493,124 results match your criteria Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology[Journal]


Roles of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate in Subjective Valuation of Prospective Effort.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 773 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The perceived effort level of an action shapes everyday decisions. Despite the importance of these perceptions for decision-making, the behavioral and neural representations of the subjective cost of effort are not well understood. While a number of studies have implicated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in decisions about effort/reward trade-offs, none have experimentally isolated effort valuation from reward and choice difficulty, a function that is commonly ascribed to this region. Read More

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December 2018

Validated screening tools for the assessment of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1196-1208

Clinical Surgery, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: There is great overlap between the presentation of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition. Distinguishing between these conditions would allow for better targeted treatment for patients.

Objectives: The aim was to systematically review validated screening tools for cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition in adults and, if a combined tool is absent, make suggestions for the generation of a novel screening tool. Read More

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December 2018
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Redefining the practical utility of blood transcriptome biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Genetics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Centre, Warsaw, Poland.

Background And Aims: The study investigates the practical utility of whole blood gene expression profiling to diagnose inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).

Methods: The discovery cohorts included 102 and 51 pediatric IBD patients and controls, and 95 and 46 adult IBD patients and controls, respectively. The replication cohorts included 447 and 76 pediatric IBD patients and controls, and 271 and 108 adult IBD patients and controls, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
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Clinical outcomes of bortezomib-based therapy in myeloma.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208920. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Clinical Haematology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Bortezomib, a first generation proteasome inhibitor, is used in both newly diagnosed and relapsed myeloma settings. Considerable differences exist in the usage of bortezomib therapy in the clinical practice setting in comparison to clinical trial setting as well manufacturer's recommendations. These differences include route of administration (intravenous (iv) vs. Read More

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December 2018

Correlation and prognostic accuracy between noninvasive liver fibrosismarkers and portal pressure in cirrhosis: Role of ALBI score.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208903. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: The role of noninvasive liver fibrosis markers which were developed to evaluate the severity of chronic liver disease remains unclear in cirrhosis.

Aims: To evaluate the correlation between noninvasive markers and hemodynamic parameters and their prognostic performance in cirrhotic patients.

Methods: A total of 242 cirrhotic patients undergoing hemodynamic study were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

A new development of non-local image denoising using fixed-point iteration for non-convex ℓp sparse optimization.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208503. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Mathematics, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL, United States of America.

We proposed a new efficient image denoising scheme, which mainly leads to four important contributions whose approaches are different from existing ones. The first is to show the equivalence between the group-based sparse representation and the Schatten-p norm minimization problem, so that the sparsity of the coefficients for each group can be measured by estimating the underlying singular values. The second is that we construct the proximal operator for sparse optimization in ℓp space with p ∈ (0, 1] by using fixed-point iteration and obtained a new solution of Schatten-p norm minimization problem, which is more rigorous and accurate than current available results. Read More

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December 2018

Engaging community leaders to improve male partner participation in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207986. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Male partner participation improves uptake, retention and outcomes of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services. However, in patriarchal settings few men accompany their partners to antenatal care (ANC) and PMTCT services. We explored whether community leaders can improve male partner participation in ANC and PMTCT. Read More

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December 2018
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Development of a recombinase polymerase based isothermal amplification combined with lateral flow assay (HLB-RPA-LFA) for rapid detection of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus".

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208530. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Plant Virology Laboratory, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticulture, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is highly destructive disease that is affecting the citrus industry worldwide and it has killed millions of citrus plants globally. HLB is caused by the phloem limited, Gram negative, non-culturable, alpha-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR have been the gold standard techniques used for detection of 'Ca. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Boundaries mediate long-distance interactions between enhancers and promoters in the Drosophila Bithorax complex.

PLoS Genet 2018 Dec 12;14(12):e1007702. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Drosophila bithorax complex (BX-C) is one of the best model systems for studying the role of boundaries (insulators) in gene regulation. Expression of three homeotic genes, Ubx, abd-A, and Abd-B, is orchestrated by nine parasegment-specific regulatory domains. These domains are flanked by boundary elements, which function to block crosstalk between adjacent domains, ensuring that they can act autonomously. Read More

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December 2018

[Vibrio cholerae NO-O1/NO-O139 bacteremia in a cirrhotic patient. First case report in Peru and literatura review].

Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2018 Jul-Sep;38(3):301-305

Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) strains are an uncommon cause of gastroenteritis. However, they have been recently associated with severe extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. Among them, bacteremia in cirrhotic patients is noteworthy. Read More

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December 2018

What Factors Predict the Risk of Proximal Junctional Failure in the Long Term, Demographic, Surgical or Radiographic? Results from a Time-Dependent ROC Curve.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospective multicenter database.

Objective: To identify an optimal set of factors predicting the risk of PJF while taking the time dependency of PJF and those factors into account.

Summary Of Background Data: Surgical correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) can be complex and therefore, may come with high revision rates due to proximal junctional failure (PJF). Read More

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December 2018

Clinical Management of Pediatric Achalasia: A Survey of Current Practice.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Pediatric Gastroenterology.

Objectives: Pediatric achalasia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the esophagus that requires treatment. Different diagnostic and treatment modalities are available, but there are no data that show how children can best be diagnosed and treated. We aimed to identify current practices regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach toward children with achalasia. Read More

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December 2018

ACSM PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH SCREENING GUIDELINES: A UK UNIVERSITY COHORT PERSPECTIVE.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Pre-participation health screening is recommended to detect individuals susceptible to serious adverse cardiovascular complications during exercise. Although expert opinion and best available scientific evidence have informed recent modifications, there remains limited experimental data to support or refute current practice. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of change to the ACSM pre-participation health screening guidelines on risk classification and referral for medical clearance in a large cohort of undergraduate university students. Read More

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December 2018

Femoral Neck Fractures in Young Patients: State of the Art.

Authors:
Daniel S Chan

J Orthop Trauma 2019 Jan;33 Suppl 1:S7-S11

Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, NavicentHealth, Macon, GA.

Femoral neck fractures in young patients are uncommon but are often associated with surgical challenges and complications. The quality of reduction, more than time to surgery, has the most impact on optimizing outcomes and function. There is no consensus in the best fixation construct for these fractures. Read More

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January 2019
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Assessing the Value of Endoscopy Simulator Modules Designed to Prepare Residents for the Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery Examination.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Background: The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery examination is required for all general surgery residents. The test modules are not available for practice before the examination; however, similar modules are commercially available.

Objective: This study aims to determine which modules are most valuable for resident training and preparation for the examination by evaluating which correlates best with experience level. Read More

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November 2018

Machine learning-based prediction of clinical pain using multimodal neuroimaging and autonomic metrics.

Pain 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Although self-report pain ratings are the gold standard in clinical pain assessment, they are inherently subjective in nature and significantly influenced by multidimensional contextual variables. Although objective biomarkers for pain could substantially aid pain diagnosis and development of novel therapies, reliable markers for clinical pain have been elusive. In this study, individualized physical maneuvers were used to exacerbate clinical pain in patients with chronic low back pain (N = 53), thereby experimentally producing lower and higher pain states. Read More

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October 2018
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Precise anesthesia in thoracoscopic operations.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Anesthesiology.

Purpose Of Review: The current review focuses on precise anesthesia for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with the goal of enhanced recovery.

Recent Findings: VATS has become an established and widely used minimally invasive approach with broad implementation on a variety of thoracic operations. In the current environment of enhanced recovery protocols and cost containment, minimally invasive VATS operations suggest adoption of individualized tailored, precise anesthesia. Read More

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December 2018

Shoulder reflexes integrate elbow information at "long-latency" delay throughout a corrective action.

Authors:
Isaac L Kurtzer

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology - College of Osteopathic Medicine, United States.

Previous studies have demonstrated a progression of function when healthy subjects counter a sudden mechanical load. Short-latency reflexes are linked to local stretch of the particular muscle and its antagonist. Long-latency reflexes integrate stretch information from both local sources and muscles crossing remote joints appropriate for limb's mechanical interactions. Read More

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December 2018

The transfer function of the rhesus macaque oculomotor system for small-amplitude slow motion trajectories.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Germany.

Two main types of small eye movements occur during gaze fixation: microsaccades and slow ocular drifts. While microsaccade generation has been relatively well-studied, ocular drift control mechanisms are unknown. Here we explored the degree to which monkey smooth eye movements, on the velocity scale of slow ocular drifts, can be generated systematically. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Membrane Pore Formation Induced by Bubble Stable Cavitation.

J Phys Chem B 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Microbubbles in combination with ultrasound provides a new and promising way to deliver drugs to living cells. It has been believed that the stable vibration or the collapse of the bubbles under the ultrasound are the two main mechanisms that induce the formation of pores in the cell membrane, through which drugs may get inside the cell cytoplasm. The bubble collapse hypothesis is not only intuitively clear because released shock waves easily penetrate and create pores in the membrane, but also confirmed by both experiment and theory. Read More

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December 2018

A Few-Minute Synthesis of CsPbBr Nanolasers with a High Quality Factor by Spraying at Ambient Conditions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires, generating laser emission in the broad spectral range at room temperature and low threshold, have become powerful tools for the cutting-edge applications in the optoelectronics and nanophotonics. However, to achieve high-quality nanowires with the outstanding optical properties, it was necessary to employ long-lasting and costly methods of their synthesis, as well as postsynthetic separation and transfer procedures that are not convenient for largescale production. Here we report a novel approach to fabricate high-quality CsPbBr nanolasers obtained by rapid precipitation from dimethyl sulfoxide solution sprayed onto an arbitrary hydrophobic substrate at ambient conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Antibacterial TiCu/ TiCuN multilayer films with good corrosion resistance deposited by axial magnetic field-enhanced arc ion plating.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

In order to develop a novel kind of antibacterial Cu-containing TiN film with good corrosion resistance, impressive mechanical properties and low cytotoxicity, three differently designed multilayer films of TiCu/TiCuN multilayer (M1, M2, M3) were deposited on the surface of 316L stainless steel surface using the axial magnetic field-enhanced arc ion plating (AMFE-ARP) method, in which the interlayer of TiCu was firstly introduced for Cu-containing TiN film in order to improve comprehensive properties especially corrosion resistance of film. The performance of the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer films were compared with that of the two single layers, TiN and TiCuN, which were deposited by the same method and the same total deposition time. The results indicated that the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer film of M2 revealed the best comprehensive corrosion resistance with low electric current values, high pitting potential and high polarization resistance due to the proper thickness of TiCu interlayers and more number of TiCu/TiCuN bilayers. Read More

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December 2018

Learning best-practices in journalology: course description and attendee insights into the inaugural EQUATOR Canada Publication School.

BMC Proc 2018 23;12(Suppl 10):18. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

2Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Dissemination of research results is a key component of the research continuum and is commonly achieved through publication in peer-reviewed academic journals. However, issues of poor quality reporting in the research literature are well documented. A lack of formal training in journalology (i. Read More

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TARGET, PRESCRIPTION AND INFUSION OF ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL THERAPY OF CRITICAL PATIENTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):283-289

PUC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Grupo de Pesquisa: Diagnóstico e Terapia Clínica e Cirúrgica, Campinas, SP, Brasil.

Background: Enteral nutritional therapy (ENT) is the best route for the nutrition of critically ill patients with improved impact on the clinical treatment of such patients.

Objective: To investigate the energy and protein supply of ENT in critically ill in-patients of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Methods: Prospective longitudinal study conducted with 82 critically ill in-patients of an ICU, receiving ENT. Read More

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METACHRONOUS COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES HAS BETTER PROGNOSIS - IS IT TRUE?

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):258-263

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Departamento de Cirurgia, Goiânia, GO, Brasil.

Background: Liver metastases from colorectal cancer are an important public health problem due to the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer worldwide. Synchronous colorectal liver metastasis has been associated with worse survival, but this prognosis is controversial.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the recurrence-free survival and overall survival between groups of patients with metachronous and synchronous colorectal hepatic metastasis. Read More

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February 2018
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Management challenges for best practices of the Kangaroo Method in the Neonatal ICU.

Rev Bras Enferm 2018 ;71(suppl 6):2783-2791

Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Escola de Enfermagem Alfredo Pinto. Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: To understand the conditions that influence the adherence and application of best practices by nurses in the context of the Nursing care management in the Kangaroo Mother Care in the Neonatal ICU.

Method: Study of qualitative approach, whose theoretical and methodological frameworks were Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory, respectively. We used the in-depth interview with 8 nurses from the Neonatal ICU of a public maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Read More

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January 2018

Influence of socio-demographic characteristics in the self-care of people with heart failure.

Rev Bras Enferm 2018 ;71(suppl 6):2604-2611

Universidade Federal do Ceará. Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Objective: To determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics in the self-care of people with heart failure (HF).

Method: Cross-sectional, analytical study, held in three private hospitals in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, with 57 hospitalized patients. The data were collected through a demographic characterization form and a self-care assessment scale and were analyzed with inferential statistics, using mean comparison tests. Read More

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January 2018

Evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents: systematic review.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4209-4219

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Pediatria e Saúde da Criança, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Ipiranga 6690/2º, Partenon. 90610-000 Porto Alegre RS Brasil.

This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition. Read More

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December 2018

Health and Food and Nutritional Security Policies: challenges in controlling childhood obesity.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4143-4152

Departamento de Nutrição Social, Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense. R. Mario Santos Braga 30/4º, Centro. 24020-140 Niterói RJ Brasil.

The study analyzed the initiatives of prevention and control of childhood obesity, especially those of Adequate and Healthy Food Promotion (PAAS) which have been part of the policies of the Brazilian federal government for the last 15 years. All documents that feature PAAS initiatives in the food and nutrition security, as well as public health policy fields, were evaluated according to the following criteria: (1) the approach to PAAS initiatives; (2) the aspects of obesitythat they intend to affect and (3) potential interest disputes. The main PAAS initiatives identified are intended to encourage: food and nutrition education; agroecological production systems; family agriculture; food accessibility; healthy environments and regulatory measures. Read More

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December 2018
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[Best Practices in School Food and Nutrition Units of a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil].

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4077-4083

Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense. R. Mário Santos Braga 30/4º, Valonguinho. 24020-140 Niterói RJ Brasil.

The scope of this study was to analyze the hygienic-sanitary conditions in nine School Food and Nutrition Units (UANE) of a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A Best Practices in School Food Checklist proposed and validated by Stedefeldt et al., containing items scored and grouped into six thematic blocks (BT) was applied. Read More

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December 2018
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INGUINAL REPAIR VIA ROBOTIC ASSISTED TECHNIQUE: LITERATURE REVIEW.

Arq Bras Cir Dig 2018 Dec 6;31(4):e1408. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Inguinal hernia is one of the most frequent surgical diseases. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what will be the best approach for correction of inguinal hernia? Is there real benefit to the robotic approach?

Objective: To compile results of the published studies that used the robot-assisted technique in the repair of inguinal hernia, analyzing its limitations, complications and comparing it with those of the pre-existing techniques.

Method: The review was performed from the Medline database with the following descriptors: (inguinal hernia repair OR hernioplasty OR hernia) AND (robot OR robotic OR robotic assisted) being retrieved 391 articles. Read More

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December 2018
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CAN VIRTUAL REALITY BE AS GOOD AS OPERATING ROOM TRAINING? EXPERIENCE FROM A RESIDENCY PROGRAM IN GENERAL SURGERY.

Arq Bras Cir Dig 2018 Dec 6;31(4):e1397. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Surgery, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Background: The increasingly intense usage of technology applied to videosurgery and the advent of robotic platforms accelerated the use of virtual models in training surgical skills.

Aim: To evaluate the performance of a general surgery department's residents in a video-simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy in order to understand whether training with virtual reality is sufficient to provide the skills that are normally acquired in hands-on experience at the operating room.

Methods: An observational study with twenty-five first- and second-year general surgery residents. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Sodium valproate suppresses abnormal neurogenesis induced by convulsive status epilepticus.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):480-484

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing, China.

Status epilepticus has been shown to activate the proliferation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of the brain, while also causing a large amount of neuronal death, especially in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone. Simultaneously, proliferating stem cells tend to migrate to areas with obvious damage. Our previous studies have clearly confirmed the effect of sodium valproate on cognitive function in rats with convulsive status epilepticus. Read More

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Neurobiology of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: Effects of EAAT2 polymorphism.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 29;202:106-110. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Cognitive deficits represent core features of schizophrenia, affecting quality of life and functioning. The excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is responsible for the majority of glutamate reuptake and its activity is crucial for glutamatergic neurotransmission, prevention of excitotoxic damage and cerebral metabolism. Different studies reported that EAAT2 rs4354668 (-181 T/G) influences cognitive functions and brain structures in patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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December 2018
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Advances in food allergy in 2017.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 25;142(6):1719-1729. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Allergy and Immunology, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

This review highlights research and policy advances in food allergy that were published in 2017 in the Journal and beyond. In 2017, many important studies on the treatment of food allergy were published, bringing us ever closer to a standardized treatment for food allergy. Other important advancements included research into other management strategies, including thresholds for avoidance, management of food allergies in schools, and development of new guidelines for prevention of food allergy. Read More

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December 2018
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Assessment of the Safety of the New Hybrid Pencil Type Energy (NP) Device Used Close to the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in a Porcine Model: Comparison With a Conventional Electrosurgical Knife.

Surg Innov 2018 Dec 12:1553350618817646. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Keio University, School of Medicine Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paralysis is mainly associated with esophagectomy, and it may result in not only other morbidities, such as aspiration pneumonia, but also in long-term issues. Therefore, an approach to prevent RLN paralysis is necessary. The present study was designed to determine the technical usability of the new hybrid pencil type energy (NP) device developed by Olympus Corporation (Tokyo, Japan) and compare it with a conventional electrosurgical knife (EK) for resection around the RLN lymph nodes. Read More

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December 2018

Biomarkers and pathways of chemoresistance and chemosensitivity for personalized treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Pharmacogenomics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Pancreatic carcinoma is usually diagnosed late when treatment options are limited and is considered a chemo-resistant malignancy. However, early stage, good performance status and specific patient subgroup are thought to have a more favorable prognosis. Search for novel molecular biomarkers, which could predict treatment resistance, represents a major opportunity, but also a challenge in further research. Read More

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December 2018

Re-thinking performance assessment for primary care: Opinion of the expert panel on effective ways of investing in health.

Eur J Gen Pract 2018 Dec 12:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

g Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care , Ghent University , Ghent , Belgium.

Background: In 2017, the European Commission (EC) identified as a policy priority the performance assessment of primary care systems, which relates to a country's primary care structure, services delivery and outcomes. The EC requested its Expert Panel on Effective Ways of Investing in Health (Expert Panel) to provide an opinion on ways for improving performance assessment of primary care.

Objectives: To provide an overview of domains and dimensions to be taken into consideration in assessing primary care and specific indicators to be collected and analysed to improve understanding of primary care performance. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Adolescent Mental Health: Initial Validation of the LEIA, a New Checklist for SLE Assessment According to Their Severity, Interpersonal, and Dependent Nature.

Assessment 2018 Dec 12:1073191118817648. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

The main aim of the present study was to develop and validate a checklist for adolescents, the Life Events Inventory for Adolescents (LEIA), for screening stressful life events (SLEs) of different nature (major-minor, dependent-independent, and personal-interpersonal). The LEIA was administered together with another SLE checklist (Escala de Acontecimientos Vitales [Life Events Scale], EAV), and with measures of life satisfaction and externalizing and internalizing symptoms. The results showed that the kappa and the percentage agreement reliability indices were adequate. Read More

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December 2018

Symptoms as Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cancer Patients Undergoing Immunotherapies.

Authors:
Tito R Mendoza

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;995:165-182

Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Cancer therapies are toxic. Newer oncological treatments such as immunotherapy produce unconventional adverse events that are collectively referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These irAEs are clinician-rated and typically reported via tabulation of adverse events from the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Read More

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January 2018

Skin Reactions to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;995:117-129

Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The novelty of immune checkpoint inhibitors has only recently led to the characterization of cutaneous adverse events (AEs). This, along with the substantial rate of cutaneous reactions, has left many clinicians without sufficient familiarity to diagnose and treat. Pruritus and rash are among the top five immune-related AEs reported in clinical trials for this class of therapy. Read More

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January 2018
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Update on Immunotherapy in AML and MDS: Monoclonal Antibodies and Checkpoint Inhibitors Paving the Road for Clinical Practice.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;995:97-116

Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

In the past few years, our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has led to remarkable advances in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for these diseases. This chapter summarizes the available clinical data with immune-based therapeutic modalities in AML and MDS, focusing on monoclonal antibodies, T cell engager antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells, and checkpoint blockade via blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA4. Numerous clinical trials are currently ongoing in patients with AML and MDS, both in the frontline and relapsed refractory setting. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Antibody Fragments Humanization: Beginning with the End in Mind.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:231-252

School of Pharmacy, Paris-Sud University, Châtenay-Malabry, France.

Molecular engineering has made possible to reformat monoclonal antibodies into smaller antigen-binding structures like scFvs, diabodies, Fabs with new potential in vivo applications because they do not induce Fc-mediated functions. However, most of these molecules are from rodent origin. As a consequence, they are immunogenic and approval for administration to humans requires prior humanization. Read More

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January 2019

Photographing Fluid-Preserved Specimens.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:149-153

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

There is an important trend among museums and universities to digitize their collections both to help with archiving and allow remote access to their specimens (Olsen Museum specimens find new life online. The New York Times, 2015). While taxidermied animals, casts, and insect samples can be positioned and lit relatively easily, those that are preserved and stored in glass or Perspex jars need special lighting and a carefully thought out studio in order to get the best images. Read More

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January 2019

Pretreatment-Etidronate Alleviates CoCl Induced-SH-SY5Y Cell Apoptosis via Decreased HIF-1α and TRPC5 Channel Proteins.

Neurochem Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Chronic hypoxic damage is one of the most common pathogenic factors that can cause neurodegenerative disorder in most cases. Etidronate (Eti) is one of the best-known earlier-generations of bisphosphonate derivatives for the treatment of bone-loss related diseases. Building on the preceding study of our laboratory, we found that Eti showed neuroprotective effects against 2-vessel occlusion induced vascular dementia (VD) in rats. Read More

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December 2018

The methylation and telomere landscape in two families of marsupials with different rates of chromosome evolution.

Chromosome Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, 2617, Australia.

Two marsupial families exemplify divergent rates of karyotypic change. The Dasyurid family has an extremely conserved karyotype. In contrast, there is significant chromosomal variation within the Macropodidae family, best exemplified by members of the genus Petrogale (rock-wallabies). Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of body weight estimation equations for camels (Camelus dromedarius).

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Animal Production and Biotechnology, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, PO Box 6202, Rabat-Instituts, 10101, Rabat, Morocco.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of six different equations for weight estimation of camels using body measurements as chest girth, height at withers, and hump girth in order to identify the most reliable equation for use in the field. The prediction equations that were compared were those of Boué Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine vétérinaire des Pays tropicaux 3 (1), 13-16, 1949; Graber Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine vétérinaire des Pays tropicaux, 19, 527-543, 1966; Wilson Tropical Animal Health and Production, 10, 19-25, 1978; Field Proceedings of the Khartoum workshop on camels V1, 209-230, 1979; Bucci et al. Indian Veterinary Journal, 61, 26-30, 1984; and Yagil A Handbook for Camel Breeding, 1994 noticed as BW1, BW2, BW3, BW4, BW5, and BW6, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Inevitable Decay: Debates over Climate, Food Security, and Plant Heredity in Nineteenth-Century Britain.

J Hist Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

History Faculty, University of Oxford, George St., Oxford, OX1 2RL, UK.

Climate change and the failure of crops are significant but overlooked events in the history of heredity. Bad weather and dangerously low harvests provided momentum and urgency for answers to questions about how best to improve and acclimatize staple varieties. In the 1790s, a series of crop failures in Britain led to the popularization of and widespread debate over Thomas Andrew Knight's suggestion that poor weather was in fact largely unconnected to the bad harvests. Read More

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December 2018

My best case: homeopathic management of adverse effects of tamoxifen.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

General Practice Department, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Nearly half of patients discontinue tamoxifen hormone therapy early because of side effects, thus increasing the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Could a homeopathic treatment improve compliance?

Methods: A patient suffering from side effects of tamoxifen was seen in consultation every 2 months for 10 months by a senior homeopathic doctor and a registrar.

Results: Case analysis and repertorisation led to the identification of Pulsatilla as the simillimum drug and tamoxifen 7c as the etiological treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Donor-derived hepatocytes in human hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: evidence of fusion.

Virchows Arch 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.

Reconstitution of hepatocytes by hematopoietic stem cells-a phenomenon which occurs in rodents under highly selective conditions-results from infrequent fusion between incoming myelomonocytes and host hepatocytes, with subsequent proliferation. Human hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients have been little studied, with some support for transdifferentiation (direct differentiation). We studied routinely obtained autopsy liver tissue of four female hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with male donors, using a highly specific conjoint immunohistochemistry in situ hybridization light microscopic technique. Read More

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December 2018