4,025 results match your criteria Bilingualism-language And Cognition[Journal]


Still no solution to non-verbal measures of analogical reasoning: Reply to Walker and Gopnik (2017).

Cognition 2020 May 29:104288. Epub 2020 May 29.

The Biology Department, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA 70504, United States. Electronic address:

Walker and Gopnik (2017) suggest they have solved a longstanding problem in comparative and developmental psychology: How to provide an unambiguous measure of analogical reasoning in nonverbal subjects. We argue that this test, much like many others that purport to measure analogical reasoning in nonverbal subjects, does not distinguish between the two competing accounts of successful performance: the use of perceptual variance among stimuli to support higher-order concepts like "same" and "different" versus use of perceptual variance alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104288DOI Listing

Chaining and the growth of linguistic categories.

Cognition 2020 May 29;202:104323. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Computer Science, Cognitive Science Program, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

We explore how linguistic categories extend over time as novel items are assigned to existing categories. As a case study we consider how Chinese numeral classifiers were extended to emerging nouns over the past half century. Numeral classifiers are common in East and Southeast Asian languages, and are prominent in the cognitive linguistics literature as examples of radial categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104323DOI Listing

When social influences reduce false recognition memory: A case of categorically related information.

Cognition 2020 May 29;202:104279. Epub 2020 May 29.

Stony Brook University, United States of America.

Social interactions create opportunities for reminiscence and memory rehearsal but can also lead to memory errors. We tested how the type of information people remember can influence the magnitude of memory errors they make following collaborative discussion. Past findings show that unrelated item lists and emotional salient items reduce false alarms and improve memory discrimination, respectively, on an individual recognition test after collaborative discussion compared to no prior collaboration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104279DOI Listing

Spatial biases in mental arithmetic are independent of reading/writing habits: Evidence from French and Arabic speakers.

Cognition 2020 May 29;200:104262. Epub 2020 May 29.

Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium; Institute of Neuroscience, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Electronic address:

The representation of numbers in human adults is linked to space. In Western cultures, small and large numbers are associated respectively with the left and right sides of space. An influential framework attributes the emergence of these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) to cultural factors such as the direction of reading and writing, because SNAs were found to be reduced or inverted in right-to-left readers/writers (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104262DOI Listing

How much color do we see in the blink of an eye?

Cognition 2020 May 27;200:104268. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Amherst College, United States of America.

Visual experience is painted in color. A change in hue or saturation can dramatically alter our understanding of a scene and how we feel about it. Subjectively, color does not feel like an optional dimension to be extracted only when necessary, but an automatically represented property of our entire visual field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104268DOI Listing

The impact of false denials on forgetting and false memory.

Cognition 2020 May 26;202:104322. Epub 2020 May 26.

Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

People sometimes falsely deny having experienced an event. In the current experiments, we examined the effect of false denials on forgetting and false memory formation. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with emotionally-negative and neutral associatively related word lists known to engender false memories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104322DOI Listing

Developing judgments about peers' obligation to intervene.

Cognition 2020 May 25;201:104215. Epub 2020 May 25.

Yale University, United States of America.

In some contexts, punishment is seen as an obligation limited to authority figures. In others, it is also a responsibility of ordinary citizens. In two studies with 4- to 7-year-olds (n = 232) and adults (n = 76), we examined developing judgments about whether certain individuals, either authority figures or peers, are obligated to intervene (Study 1) or to punish (Study 2) after witnessing an antisocial action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104215DOI Listing

A condition that produces sensory recalibration and abolishes multisensory integration.

Cognition 2020 May 25;202:104326. Epub 2020 May 25.

Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Ardeystraβe 67, 44139 Dortmund, Germany.

We examined the influence of extended exposure to a visuomotor rotation, which induces both motor adaptation and sensory recalibration, on (partial) multisensory integration in a cursor-control task. Participants adapted to a 30° (adaptation condition) or 0° (control condition) visuomotor rotation by making center-out movements to remembered targets. In subsequent test trials of sensory integration, they made center-out movements with variable visuomotor rotations and judged the position of hand or cursor at the end of these movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104326DOI Listing

Memory for social interactions throughout early childhood.

Cognition 2020 May 25;202:104324. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University-St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Previous research shows that forming memories of not only whom we have previously encountered but also the feedback of those encounters supports adaptive behavior. However, there are dynamic changes throughout childhood in declarative memory systems, leaving open the question about the precise timing for the emergence and maturation of memory for social interactions. In this study, we characterized memory for dynamic social interactions during a computerized task in children ranging between 4 and 6 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104324DOI Listing

Control it and it is yours: Children's reasoning about the ownership of living things.

Cognition 2020 May 25;202:104319. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

One of the hallmarks of ownership is the right to control one's property. Living beings thus pose an interesting puzzle for ownership, since they have some capacity to decide what happens to themselves-they can direct their own motion, pursue their own goals, and make their own decisions. Recent work has shown that adults consider this autonomy to be the key factor in determining whether a human (or human-like) being can be owned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104319DOI Listing

Attentional mechanisms drive systematic exploration in young children.

Cognition 2020 May 25;202:104327. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, United States of America. Electronic address:

Exploration is critical for discovering how the world works. Exploration should be particularly valuable for young children, who have little knowledge about the world. Theories of decision-making describe systematic exploration as being primarily driven by top-down cognitive control, which is immature in young children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104327DOI Listing

Individual differences in social and non-social cognitive control.

Cognition 2020 May 24:104317. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Electronic address:

Cognitive control refers to the ability of human beings to adapt flexibly and quickly to continuously changing environments. Several decades of research have identified a diverse range of mental processes that are associated with cognitive control but the extent to which shared systems underlie cognitive control in social and non-social contexts, as well as how these systems may vary across individuals, remains largely unexplored. By integrating methodological approaches from experimental and differential psychology, the current study is able to shine new light on the relationships between stable features of individuals, such as personality and sex, and the architecture of cognitive control systems using paradigms that index social (automatic imitation) and spatial processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104317DOI Listing

Language background shapes third-party communication expectations in 14-month-old infants.

Cognition 2020 May 24;202:104292. Epub 2020 May 24.

Center for Brain and Cognition (CBC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08005 Barcelona, Spain.

Infants expect native and non-native speech to communicate, i.e. to transfer information between third-parties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104292DOI Listing

The varying nature of semantic effects in working memory.

Cognition 2020 May 23;202:104278. Epub 2020 May 23.

University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; Fund for Scientific Research - F.R.S.-FNRS, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Several studies have demonstrated an influence of semantic knowledge on verbal working memory (WM) performance, such as shown by the observation of semantic relatedness (related vs. unrelated words) and word imageability (high vs. low imageability words) effects in working memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104278DOI Listing

Attentional coordination in demonstrator-observer dyads facilitates learning and predicts performance in a novel manual task.

Cognition 2020 May 22;201:104314. Epub 2020 May 22.

Faculdade de Psicologia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; School of Psychology, University of East London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Observational learning is a form of social learning in which a demonstrator performs a target task in the company of an observer, who may as a consequence learn something about it. In this study, we approach social learning in terms of the dynamics of coordination rather than the more common perspective of transmission of information. We hypothesised that observers must continuously adjust their visual attention relative to the demonstrator's time-evolving behaviour to benefit from it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104314DOI Listing

Probing the invariant structure of spatial knowledge: Support for the cognitive graph hypothesis.

Cognition 2020 May 22;200:104276. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Box 1821, 190 Thayer St., Providence, RI 02912, USA.

We tested four hypotheses about the structure of spatial knowledge used for navigation: (1) the Euclidean hypothesis, a geometrically consistent map; (2) the Neighborhood hypothesis, adjacency relations between spatial regions, based on visible boundaries; (3) the Cognitive Graph hypothesis, a network of paths between places, labeled with approximate local distances and angles; and (4) the Constancy hypothesis, whatever geometric properties are invariant during learning. In two experiments, different groups of participants learned three virtual hedge mazes, which varied specific geometric properties (Euclidean Control Maze, Elastic Maze with stretching paths, Swap Maze with alternating paths to the same place). Spatial knowledge was then tested using three navigation tasks (metric shortcuts on empty ground plane, neighborhood shortcuts with visible boundaries, route task in corridors). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104276DOI Listing

Teleological generics.

Cognition 2020 May 21;200:104157. Epub 2020 May 21.

Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Naval Research Laboratory, United States of America.

Certain "generic" generalizations concern functions and purposes, e.g., cars are for driving. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.104157DOI Listing

Constructing the social world: Impaired capacity for social simulation in dementia.

Cognition 2020 May 8;202:104321. Epub 2020 May 8.

The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, Australia; The University of Sydney, School of Psychology, Sydney, Australia; Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Scene construction refers to the capacity to imagine richly detailed scenes in one's mind's eye and has been demonstrated to be compromised across a range of clinical disorders in which episodic memory processes are also affected. It remains unclear however, how task demands modulate the content of the to-be-simulated scenes. Here, we sought to investigate the capacity for social forms of scene construction in the behavioural-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by pronounced social cognitive and executive dysfunction, alongside episodic memory impairments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104321DOI Listing

Would you like to learn more? Retrieval practice plus feedback can increase motivation to keep on studying.

Cognition 2020 May 19;201:104316. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Regensburg University, Germany.

Retrieval practice can boost memory and long-term retention. The present research suggests that it may also benefit another domain that is critical for learning, namely motivation. In three experiments, subjects studied Swedish vocabulary by means of retrieval practice - with or without corrective feedback - or restudy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104316DOI Listing

When working memory mechanisms compete: Predicting cognitive flexibility versus mental set.

Cognition 2020 May 19;201:104313. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 317 Life Sciences Building, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive flexibility is a hallmark of individuals with higher working memory capacity (WMC). Yet, individuals with higher WMC sometimes demonstrate greater rigidity in problem solving. The present research examines a novel account for these contradictory findings-that different WMC mechanisms support versus constrain cognitive flexibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104313DOI Listing

Conceptual relations predict colexification across languages.

Cognition 2020 May 19;201:104280. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

In natural language, multiple meanings often share a single word form, a phenomenon known as colexification. Some sets of meanings are more frequently colexified across languages than others, but the source of this variation is not well understood. We propose that cross-linguistic variation in colexification frequency is non-arbitrary and reflects a general principle of cognitive economy: More commonly colexified meanings across languages are those that require less cognitive effort to relate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104280DOI Listing

Intuitive biology, moral reasoning, and engineering life: Essentialist thinking and moral purity concerns shape risk assessments of synthetic biology technologies.

Authors:
Lauren Swiney

Cognition 2020 May 19;201:104264. Epub 2020 May 19.

Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK. Electronic address:

The field of synthetic biology heralds a new era in our relationship with nature, as organisms are engineered to meet human goals. But little attention has been paid to potential cognitive constraints on reasoning about such technologies. Across four studies with American adults (N = 649), the present research investigates the proposal that essentialist reasoning and moral purity concerns conspire to shape risk assessments of engineered organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104264DOI Listing

Informative experimentation in intuitive science: Children select and learn from their own causal interventions.

Cognition 2020 May 17;201:104315. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, United States of America.

We investigated whether children preferentially select informative actions and make accurate inferences from the outcome of their own interventions in a causal learning task. Four- to six-year-olds were presented with a novel system composed of gears that could operate according to two possible causal structures (single or multiple cause). Given the choice between interventions (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104315DOI Listing

State- and trait-math anxiety and their relation to math performance in children: The role of core executive functions.

Cognition 2020 May 16;200:104271. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; Centre for Education Practice Research, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

This study examines the interplay of state- and trait-math anxiety (MA) and core executive functions (CEF) on math achievement in children. According to attention control theory, MA affects the CEF by triggering the inhibition function, so that some working memory (WM) is blocked, thus reducing task processing capacity. However, research on the interplay between MA and CEF in children is rare, and the findings in the literature are inconsistent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104271DOI Listing

Evidence from the visual world paradigm raises questions about unaccusativity and growth curve analyses.

Cognition 2020 May 13;200:104251. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, MA 02138, USA.

Many syntactic theories posit a fundamental structural difference between intransitive verbs with agentive subjects (unergative verbs) and those with theme subjects (unaccusative verbs). This claim garners support from studies finding differences in the online comprehension of these verbs. The present experiments seek to replicate one such finding using the visual world paradigm (Koring, Mak, & Reuland, 2012). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104251DOI Listing

The perception of caricatured emotion in voice.

Cognition 2020 May 11;200:104249. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, CNRS UMR 7289, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Affective vocalisations such as screams and laughs can convey strong emotional content without verbal information. Previous research using morphed vocalisations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104249DOI Listing

Epistemic justifications for belief in the unobservable: The impact of minority status.

Cognition 2020 Apr 2;200:104273. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Boston University, United States of America.

Children hold beliefs about religious and scientific entities, such as angels or germs, that they cannot directly observe or interact with. Given their limited opportunities for first-hand observation, children's beliefs in these entities are a clear example of cultural learning and are likely to vary based on cultural factors. In the present study, we investigated variation in the epistemic stance of 4-11-year-old children growing up in a religious minority in China (N = 47), a religious majority in Iran (N = 85), and a religious majority in the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104273DOI Listing

The origins of higher-order thinking lie in children's spontaneous talk across the pre-school years.

Cognition 2020 May 7;200:104274. Epub 2020 May 7.

The University of Chicago, United States of America.

Higher-order thinking is relational reasoning in which multiple representations are linked together, through inferences, comparisons, abstractions, and hierarchies. We examine the development of higher-order thinking in 64 preschool-aged children, observed from 14 to 58 months in naturalistic situations at home. We used children's spontaneous talk about and with relations (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104274DOI Listing

Different patterns of recollection for matched real-world and laboratory-based episodes in younger and older adults.

Cognition 2020 May 6;202:104309. Epub 2020 May 6.

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada; University of Toronto, Department of Psychology, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada; University of Toronto, Department of Medicine (Neurology), Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H2, Canada. Electronic address:

To bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory assessments of episodic memory, we designed time- and content-matched real-world and virtualized versions of the same tour event. In younger and older adults, we investigated objective and subjective aspects of recollection for event features using a verbal true/false test common to both event conditions. Using a data-driven multivariate analysis blind to the age groups and event conditions, we found that discriminating altered from true details accounted for the largest amount of variance in objective retrieval patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104309DOI Listing

Prior target locations attract overt attention during search.

Cognition 2020 May 5;201:104282. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, State University of New York, United States of America.

A key question about visual search is how we guide attention to objects that are relevant to our goals. Traditionally, theories of visual attention have emphasized guidance by explicit knowledge of the target feature. But there is growing evidence that attention is also implicitly guided by prior experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104282DOI Listing

Attention capture by episodic long-term memory.

Cognition 2020 May 5;201:104312. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Everyday behavior depends upon the operation of concurrent cognitive processes. In visual search, studies that examine memory-attention interactions have indicated that long-term memory facilitates search for a target (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104312DOI Listing

Individual differences in value-directed remembering.

Cognition 2020 May 5;201:104275. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, United States of America.

Capacity limits in cognition require that valuable information be prioritized for encoding and retrieval. Individual differences in prioritized value-directed encoding may derive from differences in the general ability to encode memories, or from differences in how strategies are altered for different stimuli to modulate maintenance in working memory. We collected multiple cognitive ability measures to test whether variation in episodic memory, working memory capacity, or both predict differences in value-directed remembering among a large sample of participants (n = 205). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104275DOI Listing

How people perceive the minds of the dead: The importance of consciousness at the moment of death.

Cognition 2020 May 5;202:104308. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America.

Immortality is thought to be achieved through heroic deeds, reincarnation, and the afterlife. The present studies reveal an alternative path to transcending death: dying while conscious. Seven studies demonstrate that dying while more awake, aware and/or lucid leads people to see a richer postmortem mind-an effect we call conservation of consciousness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104308DOI Listing

Beyond the mean reaction time: Trial-by-trial reaction time reveals the distraction effect on perceptual-motor sequence learning.

Authors:
Yue Du Jane E Clark

Cognition 2020 Apr 27;202:104287. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA; Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Program, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA. Electronic address:

Perceptual-motor sequences can be learned quickly under distraction, often demonstrated by the mean reaction time (RT) change in a serial reaction time (SRT) task. However, any arbitrary mean RT can arise from one of many distinct trial-by-trial RT patterns. It is surprising that previous sequence learning studies have hinged only on the mean RT metrics while little is known about the distraction effect on its trial-by-trial processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104287DOI Listing

The effects of declaratively maintaining and proactively proceduralizing novel stimulus-response mappings.

Cognition 2020 Apr 22;201:104295. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Ghent University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Department of Experimental Psychology, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Working memory (WM) allows for the maintenance and manipulation of information when carrying out ongoing tasks. Recent models propose that representations in WM can be either in a declarative format (as content of thought) or in a procedural format (in an action-oriented state that drives the cognitive operation to be performed). Current views on the implementation of novel instructions also acknowledge this distinction, assuming these are first encoded as declarative content, and then reformatted into an action-oriented procedural representation upon task demands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104295DOI Listing

Minimal videos: Trade-off between spatial and temporal information in human and machine vision.

Cognition 2020 Apr 20;201:104263. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Objects and their parts can be visually recognized from purely spatial or purely temporal information but the mechanisms integrating space and time are poorly understood. Here we show that visual recognition of objects and actions can be achieved by efficiently combining spatial and motion cues in configurations where each source on its own is insufficient for recognition. This analysis is obtained by identifying minimal videos: these are short and tiny video clips in which objects, parts, and actions can be reliably recognized, but any reduction in either space or time makes them unrecognizable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104263DOI Listing

Text analysis shows conceptual overlap as well as domain-specific differences in Christian and secular worldviews.

Cognition 2020 Apr 14;201:104290. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Anna Watts Building, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK.

Theories differ over whether religious and secular worldviews are in competition or represent overlapping and compatible frameworks. Here we test these theories by examining homogeneity and overlap in Christian and non-religious people's explanations of the world. Christian and non-religious participants produced free text explanations of 54 natural and supernatural phenomena. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104290DOI Listing

Russian blues reveal the limits of language influencing colour discrimination.

Cognition 2020 Apr 7;201:104281. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

School of Psychology, National Research University: Higher School of Economics, Slavyanskaya Square, 4/2, 109074 Moscow, Russia.

Chromatic stimuli across a boundary of basic colour categories (BCCs; e.g. blue and green) are discriminated faster than colorimetrically equidistant colours within a given category. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104281DOI Listing

Animates engender robust memory representations in adults and young children.

Cognition 2020 Apr 7;201:104284. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Universität Osnabrück, Germany.

The animate monitoring hypothesis proposes that humans are predisposed to attend preferentially to animate entities in the environment (New, Cosmides, & Tooby, 2007). However, there have to date been no developmental investigations of animate monitoring in younger populations, despite the relevance of such evidence to this hypothesis. Here we demonstrate that adults and preschoolers recall a novel sequence of action with greater fidelity if it involves an animate over an inanimate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104284DOI Listing

Directed avoidance and its effect on visual working memory.

Cognition 2020 Apr 7;201:104277. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada.

Attentional control processes help to prioritize the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM) by gating what enters the system and influencing how precisely this information is stored. However, the extent to which such prioritization occurs deliberately, opposed to incidentally, is poorly understood. In large part, this is because investigations of this matter have almost exclusively relied on comparisons of memory for exogenously cued items versus uncued items. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104277DOI Listing

Comparing cross-situational word learning, retention, and generalisation in children with autism and typical development.

Cognition 2020 Apr 4;200:104265. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YF, United Kingdom; Department of English, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, P.O Box 1641, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Word learning is complicated by referential ambiguity - there are often multiple potential targets for a newly-heard word. While typically developing (TD) children can accurately infer word meanings from cross-situational statistics, specific difficulties tracking word-object co-occurrences may contribute to language impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate cross-situational word learning as an integrated system including mapping, retention, and generalisation in both typical development and autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104265DOI Listing

Pragmatics and social meaning: Understanding under-informativeness in native and non-native speakers.

Cognition 2020 Mar 31;200:104171. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Foreign-accented non-native speakers sometimes face negative biases compared to native speakers. Here we report an advantage in how comprehenders process the speech of non-native compared to native speakers. In a series of four experiments, we find that under-informative sentences are interpreted differently when attributed to non-native compared to native speakers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.104171DOI Listing

Active transitive inference: When learner control facilitates integrative encoding.

Cognition 2020 Mar 30;200:104188. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Psychological Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Colvard South Building, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223, United States of America. Electronic address:

A growing body of research indicates that active control of learning improves episodic memory for material experienced during study. It is less clear how active learning impacts the integration of those experiences into flexible, generalizable knowledge. This study uses a novel active transitive inference task to investigate how people learn a relational hierarchy through active selection of premise pairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104188DOI Listing

The limited roles of cognitive capabilities and future time perspective in contributing to positivity effects.

Cognition 2020 Mar 28;200:104267. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, EP 301, San Francisco, CA 94132, United States of America.

When compared to younger adults, older adults tend to favor positive over negative information in attention and memory. This is known as the positivity effect. Although this is a robust phenomenon, there is still debate about how it relates to individual differences in cognitive capabilities and future time perspective (FTP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104267DOI Listing

How decisions and the desire for coherency shape subjective preferences over time.

Cognition 2020 Mar 26;200:104244. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom; The Alan Turing Institute, United Kingdom.

Recent findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between preferences and choices such that what is chosen can become preferred. Yet, it is still commonly held that preferences for individual items are maintained, such as caching a separate value estimate for each experienced option. Instead, we propose that all possible choice options and preferences are represented in a shared, continuous, multidimensional space that supports generalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104244DOI Listing

Foreign language effect in decision-making: How foreign is it?

Cognition 2020 Jun 26;199:104245. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Università di Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

It has been shown that decisions and moral judgments differ when made using native languages compared to foreign languages. Cross-linguistic differences appeared in foreign languages that monolinguals typically acquired in school and used neither routinely nor extensively. We replicated these differences with two populations of proficient, native bilinguals (Italian-Venetian; Italian-Bergamasque). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104245DOI Listing

Why are social interactions found quickly in visual search tasks?

Cognition 2020 Mar 25;200:104270. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK; Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK. Electronic address:

When asked to find a target dyad amongst non-interacting individuals, participants respond faster when the individuals in the target dyad are shown face-to-face (suggestive of a social interaction), than when they are presented back-to-back. Face-to-face dyads may be found faster because social interactions recruit specialized processing. However, human faces and bodies are salient directional cues that exert a strong influence on how observers distribute their attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104270DOI Listing

Scrutinizing patterns of solution times in alphabet-arithmetic tasks favors counting over retrieval models.

Cognition 2020 Apr 2;200:104272. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

University of Geneva, Department of Psychology, Switzerland.

According to associationist models, initial sequential processing of algorithmic steps is replaced through learning by single-step access to a memory instance. In an alphabet-arithmetic task where equations such as C + 3 = F have to be verified, the shift from algorithmic procedures to retrieval would manifest in a transition from steep slopes relating solution times to addends at the beginning of learning to a flat function at the end (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104272DOI Listing

Disgust selectively dampens value-independent risk-taking for potential gains.

Cognition 2020 Mar 19;200:104266. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, China. Electronic address:

Despite intricate interactions between emotion and decision making, the underlying cognitive mechanisms that govern their relationship remain elusive. Recent theoretical and empirical advances suggest that preferences in risky decision making can arise from the computation of subjective utility (value-dependent) or direct approach-avoidance action tendencies (value-independent). Here, 48 participants performed two gambling tasks (accept/reject and choice selection tasks) under the emotion manipulation (neutral versus disgust) to investigate how decision context and emotion may influence risk preference via the value-dependent and -independent pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104266DOI Listing

One-shot learning of view-invariant object representations in newborn chicks.

Cognition 2020 Jun 19;199:104192. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Indiana University, Department of Informatics, 700 N Woodlawn Ave., Bloomington, IN 47408, United States of America. Electronic address:

Can newborn brains perform one-shot learning? To address this question, we reared newborn chicks in strictly controlled environments containing a single view of a single object, then tested their object recognition performance across 24 uniformly-spaced viewpoints. We found that chicks can build view-invariant object representations from a single view of an object: a case of one-shot learning in newborn brains. Chicks can also build the same view-invariant object representation from different views of an object, showing that newborn brains converge on common object representations from different sets of sensory inputs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104192DOI Listing