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    The effect of heart failure and left ventricular assist device treatment on right ventricular mechanics: a computational study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 22;17(1):62. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Department of IT Convergence Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 61 Daehak-ro, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, 39177, Republic of Korea.
    Background And Aims: Although it is important to analyze the hemodynamic factors related to the right ventricle (RV) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, previous studies have focused only on the alteration of the ventricular shape and lack quantitative analysis of the various hemodynamic parameters. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed various hemodynamic parameters related to the RV under normal, heart failure (HF), and HF incorporated with continuous flow LVAD therapy by using a computational model.

    Methods: In this study, we combined a three-dimensional finite element electromechanical model of ventricles, which is based on human ventricular morphology captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a lumped model of the circulatory system and continuous flow LVAD function in order to construct an integrated model of an LVAD implanted-cardiovascular system. Read More

    Peripheral vascular disease assessment in the lower limb: a review of current and emerging non-invasive diagnostic methods.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 11;17(1):61. Epub 2018 May 11.
    The MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour & Development, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, 2750, Australia.
    Background: Worldwide, at least 200 million people are affected by peripheral vascular diseases (PVDs), including peripheral arterial disease (PAD), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The high prevalence and serious consequences of PVDs have led to the development of several diagnostic tools and clinical guidelines to assist timely diagnosis and patient management. Given the increasing number of diagnostic methods available, a comprehensive review of available technologies is timely in order to understand their limitations and direct future development effort. Read More

    Blood hyperviscosity identification with reflective spectroscopy of tongue tip based on principal component analysis combining artificial neural network.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 10;17(1):60. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
    Background: With spectral methods, noninvasive determination of blood hyperviscosity in vivo is very potential and meaningful in clinical diagnosis. In this study, 67 male subjects (41 health, and 26 hyperviscosity according to blood sample analysis results) participate.

    Methods: Reflectance spectra of subjects' tongue tips is measured, and a classification method bases on principal component analysis combined with artificial neural network model is built to identify hyperviscosity. Read More

    Hemodynamic effects of perfusion level of peripheral ECMO on cardiovascular system.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 9;17(1):59. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Rd., Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.
    Background: Peripheral ECMO is an effective cardiopulmonary support in clinical. The perfusion level could directly influence the performances and complications. However, there are few studies on the effects of the perfusion level on hemodynamics of peripheral ECMO. Read More

    Estimation of spatio-temporal parameters of gait from magneto-inertial measurement units: multicenter validation among Parkinson, mildly cognitively impaired and healthy older adults.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 9;17(1):58. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
    Background: The use of miniaturized magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMUs) allows for an objective evaluation of gait and a quantitative assessment of clinical outcomes. Spatial and temporal parameters are generally recognized as key metrics for characterizing gait. Although several methods for their estimate have been proposed, a thorough error analysis across different pathologies, multiple clinical centers and on large sample size is still missing. Read More

    The roles of mid-myocardial and epicardial cells in T-wave alternans development: a simulation study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 8;17(1):57. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, 4 Ks Trojdena Str., 02-109, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: The occurrence of T-wave alternans in electrocardiographic signals was recently linked to susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Thus, by detecting and comprehending the origins of T-wave alternans, it might be possible to prevent such events.

    Results: Here, we simulated T-wave alternans in a computer-generated human heart model by modulating the action potential duration and amplitude during the first part of the repolarization phase. Read More

    Anti-deception: reliable EEG-based biometrics with real-time capability from the neural response of face rapid serial visual presentation.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 3;17(1):55. Epub 2018 May 3.
    China National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, China.
    Background: The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation.

    Results: In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost. Read More

    Mobile GPU-based implementation of automatic analysis method for long-term ECG.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 3;17(1):56. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.
    Background: Long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the important diagnostic assistant approaches in capturing intermittent cardiac arrhythmias. Combination of miniaturized wearable holters and healthcare platforms enable people to have their cardiac condition monitored at home. The high computational burden created by concurrent processing of numerous holter data poses a serious challenge to the healthcare platform. Read More

    Simulation as a preoperative planning approach in advanced heart failure patients. A retrospective clinical analysis.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 2;17(1):52. Epub 2018 May 2.
    National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Modelling and simulation may become clinically applicable tools for detailed evaluation of the cardiovascular system and clinical decision-making to guide therapeutic intervention. Models based on pressure-volume relationship and zero-dimensional representation of the cardiovascular system may be a suitable choice given their simplicity and versatility. This approach has great potential for application in heart failure where the impact of left ventricular assist devices has played a significant role as a bridge to transplant and more recently as a long-term solution for non eligible candidates. Read More

    A new approach for analysis of heart rate variability and QT variability in long-term ECG recording.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 3;17(1):54. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Department of Epidemiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
    Background And Purpose: With the emergence of long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings that extend several days beyond the typical 24-48 h, the development of new tools to measure heart rate variability (HRV) and QT variability is needed to utilize the full potential of such extra-long-term ECG recordings.

    Methods: In this report, we propose a new nonlinear time-frequency analysis approach, the concentration of frequency and time (ConceFT), to study the HRV QT variability from extra-long-term ECG recordings. This approach is a generalization of Short Time Fourier Transform and Continuous Wavelet Transform approaches. Read More

    Clinical validation and assessment of aortic hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics simulations from computed tomography angiography.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 2;17(1):53. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 106, Zhong Shan Er Lu, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China.
    Background: Hemodynamic information including peak systolic pressure (PSP) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) carry an important role in evaluation and diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD). Since MDCTA cannot evaluate hemodynamic information directly, the aim of this study is to provide a noninvasive method based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, derived from multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) raw data, to analyze the aortic hemodynamics in infants with CHD, and validate these results against echocardiography and cardiac catheter measurements.

    Methods: This study included 25 patients (17 males, and 8 females; a median age of 2 years, range: 4 months-4 years) with CHD. Read More

    Proprioceptive impairments in high fall risk older adults: the effect of mechanical calf vibration on postural balance.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 2;17(1):51. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Arizona Center on Aging (ACOA), Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85724-5072, USA.
    Background: Impairments in proprioceptive mechanism with aging has been observed and associated with fall risk. The purpose of the current study was to assess proprioceptive deficits among high fall risk individuals in comparison with healthy participants, when postural performance was disturbed using low-frequency mechanical gastrocnemius vibratory stimulation.

    Methods: Three groups of participants were recruited: healthy young (n = 10; age = 23 ± 2 years), healthy elders (n = 10; age = 73 ± 3 years), and high fall risk elders (n = 10; age = 84 ± 9 years). Read More

    Localized instance fusion of MRI data of Alzheimer's disease for classification based on instance transfer ensemble learning.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 2;17(1):49. Epub 2018 May 2.
    College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400044, China.
    Background: Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is very important, and MRI is an effective imaging mode of Alzheimer's disease. There are many existing studies on the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on MRI data. However, there are no studies on the transfer learning between different datasets (including different subjects), thereby improving the sample size of target dataset indirectly. Read More

    The primary stability of different implants for intra-articular calcaneal fractures: an in vitro study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 May 2;17(1):50. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
    Background: Calcaneal fractures account for around 2% of all fractures and most of them are intra-articular fractures. Many implants have been used in the fixation of calcaneal fractures, but their biomechanical stability has not yet been well investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the primary stability of four fixations of calcaneal fracture. Read More

    Biomechanical analysis of plate systems for proximal humerus fractures: a systematic literature review.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 27;17(1):47. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Background: Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common in the human body but their management remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation with plates is one of the leading modes of operative treatment for these fractures. The development of technologies and techniques for these plates, during the recent decades, promise a bright future for their clinical use. Read More

    Relationship between movement time and hip moment impulse in the sagittal plane during sit-to-stand movement: a combined experimental and computer simulation study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 27;17(1):48. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata, Niigata, 950-3198, Japan.
    Background: The association between repetitive hip moment impulse and the progression of hip osteoarthritis is a recently recognized area of study. A sit-to-stand movement is essential for daily life and requires hip extension moment. Although a change in the sit-to-stand movement time may influence the hip moment impulse in the sagittal plane, this effect has not been examined. Read More

    Marine-derived protein kinase inhibitors for neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 24;17(1):46. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    College of Oceanology and Food Science, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou, 362000, China.
    Neuroinflammation is primarily characterized by overexpression of proinflammatory mediators produced by glial activation or immune cell infiltration. Several kinases have been shown to be critical mediators in neuroinflammation. One of the largest groups of kinases is protein kinases, which have been the second most studied group of drug targets after G-protein-coupled receptors. Read More

    Gamma rays excited radioluminescence tomographic imaging.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 24;17(1):45. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging of the Ministry of Education & School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, 710071, Shaanxi, China.
    Background: Radionuclide-excited luminescence imaging is an optical radionuclide imaging strategy to reveal the distributions of radioluminescent nanophosphors (RLNPs) inside small animals, which uses radioluminescence emitted from RLNPs when excited by high energy rays such as gamma rays generated during the decay of radiotracers used in clinical nuclear medicine imaging. Currently, there is no report of tomographic imaging based on radioluminescence.

    Methods: In this paper, we proposed a gamma rays excited radioluminescence tomography (GRLT) to reveal three-dimensional distributions of RLNPs inside a small animal using radioluminescence through image reconstruction from surface measurements of radioluminescent photons using an inverse algorithm. Read More

    Dynamic characteristics of oxygen consumption.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 23;17(1):44. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, 15 Broadway, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Previous studies have indicated that oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is one of the most accurate indices for assessing the cardiorespiratory response to exercise. In most existing studies, the response of [Formula: see text] is often roughly modelled as a first-order system due to the inadequate stimulation and low signal to noise ratio. To overcome this difficulty, this paper proposes a novel nonparametric kernel-based method for the dynamic modelling of [Formula: see text] response to provide a more robust estimation. Read More

    Should fluid dynamics be included in computer models of RF cardiac ablation by irrigated-tip electrodes?
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 20;17(1):43. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    BioMIT, Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Background: Although accurate modeling of the thermal performance of irrigated-tip electrodes in radiofrequency cardiac ablation requires the solution of a triple coupled problem involving simultaneous electrical conduction, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics, in certain cases it is difficult to combine the software with the expertise necessary to solve these coupled problems, so that reduced models have to be considered. We here focus on a reduced model which avoids the fluid dynamics problem by setting a constant temperature at the electrode tip. Our aim was to compare the reduced and full models in terms of predicting lesion dimensions and the temperatures reached in tissue and blood. Read More

    An extended OpenSim knee model for analysis of strains of connective tissues.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 17;17(1):42. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, 110016, India.
    Background: OpenSim musculoskeletal models provide an accurate simulation environment that eases limitations of in vivo and in vitro studies. In this work, a biomechanical knee model was formulated with femoral articular cartilages and menisci along with 25 connective tissue bundles representing ligaments and capsules. The strain patterns of the connective tissues in the presence of femoral articular cartilage and menisci in the OpenSim knee model was probed in a first of its kind study. Read More

    Simulation of phase contrast angiography for renal arterial models.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 16;17(1):41. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, ul. Kopcińskiego 22, 90-153, Lodz, Poland.
    Background: With the development of versatile magnetic resonance acquisition techniques there arises a need for more advanced imaging simulation tools to enable adequate image appearance prediction, measurement sequence design and testing thereof. Recently, there is a growing interest in phase contrast angiography (PCA) sequence due to the capabilities of blood flow quantification that it offers. Moreover, as it is a non-contrast enhanced protocol, it has become an attractive option in areas, where usage of invasive contrast agents is not indifferent for the imaged tissue. Read More

    Technologies to monitor the health of loaded skin tissues.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 12;17(1):40. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Skin Health Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.
    There are many situations where the skin and underlying soft tissues are compromised by mechanical loading in the form or pressure, or pressure in combination with shear. If sustained, this can lead to damage in the tissues particularly adjacent to bony prominences, resulting in chronic wounds. An array of bioengineering technologies have been adopted to assess the integrity of loaded soft tissues. Read More

    Quantitative MR thermometry based on phase-drift correction PRF shift method at 0.35 T.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 10;17(1):39. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Centers for Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, Anhui, China.
    Background: Noninvasive magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) at low-field using proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) is a promising technique for monitoring ablation temperature, since low-field MR scanners with open-configuration are more suitable for interventional procedures than closed systems. In this study, phase-drift correction PRFS with first-order polynomial fitting method was proposed to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative MR thermography during hyperthermia procedures in a 0.35 T open MR scanner. Read More

    Electrical performance of PEDOT:PSS-based textile electrodes for wearable ECG monitoring: a comparative study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Apr 2;17(1):38. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Centro de Bioingeniería, Facultad de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 #70-01, Medellin, 050031, Colombia.
    Background: Wearable textile electrodes for the detection of biopotentials are a promising tool for the monitoring and early diagnosis of chronic diseases. We present a comparative study of the electrical characteristics of four textile electrodes manufactured from common fabrics treated with a conductive polymer, a commercial fabric, and disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes. These characteristics will allow identifying the performance of the materials when used as ECG electrodes. Read More

    The FieldTrip-SimBio pipeline for EEG forward solutions.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 27;17(1):37. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Malmedyweg 15, 48149, Münster, Germany.
    Background: Accurately solving the electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem is crucial for precise EEG source analysis. Previous studies have shown that the use of multicompartment head models in combination with the finite element method (FEM) can yield high accuracies both numerically and with regard to the geometrical approximation of the human head. However, the workload for the generation of multicompartment head models has often been too high and the use of publicly available FEM implementations too complicated for a wider application of FEM in research studies. Read More

    A new CFD based non-invasive method for functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 22;17(1):36. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 West Youyi Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Accurate functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis is vital for decision making in coronary revascularization. With recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fractional flow reserve (FFR) can be derived non-invasively from coronary computed tomography angiography images (FFR) for functional measurement of stenosis. However, the accuracy of FFR is limited due to the approximate modeling approach of maximal hyperemia conditions. Read More

    Hemodynamics of cerebral bridging veins connecting the superior sagittal sinus based on numerical simulation.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 20;17(1):35. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, 230032, China.
    Background: The physiological and hemodynamic features of bridging veins involve wall shear stress (WSS) of the cerebral venous system. Based on the data of cadavers and computational fluid dynamics software pack, the hemodynamic physical models of bridging veins (BVs) connecting superior sagittal sinus (SSS) were established.

    Results: A total of 137 BVs formed two clusters along the SSS: anterior group and posterior group. Read More

    Influence of injection rates of calibrating standard solution on monitoring pulse indicator continuous cardiac output.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 16;17(1):34. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    General Surgery Department, The 180th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Quanzhou, 362000, Fujian, China.
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the influence of injection rates of calibrating standard solution on monitoring pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PICCO, made in Germany), and thereby to provide significant references for clinical practice.

    Methods: A total of 108 critical patients in stroke intensive care unit were identified. All these participants received transesophageal cardiac color Doppler ultrasound, and within 15 min PICCO equipment was utilized to monitor the relevant parameters, by means of 0 °C calibrating standard solution, and the injection speeds were 2-4, 5-7, and 8-10 s. Read More

    Camera-based photoplethysmography in an intraoperative setting.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 14;17(1):33. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, TU Dresden, Fetscherstraße 29, 01307, Dresden, Germany.
    Background: Camera-based photoplethysmography (cbPPG) is a measurement technique which enables remote vital sign monitoring by using cameras. To obtain valid plethysmograms, proper regions of interest (ROIs) have to be selected in the video data. Most automated selection methods rely on specific spatial or temporal features limiting a broader application. Read More

    Non-negative discriminative brain functional connectivity for identifying schizophrenia on resting-state fMRI.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 13;17(1):32. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Psychiatry, Affiliated Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.
    Background: Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome, and its causes have not been well determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the alteration of brain functional connectivity between schizophrenia and healthy control, and present a practical solution for accurately identifying schizophrenia at single-subject level.

    Methods: 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched healthy subjects were recruited to undergo the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. Read More

    Carotid DSA based CFD simulation in assessing the patient with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a preliminary study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 12;17(1):31. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Medical Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, No. 613, Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong Province, China.
    Background: Cerebrovascular events are frequently associated with hemodynamic disturbance caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. It is challenging to determine the ischemia-related carotid stenosis during the intervention only using digital subtracted angiography (DSA). Inspired by the performance of well-established FFRct technique in hemodynamic assessment of significant coronary stenosis, we introduced a pressure-based carotid arterial functional assessment (CAFA) index generated from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation in DSA data, and investigated its feasibility in the assessment of hemodynamic disturbance preliminarily using pressure-wired measurement and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI as references. Read More

    Influence of vascular geometry on local hemodynamic parameters: phantom and small rodent study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 2;17(1):30. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1068 Xueyuan Ave., Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518055, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Many studies have demonstrated that the geometry of the carotid bifurcation enables prediction of blood flow variation associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation. The phase angle between the arterial wall circumferential strain and its instantaneous wall shear stress is known as stress phase angle (SPA). This parameter is used to evaluate hemodynamic factors of atherogenesis. Read More

    Interlaboratory comparison of femur surface reconstruction from CT data compared to reference optical 3D scan.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Mar 2;17(1):29. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital of Munich (LMU), Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
    Background: The present study contrasts the accuracy of different reconstructed models with distinctive segmentation methods performed by various experts. Seven research groups reconstructed nine 3D models of one human femur based on an acquired CT image using their own computational methods. As a reference model for accuracy assessment, a 3D surface scan of the human femur was created using an optical measuring system. Read More

    A simulation study on the effects of neuronal ensemble properties on decoding algorithms for intracortical brain-machine interfaces.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 27;17(1):28. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Human Factors Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) harness movement information by sensing neuronal activities using chronic microelectrode implants to restore lost functions to patients with paralysis. However, neuronal signals often vary over time, even within a day, forcing one to rebuild a BMI every time they operate it. The term "rebuild" means overall procedures for operating a BMI, such as decoder selection, decoder training, and decoder testing. Read More

    3D marker-controlled watershed for kidney segmentation in clinical CT exams.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 27;17(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Informatics and Medical Equipment, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Roosevelta 40, 41-800, Zabrze, Poland.
    Background: Image segmentation is an essential and non trivial task in computer vision and medical image analysis. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most accessible medical examination techniques to visualize the interior of a patient's body. Among different computer-aided diagnostic systems, the applications dedicated to kidney segmentation represent a relatively small group. Read More

    Spasticity assessment based on the Hilbert-Huang transform marginal spectrum entropy and the root mean square of surface electromyography signals: a preliminary study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 27;17(1):27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, No. 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, 230009, China.
    Background: Most of the objective and quantitative methods proposed for spasticity measurement are not suitable for clinical application, and methods for surface electromyography (sEMG) signal processing are mainly limited to the time-domain. This study aims to quantify muscle activity in the time-frequency domain, and develop a practical clinical method for the objective and reliable evaluation of the spasticity based on the Hilbert-Huang transform marginal spectrum entropy (HMSEN) and the root mean square (RMS) of sEMG signals.

    Methods: Twenty-six stroke patients with elbow flexor spasticity participated in the study. Read More

    Blood flow characteristics of diabetic patients with complications detected by optical measurement.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 21;17(1):25. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common diseases worldwide. Uncontrolled and prolonged hyperglycemia can cause diabetic complications, which reduce the quality of life of patients. Diabetic complications are common in DM patients. Read More

    Next-generation, personalised, model-based critical care medicine: a state-of-the art review of in silico virtual patient models, methods, and cohorts, and how to validation them.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 20;17(1):24. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    GIGA In Silico Medicine, University of Liege, 4000, Liege, Belgium.
    Critical care, like many healthcare areas, is under a dual assault from significantly increasing demographic and economic pressures. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are highly variable in response to treatment, and increasingly aging populations mean ICUs are under increasing demand and their cohorts are increasingly ill. Equally, patient expectations are growing, while the economic ability to deliver care to all is declining. Read More

    A technical review and evaluation of implantable sensors for hearing devices.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 13;17(1):23. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Laboratory of Vibration and Acoustics, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Most commercially available cochlear implants and hearing aids use microphones as sensors for capturing the external sound field. These microphones are in general located in an external element, which is also responsible for processing the sound signal. However, the presence of the external element is the cause of several problems such as discomfort, impossibility of being used during physical activities and sleeping, and social stigma. Read More

    Remote photoplethysmography with constrained ICA using periodicity and chrominance constraints.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 9;17(1):22. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Le2i UMR6306, CNRS, Arts et Métiers, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 21000, Dijon, France.
    Background: Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) has been in the forefront recently for measuring cardiac pulse rates from live or recorded videos. It finds advantages in scenarios requiring remote monitoring, such as medicine and fitness, where contact based monitoring is limiting and cumbersome. The blood volume pulse, defined as the pulsative flow of arterial blood, gives rise to periodic changes in the skin color which are then quantified to estimate a temporal signal. Read More

    Semi-automated ultrasound guidance applied to nasogastrojejunal tube replacement for enteral nutrition in critically ill adults.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 7;17(1):21. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518035, People's Republic of China.
    Background And Objective: At present, the enteral nutrition approaches via nose and duodenum (or nose and jejunum) are the preferred method of nutritional support in the medical engineering field, given the superiority of in line with physiological processes and no serious complication. In this study, the authors adopted saline as the acoustic window, and gave enteral nutrition support to critically ill patients, via the nasogastrojejunal approach guided by semi-automated ultrasound. These above patients benefited a lot from this kind of nutrition support treatment, and we aimed to report the detailed information. Read More

    Advances in intelligent diagnosis methods for pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 7;17(1):20. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Radiology Department and Interventional Radiology Center, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Affiliated Lishui Hospital of Zhejiang University, The Central Hospital of Zhejiang Lishui, Lishui, 323000, People's Republic of China.
    Pulmonary nodule is one of the important lesions of lung cancer, mainly divided into two categories of solid nodules and ground glass nodules. The improvement of diagnosis of lung cancer has significant clinical significance, which could be realized by machine learning techniques. At present, there have been a lot of researches focusing on solid nodules. Read More

    Computer aided sentiment analysis of anorexia nervosa patients' vocabulary.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 2;17(1):19. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Clinical Hospital No. 1 in Zabrze, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 15-18 3th Maja, 41-800, Zabrze, Poland.
    Background: Diagnosing and treating anorexia nervosa is an important challenge for modern psychiatry. Taking into account a connection between the mental state of a person and the characteristics of their language, this paper presents developed and tested method for analyzing the written statements of patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy individuals, including the identification of keywords.

    Methods: Due to the short nature of the texts, which is related to the difficulty of expressing oneself about one's body when suffering from anorexia, the bag of words approach was used for documents' information representation. Read More

    Windkessel model of hemodynamic state supported by a pulsatile ventricular assist device in premature ventricle contraction.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 2;17(1):18. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Program of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Counter-pulsation control (CPC) by ventricular assist devices (VADs) is believed to reduce cardiac load and increase coronary perfusion. However, patients with VADs have a higher risk of arrhythmia, which may cause the CPC to fail. Consequently, CPC has not been applied by VADs in clinical practice. Read More

    Effect of pulsatile flow perfusion on decellularization.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 1;17(1):15. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Program of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Decellularized animal organs have been used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. To make a properly functioning scaffolds, the extracellular matrix (ECM) components must be preserved after decellularization. Because pulsatile flow is known to be beneficial for tissue perfusion, pulsatile perfusion of a detergent might decrease the exposure time of the tissues to the detergent used for decellularization. Read More

    Machine learning and medicine: book review and commentary.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 1;17(1):17. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    This article is a review of the book "Master machine learning algorithms, discover how they work and implement them from scratch" (ISBN: not available, 37 USD, 163 pages) edited by Jason Brownlee published by the Author, edition, v1.10 . Read More

    Detection of sleep disordered breathing severity using acoustic biomarker and machine learning techniques.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Feb 1;17(1):16. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Music and Audio Research Group, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.
    Purpose: Breathing sounds during sleep are altered and characterized by various acoustic specificities in patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). This study aimed to identify acoustic biomarkers indicative of the severity of SDB by analyzing the breathing sounds collected from a large number of subjects during entire overnight sleep.

    Methods: The participants were patients who presented at a sleep center with snoring or cessation of breathing during sleep. Read More

    Video pulse rate variability analysis in stationary and motion conditions.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Jan 29;17(1):11. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Group of Biomedical and Electronic Instrumentation, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: In the last few years, some studies have measured heart rate (HR) or heart rate variability (HRV) parameters using a video camera. This technique focuses on the measurement of the small changes in skin colour caused by blood perfusion. To date, most of these works have obtained HRV parameters in stationary conditions, and there are practically no studies that obtain these parameters in motion scenarios and by conducting an in-depth statistical analysis. Read More

    A novel one arm motorized walker for hemiplegic stroke survivors: a feasibility study.
    Biomed Eng Online 2018 Jan 30;17(1):14. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Kyungnam University, 7 Kyungnamdaehak-ro, Masanhappo-gu, Changwon, Gyeongsangnam-do, 51767, Republic of Korea.
    Background: A hemiplegic stroke survivor with a moderate to severe gait disturbance may have difficulty walking using a one-arm walker. This study aimed to test the safety and feasibility of a prototype one-arm motorized walker that uses a power-driven device to provide gait assistance to hemiplegic stroke survivors with moderate to severe gait disturbances.

    Methods: A one-arm motorized walker with a power-driven device was developed and tested with respect to 10 distinct variables, including weight, degrees of freedom, handle, handle substitution function, two-sided use function, variable handle height, redirecting function, electric moving parts through the handle control, brake function using the handle control, folding chairs, and design stability. Read More

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