Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2022 Jul 11;32(3):427-453. Epub 2022 May 11.
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University Health-University Hospital, 550 North University Boulevard, Suite 1634, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHO), an aggressive perihilar biliary obstruction caused by cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, or other metastatic malignancies, has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment method for biliary malignancies. However, most of the patients with MHO cannot undergo surgeries on presentation because of an advanced inoperable state or a poor performance state due to old age or comorbid diseases. Read More