3,719 results match your criteria Bilingualism-language And Cognition[Journal]


Instance-of-object-kind representations.

Cognition 2019 Apr 16;189:209-220. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Canada.

We naturally think and talk about the objects we encounter as instances of one or another kind of object (e.g. as a dog). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Linguistic conventionality and the role of epistemic reasoning in children's mutual exclusivity inferences.

Cognition 2019 Apr 15;189:193-208. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

University of California, San Diego, United States.

To interpret an interlocutor's use of a novel word (e.g., "give me the papaya"), children typically exclude referents that they already have labels for (like an "apple"), and expect the word to refer to something they do not have a label for (like the papaya). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Better than native: Tone language experience enhances English lexical stress discrimination in Cantonese-English bilingual listeners.

Cognition 2019 Apr 13;189:188-192. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, United States; Basque Center on Cognition, Brain, and Language, Spain; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Spain.

While many second language (L2) listeners are known to struggle when discriminating non-native features absent in their first language (L1), no study has reported that L2 listeners perform better than native listeners in this regard. The present study tested whether Cantonese-English bilinguals were better in discriminating English lexical stress in individual words or pseudowords than native English listeners, even though lexical stress is absent in Cantonese. In experiments manipulating acoustic, phonotactic, and lexical cues, Cantonese-English bilingual adults exhibited superior performance in discriminating English lexical stress than native English listeners across all phonotactic/lexical conditions when the fundamental frequency (f0) cue to lexical stress was present. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Does the implicit outcomes expectancies shape learning and memory processes?

Cognition 2019 Apr 13;189:181-187. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, Universidad de Almería, Spain; CERNEP Research Center, Universidad de Almería, Spain. Electronic address:

Does the explicit or implicit knowledge about the consequences of our choices shape learning and memory processes? This seems to be the case according to previous studies demonstrating improvements in learning and retention of symbolic relations and in visuospatial recognition memory when each correct choice is reinforced with its own unique and explicit outcome (the differential outcomes procedure, DOP). In the present study, we aim to extend these findings by exploring the impact of the DOP under conditions of non-conscious processing. To test for this, both the outcomes (Experiment 1A) and the sample stimuli (Experiment 1B) were presented under subliminal (non-conscious) and supraliminal conditions in a delayed visual recognition memory task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Visual perception of shape-transforming processes: 'Shape Scission'.

Cognition 2019 Apr 12;189:167-180. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Shape-deforming processes (e.g., squashing, bending, twisting) can radically alter objects' shapes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Cognitive science of political thought: Some final reflections.

Authors:
Elke U Weber

Cognition 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Princeton University, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.020DOI Listing

Hierarchical structure priming from mathematics to two- and three-site relative clause attachment.

Cognition 2019 Apr 8;189:155-166. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia; Northumbria University Newcastle, United Kingdom.

A number of recent studies found evidence for shared structural representations across different cognitive domains such as mathematics, music, and language. For instance, Scheepers et al. (2011) showed that English speakers' choices of relative clause (RC) attachments in partial sentences like The tourist guide mentioned the bells of the church that … can be influenced by the structure of previously solved prime equations such as 80-(9 + 1) × 5 (making high RC-attachments more likely) versus 80-9 + 1 × 5 (making low RC-attachments more likely). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.021DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Visual form perception is fundamental for both reading comprehension and arithmetic computation.

Cognition 2019 Apr 3;189:141-154. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Advanced Innovation Center for Future Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Siegler Center for Innovative Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

Visual perception has been found to be a critical factor for reading comprehension and arithmetic computation in separate lines of research with different measures of visual form perception. The current study of 1099 Chinese elementary school students investigated whether the same visual form perception (assessed by a geometric figure matching task) underlies both reading comprehension and arithmetic computation. The results showed that visual form perception had close relations with both reading comprehension and arithmetic computation, even after controlling for age, gender, and cognitive factors such as processing speed, attention, working memory, visuo-spatial processing, and general intelligence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.014DOI Listing
April 2019
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The development of symmetry concept in preschool children.

Cognition 2019 Apr 3;189:131-140. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, China.

Young children are exposed to symmetrical figures frequently before they are taught the concept of symmetry, which is a valuable experience for the development of geometry; however, limited research has explored how this concept develops. This study investigated the developmental sequence of "general symmetry" concept and "specific symmetry" concepts (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.022DOI Listing
April 2019
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Collective benefit in joint perceptual judgments: Partial roles of shared environments, meta-cognition, and feedback.

Cognition 2019 Apr 3;189:116-130. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Oktober 6 utca 7, H-1051 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Recent research has demonstrated that two persons can optimally combine their observations to make better decisions when they can verbally communicate their confidence to each other. The present study investigated whether non-verbal interaction in a shared environment can be sufficient to achieve similar collective benefit. Pairs of individuals performed a localization task in a shared virtual 3D environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.016DOI Listing
April 2019
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There's more to "sparkle" than meets the eye: Knowledge of vision and light verbs among congenitally blind and sighted individuals.

Cognition 2019 Mar 30;189:105-115. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States.

We examined the contribution of first-person sensory experience to concepts by comparing the meanings of perception (visual/tactile) and emission (light/sound) verbs among congenitally blind (N = 25) and sighted speakers (N = 22). Participants judged semantic similarity for pairs of verbs referring to events of visual (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.017DOI Listing
March 2019
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Preschoolers and multi-digit numbers: A path to mathematics through the symbols themselves.

Cognition 2019 Mar 29;189:89-104. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Indiana University, United States; School of Psychology, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK.

Numerous studies from developmental psychology have suggested that human symbolic representation of numbers is built upon the evolutionally old capacity for representing quantities that is shared with other species. Substantial research from mathematics education also supports the idea that mathematical concepts are best learned through their corresponding physical representations. We argue for an independent pathway to learning "big" multi-digit symbolic numbers that focuses on the symbol system itself. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.013DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Learning mechanisms in cue reweighting.

Cognition 2019 Mar 28;189:76-88. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon, United States.

Feedback has been shown to be effective in shifting attention across perceptual cues to a phonological contrast in speech perception (Francis, Baldwin & Nusbaum, 2000). However, the learning mechanisms behind this process remain obscure. We compare the predictions of supervised error-driven learning (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and reinforcement learning (Sutton & Barto, 1998) using computational simulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Passively learned spatial navigation cues evoke reinforcement learning reward signals.

Cognition 2019 Mar 27;189:65-75. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Victoria, Canada.

Since the suggestion by Tolman (1948) that both rodents and humans create cognitive maps during navigation, the specifics of how navigators learn about their environment has been mired in debate. One facet of this debate is whether or not the creation of cognitive maps - also known as allocentric navigation - involves reinforcement learning. Here, we demonstrate a role for reinforcement learning during allocentric navigation using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.015DOI Listing
March 2019
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Choking under experimenter's presence: Impact on proactive control and practical consequences for psychological science.

Cognition 2019 Mar 27;189:60-64. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Université Clermont-Auvergne, CNRS, Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale et Cognitive (LAPSCO), F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Evidence accumulated for more than a century on audience effects shows that being watched by others typically impairs performance on difficult tasks. However, recent research under the label of « choking under pressure » suggests that this performance impairment is, ironically, specific to the individuals who are the most qualified to succeed-those with a high working memory capacity (WMC). Here, we predicted and found that being watched by evaluative others such as the experimenter undermines proactive control on which the high-WMC individuals rely the more. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.018DOI Listing

Braille readers break mirror invariance for both visual Braille and Latin letters.

Cognition 2019 Mar 27;189:55-59. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Center for Research in Cognition & Neurosciences (CRCN), Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F. Roosevelt, 50 CP 191, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.

For this study, we started from the observation that the poor adequacy of a script to the requirements of the human visual system strongly impacts some aspects of reading expertise (e.g., fluent reading). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Time pressure disrupts level-2, but not level-1, visual perspective calculation: A process-dissociation analysis.

Cognition 2019 Mar 27;189:41-54. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology and Rock Ethics Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Reasoning about other people's mental states has long been assumed to require active deliberation. Yet, evidence from indirect measures suggests that adults and children commonly display behavior indicative of having incidentally calculated both what other agents see (level-1 perspective taking) and how they see it (level-2 perspective taking). Here, we investigated the efficiency of such perspective calculation in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.002DOI Listing

Mental attribution is not sufficient or necessary to trigger attentional orienting to gaze.

Cognition 2019 Mar 25;189:35-40. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

University of Toronto, Canada.

Attention can be shifted in the direction that another person is looking, but the role played by an observer's mental attribution to the looker is controversial. And whether mental attribution to the looker is sufficient to trigger an attention shift is unknown. The current study introduces a novel paradigm to investigate this latter issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Statistical learning and Gestalt-like principles predict melodic expectations.

Cognition 2019 Mar 23;189:23-34. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155, United States; Azrieli Program in Brain, Mind, & Consciousness, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Canada; Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies, Harvard University, United States.

Expectation, or prediction, has become a major theme in cognitive science. Music offers a powerful system for studying how expectations are formed and deployed in the processing of richly structured sequences that unfold rapidly in time. We ask to what extent expectations about an upcoming note in a melody are driven by two distinct factors: Gestalt-like principles grounded in the auditory system (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.015DOI Listing

Cross-situational learning in a Zipfian environment.

Cognition 2019 Mar 20;189:11-22. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Both adults and children have shown impressive cross-situational word learning in which they leverage the statistics of word usage across many different scenes in order to isolate specific word meanings (e.g., Yu & Smith, 2007). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.005DOI Listing

The role of causal beliefs in political identity and voting.

Cognition 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, USA.

An emerging literature in psychology and political science has identified political identity as an important driver of political decisions. However, less is known about how a person's political identity is incorporated into their broader self-concept and why it influences some people more than others. We examined the role of political identity in representations of the self-concept as one determinant of people's political behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.003DOI Listing

Did that just happen? Event segmentation influences enumeration and working memory for simple overlapping visual events.

Cognition 2019 Jun 18;187:188-197. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Yale University, United States. Electronic address:

For working memory to be efficient, it is important not only to remember, but also to forget-thus freeing up memory for additional information. But what triggers forgetting? Beyond continuous temporal decay, memory is thought to be effectively 'flushed' to some degree at discrete event boundaries-i.e. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.002DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads

Monkeys are curious about counterfactual outcomes.

Cognition 2019 Mar 16;189:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, and Center for Neuroengineering University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States.

Many non-human animals show exploratory behaviors. It remains unclear whether any possess human-like curiosity. We previously proposed three criteria for applying the term curiosity to animal behavior: (1) the subject is willing to sacrifice reward to obtain information, (2) the information provides no immediate instrumental or strategic benefit, and (3) the amount the subject is willing to pay depends systematically on the amount of information available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Manual directional gestures facilitate cross-modal perceptual learning.

Cognition 2019 Jun 14;187:178-187. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Division of Arts and Sciences, New York University Shanghai, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics (Ministry of Education), School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; NYU-ECNU Institute of Brain and Cognitive Science at NYU Shanghai, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Action and perception interact in complex ways to shape how we learn. In the context of language acquisition, for example, hand gestures can facilitate learning novel sound-to-meaning mappings that are critical to successfully understanding a second language. However, the mechanisms by which motor and visual information influence auditory learning are still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Individual differences in the effects of priors on perception: A multi-paradigm approach.

Cognition 2019 Jun 13;187:167-177. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Penal Law, University of Tartu, Estonia.

The present study investigated individual differences in how much subjects rely on prior information, such as expectations or knowledge, when faced with perceptual ambiguity. The behavioural performance of forty-four participants was measured on four different visual paradigms (Mooney face recognition, illusory contours, blur detection and representational momentum) in which priors have been shown to affect perception. In addition, questionnaires were used to measure autistic and schizotypal traits in the non-clinical population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.008DOI Listing

The need for intellectual diversity in psychological science: Our own studies of actively open-minded thinking as a case study.

Cognition 2019 Jun 13;187:156-166. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

York University, Canada. Electronic address:

Actively open-minded thinking (AOT) is measured by questionnaire items that tap the willingness to consider alternative opinions, the sensitivity to evidence contradictory to current beliefs, the willingness to postpone closure, and reflective thought. AOT has been found to be a strong predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks and of the avoidance of reasoning traps such as superstitious thinking and belief in conspiracy theories. Recently, several studies that have employed short forms of the AOT scale have shown startlingly high negative correlations with religiosity (in the range of -0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Adults imitate to send a social signal.

Cognition 2019 Jun 13;187:150-155. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Humans frequently imitate each other's actions with high fidelity, and different reasons have been proposed for why they do so. Here we test the hypothesis that imitation can act as a social signal, with imitation occurring with greater fidelity when a participant is being watched. In a preregistered study, 30 pairs of naïve participants played an augmented-reality game involving moving blocks in space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Individual differences in spelling ability influence phonological processing during visual word recognition.

Cognition 2019 Jun 13;187:139-149. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.

In the research reported here, we investigated how phonological processing in the lexical decision task is influenced by individual differences in the reading and spelling abilities of participants. We used phonological neighborhood spread as a measure of phonological processing. Spread refers to the number of phoneme positions in a word that can be changed to form a phonological neighbor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.015DOI Listing

Investigating the relationship between fast mapping, retention, and generalisation of words in children with autism spectrum disorder and typical development.

Cognition 2019 Jun 9;187:126-138. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YF, United Kingdom(1); Faculty of Humanities, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, P.O Box 19268, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

While many studies have investigated how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) impacts how children identify the meanings of new words, this task alone does not constitute learning. Here we investigate fast (referent selection) and slow (retention, generalisation) word learning processes as an integrated system and explore relationships between these mechanisms in ASD and typical development. In Study 1, children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children matched on receptive vocabulary utilised mutual exclusivity to identify referents of unfamiliar words, but showed substantially reduced accuracy on delayed retention and generalisation trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Emotional arousal amplifies competitions across goal-relevant representation: A neurocomputational framework.

Cognition 2019 Jun 8;187:108-125. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, USA.

Emotional arousal often facilitates memory for some aspects of an event while impairing memory for other aspects of the same event. Across three experiments, we found that emotional arousal amplifies competition among goal-relevant representations, such that arousal impairs memory for multiple goal-relevant representations while enhancing memory for solo goal-relevant information. We also present a computational model to explain the mechanisms by which emotional arousal can modulate memory in opposite ways via the local/synaptic-level noradrenergic system. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.011DOI Listing
June 2019
5 Reads

Thought as a determinant of political opinion.

Cognition 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Tufts University, United States.

Recent political events around the world, including the apparently sudden rise of populism and decline of democratic zeal, have surprised many of us and offered a window onto how people form beliefs and attitudes about the wider world. Cognitive scientists have tended to view belief and attitude formation from one of three perspectives: as a process of deliberative reasoning, as a gut reaction modulated by feelings, or as a cultural phenomenon grounded in partisan relationships. This special issue on the cognitive science of political thought brings a variety of voices to bear on the issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.014DOI Listing

Sensorimotor contingency modulates breakthrough of virtual 3D objects during a breaking continuous flash suppression paradigm.

Cognition 2019 Jun 7;187:95-107. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, United Kingdom; Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, United Kingdom.

To investigate how embodied sensorimotor interactions shape subjective visual experience, we developed a novel combination of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) within an adapted breaking continuous flash suppression (bCFS) paradigm. In a first experiment, participants manipulated novel virtual 3D objects, viewed through a head-mounted display, using three interlocking cogs. This setup allowed us to manipulate the sensorimotor contingencies governing interactions with virtual objects, while characterising the effects on subjective visual experience by measuring breakthrough times from bCFS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.003DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Reconsidering unconscious persistence: Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their indirect expression in later thoughts.

Cognition 2019 Jun 7;187:78-94. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

When we seek to forget unwelcome memories, does the suppressed content still exert an unconscious influence on our thoughts? Although intentionally stopping retrieval of a memory reduces later episodic retention for the suppressed trace, it remains unclear the extent to which suppressed content persists in indirectly influencing mental processes. Here we tested whether inhibitory control processes underlying retrieval suppression alter the influence of a memory's underlying semantic content on later thought. To achieve this, across two experiments, we tested whether suppressing episodic retrieval of to-be-excluded memories reduced the indirect expression of the unwanted content on an apparently unrelated test of problem solving: the remote associates test (RAT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446185PMC

Attentional modulation of masked semantic priming by visible and masked task cues.

Cognition 2019 Jun 2;187:62-77. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

University of Würzburg, Department of Psychology, Germany.

In contrast to classical theories of cognitive control, recent evidence suggests that cognitive control and unconscious automatic processing influence each other. First, masked semantic priming, an index of unconscious automatic processing, depends on attention to semantics induced by a previously executed task. Second, cognitive control operations (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.013DOI Listing

Selective exposure partly relies on faulty affective forecasts.

Cognition 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, United States.

People preferentially consume information that aligns with their prior beliefs, contributing to polarization and undermining democracy. Five studies (collective N = 2455) demonstrate that such "selective exposure" partly stems from faulty affective forecasts. Specifically, political partisans systematically overestimate the strength of negative affect that results from exposure to opposing views. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.010DOI Listing

It depends: Partisan evaluation of conditional probability importance.

Cognition 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Decision Research and University of Oregon, United States.

Policies to suppress rare events such as terrorism often restrict co-occurring categories such as Muslim immigration. Evaluating restrictive policies requires clear thinking about conditional probabilities. For example, terrorism is extremely rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.020DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The contribution of visual attention and declining verbal memory abilities to age-related route learning deficits.

Cognition 2019 Jun 28;187:50-61. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology, Ageing and Dementia Research Centre, Bournemouth University, UK.

Our ability to learn unfamiliar routes declines in typical and atypical ageing. The reasons for this decline, however, are not well understood. Here we used eye-tracking to investigate how ageing affects people's ability to attend to navigationally relevant information and to select unique objects as landmarks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.012DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Multisensory enhancement of attention depends on whether you are already paying attention.

Cognition 2019 Jun 27;187:38-49. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

University of Sussex, UK. Electronic address:

Multisensory stimuli are argued to capture attention more effectively than unisensory stimuli due to their ability to elicit a super-additive neuronal response. However, behavioural evidence for enhanced multisensory attentional capture is mixed. Furthermore, the notion of multisensory enhancement of attention conflicts with findings suggesting that multisensory integration may itself be dependent upon top-down attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.008DOI Listing

A colorful advantage in iconic memory.

Cognition 2019 Jun 22;187:32-37. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1025 W. Johnson St. Madison, WI 53706, United States.

Synesthesia is a benign neurodevelopmental condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality evokes experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (Simner and Hubbard, 2013). In grapheme-color synesthesia (GCS), which is experienced by 1-2% of adults, synesthetes reliably and involuntarily experience specific colors when viewing blackand-white graphemes. Previous case-studies have identified synesthetes with spectacular memory (Luria, 1968; Smilek, Dixon, Cudahy, & Merikle, 2001) and group studies have found advantages for synesthetes compared to nonsynesthetes in long-term memory (Rothen, Meier, & Ward, 2012). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.009DOI Listing

Reciprocal information flow and role distribution support joint action coordination.

Cognition 2019 Jun 22;187:21-31. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

Many joint actions require task partners to temporally coordinate actions that follow different spatial patterns. This creates the need to find trade-offs between temporal coordination and spatial alignment. To study coordination under incongruent spatial and temporal demands, we devised a novel coordination task that required task partners to synchronize their actions while tracing different shapes that implied conflicting velocity profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446186PMC

Neural evidence for Bayesian trial-by-trial adaptation on the N400 during semantic priming.

Cognition 2019 Jun 20;187:10-20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, USA; Department of Psychiatry and the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA.

When semantic information is activated by a context prior to new bottom-up input (i.e. when a word is predicted), semantic processing of that incoming word is typically facilitated, attenuating the amplitude of the N400 event related potential (ERP) - a direct neural measure of semantic processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.001DOI Listing

Learning correspondences between magnitudes, symbols and words: Evidence for a triple code model of arithmetic development.

Cognition 2019 Jun 20;187:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Australian Catholic University, Australia. Electronic address:

According to the Triple Code Model, early arithmetic development depends on learning the mappings between non-verbal representations of magnitude (quantity) and symbolic verbal (number words) and visual (Arabic numerals) representations of number. We examined this hypothesis in a sample of 166 4- to 7-year old children. Children completed 4 paired-associate learning tasks and a broad range of measures assessing early numerical (symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison, digit writing, arithmetic) and reading skills (letter-sound knowledge, phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.016DOI Listing
June 2019
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Expert attention: Attentional allocation depends on the differential development of multisensory number representations.

Cognition 2019 May 18;186:171-177. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development Group, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Traditional models developed within cognitive psychology suggest that attention is deployed flexibly and irrespective of differences in expertise with to-be-attended stimuli. However, everyday environments are inherently multisensory and observers differ in familiarity with particular unisensory representations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.013DOI Listing

The role of colour labels in mediating toddler visual attention.

Cognition 2019 May 18;186:159-170. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Toddlers, children and adults will spontaneously attend to a semantically- or perceptually-related object when a named target is absent from the visual scene: Upon hearing "strawberry", they will orient to a red plate rather than a yellow one. We examine the role that knowledge of feature labels plays in mediating visual attention to unnamed features. For example, does knowing the word "red", facilitate attending to red objects, though the label is not uttered? We show that toddlers systematically fixate a colour-related object, if and only if they know the name of the colour associated with the named object and the perceptually-related object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.008DOI Listing

Cognitive influences in language evolution: Psycholinguistic predictors of loan word borrowing.

Cognition 2019 May 16;186:147-158. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

excd.lab, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Bristol, UK.

Languages change due to social, cultural, and cognitive influences. In this paper, we provide an assessment of these cognitive influences on diachronic change in the vocabulary. Previously, tests of stability and change of vocabulary items have been conducted on small sets of words where diachronic change is imputed from cladistics studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.007DOI Listing

Infants differentially update their internal models of a dynamic environment.

Cognition 2019 May 16;186:139-146. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Unexpected events provide us with opportunities for learning about what to expect from the world around us. Using a saccadic-planning paradigm, we investigated whether and how infants and adults represent the statistics of a changing environment (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.004DOI Listing

Similarity is as similarity does? A critical inquiry into the effect of thematic association on similarity.

Cognition 2019 May 14;186:115-138. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Binghamton University (SUNY), United States.

Leading theories of psychological similarity are based on the degree of match in semantic content between compared cases (i.e., shared features, low dimensional distance, alignable relations). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.016DOI Listing
May 2019
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Which cognitive tools do we prefer to use, and is that preference rational?

Cognition 2019 May 13;186:108-114. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratoire d'Etude des Mécanismes Cognitifs (EA 3082), Université de Lyon, France; Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France.

This work aims to address the issue of which kind of cognitive tools we prefer, and whether this preference is rational. To do so, we proposed three experiments in which participants had to play the game Guess Who? by choosing between three tools that assisted them in three distinct cognitive functions (Working memory vs. Selective visual attention vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.005DOI Listing

Partisan mathematical processing of political polling statistics: It's the expectations that count.

Cognition 2019 May 12;186:95-107. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology, Boston College, United States.

In this research, we investigated voters' mathematical processing of election-related information before and after the 2012 and 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.002DOI Listing

Memory enhancements from active control of learning emerge across development.

Cognition 2019 May 12;186:82-94. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, United States.

This paper investigates whether active control of study leads to enhanced learning in 5- to 11-year-old children. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants played a simple memory game with the instruction to try to remember and later recognize a set of 64 objects. In Experiment 3, the goal was to learn the French names for the same objects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.010DOI Listing