neural network model in three-dimensional (3D) can provide an investigative system that is physiologically relevant or mimic to the human brain. Light-sensitive neurons were generated by transducing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitor cells (Axol) using lentiviruses and cell-type specific promoters. A mixed population of human iPSC-derived cortical neurons, astrocytes and progenitor cells was obtained (Axol-ChR2) upon neural differentiation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effects of laser shock peening on the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of a nickel-titanium alloy.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, 44325.

Nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is an attractive material for biomedical implant applications. In this study, the effects of laser shock peening (LSP) on the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, ion release rate and hardness of NiTi were characterized. The cell culture study indicated that the LSP-treated NiTi samples had lower cytotoxicity and higher cell survival rate than the untreated samples. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A review of lifestyle, metabolic risk factors and blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health|, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

We aimed to review the epidemiologic literature examining lifestyle, metabolic risk factors, and blood-based biomarkers including multi-omics (genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and to discuss how these predictive markers can inform early diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A search of the PubMed database was conducted in June 2018 to review epidemiologic studies of (1) lifestyle and metabolic risk factors for PDAC, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and risk prediction models incorporating these factors and (2) blood-based biomarkers for PDAC (conventional diagnostic markers, metabolomics, and proteomics). Prospective cohort studies have reported at least twenty possible risk factors for PDAC, including smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, adiposity, diabetes, and pancreatitis, but the relative risks (RR) and population attributable fractions of individual risk factors are small (mostly <10%). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Type VI collagen promotes lung epithelial cell spreading and wound-closure.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209095. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Molecular and Personalized Medicine Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

Basement membrane (BM) is an essential part of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that plays a crucial role in mechanical support and signaling to epithelial cells during lung development, homeostasis and repair. Abnormal composition and remodeling of the lung ECM have been associated with developmental abnormalities observed in multiple pediatric and adult respiratory diseases. Collagen VI (COL6) is a well-studied muscle BM component, but its role in the lung and its effect on pulmonary epithelium is largely undetermined. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Identification of knee gait waveform pattern alterations in individuals with patellofemoral pain using fast Fourier transform.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209015. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States of America.

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common overuse injuries of the knee. Previous research has found that individuals with PFP exhibit differences in peak hip kinematics; however, differences in peak knee kinematics, where the pain originates, are difficult to elucidate. To better understand the mechanism behind PFP, we sought to characterize differences in knee gait kinematic waveform patterns in individuals with PFP compared to healthy individuals using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Multiscale computational model of Achilles tendon wound healing: Untangling the effects of repair and loading.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 14;14(12):e1006652. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States of America.

Mechanical stimulation of the healing tendon is thought to regulate scar anisotropy and strength and is relatively easy to modulate through physical therapy. However, in vivo studies of various loading protocols in animal models have produced mixed results. To integrate and better understand the available data, we developed a multiscale model of rat Achilles tendon healing that incorporates the effect of changes in the mechanical environment on fibroblast behavior, collagen deposition, and scar formation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

How does intrauterine crowding affect locomotor performance in newborn pigs? A study of force generating capacity and muscle composition of the hind limb.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209233. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.

Intrauterine crowding (IUC) considerably influences postnatal traits in a polytocous species such as the pig. Previously, our group described how IUC affects locomotion during the piglet's first days of life (until 96 h after birth). We noted a reduced motor performance in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets), compared to piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets), indicating L piglets are unable to produce enough force. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Endometrial Carcinoma Diagnosis: Use of FIGO Grading and Genomic Subcategories in Clinical Practice: Recommendations of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S64-S74

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.A.S, K.J.P.) Department of Pathology, Stony Brook Hospital, SUNY, Stony Brook (C.T.), New York Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Pathology Department, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova and University Hospital of Bellvitge, Biomedical Research Institute, and Bellvitge Biomedical Institute, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Spain (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (E.O.) Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine and the Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden (J.C.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (C.B.G.).

In this review, we sought to address 2 important issues in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma: how to grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas and how to incorporate the 4 genomic subcategories of endometrial carcinoma, as identified through The Cancer Genome Atlas, into clinical practice. The current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading scheme provides prognostic information that can be used to guide the extent of surgery and use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy. We recommend moving toward a binary scheme to grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas by considering International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics defined grades 1 and 2 tumors as "low grade" and grade 3 tumors as "high grade. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Comparison of Tri-folded and Scroll-Based Graft Viability in Preloaded Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

Cornea 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: To compare corneal endothelial damage associated with 2 techniques for preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK): a tri-folded graft stored in a plastic cartridge designed for DMEK and a scrolled graft stored in a modified Jones Tube, at the time of preparation and after shipping.

Methods: DMEK grafts were prepared at the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Bank. The grafts were either tri-folded and loaded in a plastic cartridge or scrolled and loaded into a modified Jones Tube. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Strategies to improve bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from ethyl ester concentrates.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Midwest Biomedical Research, Center for Metabolic & Cardiovascular Health, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe recent strategies that have been developed to enhance absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from dietary supplements.

Recent Findings: The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have important physiologic functions, and numerous potential health benefits have been suggested by results from observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. EPA and DHA intakes in the average American diet are substantially below recommended levels. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Pressure-induced mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis is dependent on intermediate filament remodeling.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 14:fj201801474RR. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Macroscale loading of bone generates a complex local mechanical microenvironment that drives osteogenesis and bone mechanoadaptation. One such mechanical stimulus generated is hydrostatic pressure (HP); however, the effect of HP on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the mechanotransduction mechanisms utilized by these cells to sense this stimulus are yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic HP is a potent mediator of cytoskeletal reorganization and increases in osteogenic responses in MSCs. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nanoparticle-mediated lysosomal reacidification restores mitochondrial turnover and function in β cells under lipotoxicity.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 14:fj201801292R. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Chronic exposure of pancreatic β cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids leads to lipotoxicity (LT)-mediated suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect is in part caused by a decline in mitochondrial function as well as by a reduction in lysosomal acidification. Because both mitochondria and lysosomes can alter one another's function, it remains unclear which initiating dysfunction sets off the detrimental cascade of LT, ultimately leading to β-cell failure. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nocturnal ventricular repolarization lability predicts cardiovascular mortality in the Sleep Heart Health Study.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, TU Dresden.

Background-The objective of this study was to quantify repolarization lability and its association with sex, sleep stage and cardiovascular mortality. Methods-We analyzed polysomnographic recordings of 2,263 participants enrolled in the Sleep heart health study (SHHS-2). Beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) was quantified for consecutive epochs of 5 minutes according to the dominant sleep stage (AWAKE, NREM2, NREM3, REM). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Bacterial Resistance and Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Toward Metal-Ion-doped DNA Complexes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Department of Physics , Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon 16419 , Korea.

DNA nanotechnology has laid a platform to construct a variety of custom-shaped nanoscale objects for functionalization of specific target materials to achieve programmability and molecular recognition. Herein, we prepared DNA nanostructures [namely, synthetic DNA rings (RDNA) and DNA duplexes extracted from salmon (SDNA)] containing metal ions (M) such as Cu, Ni, and Zn as payloads for delivery to exterminate highly pathologic hospital bacterial strains (e.g. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Modular Nanoparticulate Prodrug Design Enables Efficient Treatment of Solid Tumors Using Bioorthogonal Activation.

ACS Nano 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Systems Biology , Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston , Massachusetts 02114 , United States.

Prodrug strategies that facilitate localized and controlled activity of small-molecule therapeutics can reduce systemic exposure and improve pharmacokinetics, yet limitations in activation chemistry have made it difficult to assign tunable multifunctionality to prodrugs. Here, we present the design and application of a modular small-molecule caging strategy that couples bioorthogonal cleavage with a self-immolative linker and an aliphatic anchor. This strategy leverages recently discovered in vivo catalysis by a nanoencapsulated palladium compound (Pd-NP), which mediates alloxylcarbamate cleavage and triggers release of the activated drug. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Rehabilitation in systemic sclerosis: proposed personalised rehabilitation programme.

G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2018 Dec;40(4):248-256

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy; University of Pavia, Italy.

Objectives: Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune disease that causes chronic widespread obliterative vasculopathy of the small arteries associated with various degrees of tissue fibrosis. The prognosis of the disease depends largely on the visceral involvement; however musculoskeletal involvement is an important factor to functional disability. Suffering from a chronic auto-immune disease, such as Systemic Sclerosis, compromises the quality of life and the work ability. Read More

View Article
December 2018
  • Page 1 of 10990