Background: We have developed magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs) that contained magnetic nanoparticles as heating mediator for applying them to local hyperthermia. The heating performance of the MCLs is significantly affected by the property of the incorporated magnetite nanoparticles. We estimated heating capacity of magnetite nanoparticles by measuring its specific absorption rate (SAR) against irradiation of the alternating magnetic field (AMF). Read More
A series of experiments on rats have been performed, to study the effects of long time (50 days) exposure to electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency (ELF, i.e. less than 100 Hz) and amplitude (non thermal), testing whether the metabolic processes would be affected. Read More
Background: We have developed magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) and applied them as a mediator of local hyperthermia. MCLs can generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In this study, the in vivo effect of hyperthermia mediated by MCLs was examined using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary cancer as a spontaneous cancer model. Read More
In the present work the results of the known investigation of the influence of combined static (40 microT) and alternating (amplitude of 40 nT) parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid, were successfully replicated. Fourteen experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed into a Plexiglas reaction vessel at application of static voltage to golden electrodes placed into the solution. Six experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed in a Plexiglas reaction vessel, without electrodes, within an electric field, generated by means of a capacitor at the voltage of 27 mV. Read More
In this paper we studied the effects of external fields' polarization on the coupling of pure magnetic fields into human body. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate the current densities induced in a 1 cm resolution anatomically based model with proper tissue conductivities. Twenty different tissues have been considered in this investigation and scaled FDTD technique is used to convert the results of computer code run in 15 MHz to low frequencies which are encountered in the vicinity of industrial induction heating and melting devices. Read More
The aim of this study was to prepare biodegradable sustained release magnetite microspheres sized between 1 to 2 microm. The microspheres with or without magnetic materials were prepared by a W/O/W double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as the biodegradable matrix forming polymer. Effects of manufacturing and formulation variables on particle size were investigated with non-magnetic microspheres. Read More
Background: To quantitatively compare in-vitro and in vivo membrane transport studies of targeted delivery, one needs characterization of the magnetically-induced mobility of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Flux densities, gradients, and nanoparticle properties were measured in order to quantify the magnetic force on the SPION in both an artificial cochlear round window membrane (RWM) model and the guinea pig RWM.
Methods: Three-dimensional maps were created for flux density and magnetic gradient produced by a 24-well casing of 4. Read More
Background: High magnetic fields are becoming increasingly prevalent components of non-invasive, biomedical imaging tools (such as MRI), thus, an understanding of the molecular impacts associated with these field strengths in biological systems is of central importance. The biological impact of magnetic field strengths up to 30 Tesla were investigated in this study through the use of transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter.
Methods: Magnetic field induced Adh/GUS activity was evaluated with histochemical staining to assess tissue specific expression and distribution, and with quantitative, spectrofluometric assays to measure degree of activation. Read More
Background: Magnetic Split-flow thin (SPLITT) fractionation is a newly developed technique for separating magnetically susceptible particles. Particles with different field-induced velocities can be separated into two fractions by adjusting applied magnetic forces and flow-rates at inlets and outlets.
Methods: Magnetic particles, Dynabeads, were used to test this new approach of field-induced velocity for susceptibility determination using magnetic SF at different magnetic field intensities. Read More
Background: Magnetic microparticles being ingested by alveolar macrophages can be used as a monitor for intracellular phagosome motions and cytoskeletal mechanical properties. These studies can be performed in the human lung after voluntary inhalation. The influence of cigarette smoking and lung diseases on cytoskeleton dependent functions was studied. Read More
Objective: To determine if there is any non-linearity in the biomagnetic recordings of uterine myomas and to find any differences that may be present in the mechanisms underlying their signal dynamics.
Methods: Twenty-four women were included in the study. Sixteen of them were characterised with large myomas and 8 with small ones. Read More
Background: The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Read More
Observations of magnetic field effects on biological systems have often been contradictory. For amphibian eggs, a review of the available literature suggests that part of the discrepancies might be resolved by considering a previously neglected parameter for morphological alterations induced by magnetic fields--the jelly layers that normally surround the egg and are often removed in laboratory studies for easier cell handling. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we observed the morphology of fertilizable Xenopus laevis eggs with and without jelly coat that were subjected to static magnetic fields of up to 9. Read More
BACKGROUND: Magnetic nanoparticles have been significantly used for coupling with biomolecules, due to their unique properties. METHODS: Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal co-precipitation of ferric and ferrous chloride using two different base solutions. Glucose oxidase was bound to the particles by direct attachment via carbodiimide activation or by thiophene acetylation of magnetic nanoparticles. Read More
BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate altered metabolism and enzyme kinetics for various organisms, as well as changes of neuronal functions and behaviour of higher animals, when they were exposed to specific combinations of weak static and alternating low frequency electromagnetic fields. Field strengths and frequencies, as well as properties of involved ions were related by a linear equation, known as the formula of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, abbreviation mentioned first by Liboff). Under certain conditions already a aqueous solution of the amino acid and neurotransmitter glutamate shows this effect. Read More
Isolation and separation of specific molecules is used in almost all areas of biosciences and biotechnology. Diverse procedures can be used to achieve this goal. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the development and application of magnetic separation techniques, which employ small magnetic particles. Read More
BACKGROUND: Magnetically marked capsules serve for the analysis of peristalsis and throughput times within the intestinal tract. Moreover, they can be used for the targeted disposal of drugs. The capsules get localized in time by field measurements with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer array. Read More
BACKGROUND: Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. METHODS: Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80-120 microm were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Read More
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a physical method to prepare copper-nickel alloy particles in the sub-micron range for possible self controlled magnetic hyperthermia treatment of cancer is described. It is reported that an increase in tumor temperature decreases the tumor resistance to chemo- and radiation therapies. Self controlled heating at the tumor site to avoid spot heating is managed by controlling the Curie temperature of the magnetic particles. Read More
BACKGROUND: We have developed magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) and applied them to local hyperthermia as a mediator. MCLs have a positive charge and generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) by hysteresis loss. In this study, the effect of hyperthermia using MCLs was examined in an in vivo study of hamster osteosarcoma. Read More
BACKGROUND: Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites. METHODS: A biocompatible magnetic gel film has been synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol. Read More
BACKGROUND: There are several reports that indicate a linkage between exposure to power frequency (50 - 60 Hz) magnetic fields with abnormalities in the early embryonic development of the chicken. The present study was designed to understand whether power frequency electromagnetic fields could act as an environmental insult and invoke any neurochemical or toxicological changes in developing chick embryo model. METHODS: Fertilized chicken eggs were subjected to continuous exposure to magnetic fields (50 Hz) of varying intensities (5, 50 or 100 microT) for a period of up to 15 days. Read More
OBJECTIVE: To describe pre- and post-methotrexate (MTX) therapy images from pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine contrast following chemotherapy for post-partum hemorrhage secondary to placenta increta. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented 4 weeks post-partum complaining of intermittent vaginal bleeding. She underwent dilatation and curettage immediately after vaginal delivery for suspected retained placental tissue but 28 d after delivery, the serum beta-hCG persisted at 156 IU/mL. Read More
Magnetic separation technology, using magnetic particles, is quick and easy method for sensitive and reliable capture of specific proteins, genetic material and other biomolecules. The technique offers an advantage in terms of subjecting the analyte to very little mechanical stress compared to other methods. Secondly, these methods are non-laborious, cheap and often highly scalable. Read More