3,950 results match your criteria Behavioural Processes[Journal]


Independent influence of thermoregulatory cost on the lower and upper set-points of a heliothermic lizard.

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Tr. 14 No. 101, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Studies on ectothermic vertebrates generally lead to average indicators of thermal preferences measured in the laboratory, which do not say about responses to natural environmental change and may not inform about individual variation and its triggering mechanisms. We studied whether and how changes in costs of thermoregulation influence the preferred temperature (T) of individual lizards and their energetic investment in thermoregulation by exposing specimens to three treatments of increasing costs, recording body temperature (T) and distance walked (energetic investment). Moderate costs induced an investment trade-off between energy-investment in thermoregulation and T, and highlighted individual variation that decreased with higher costs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Behavioral thermoregulation in avian embryos: spectrum analysis of calls in warm and cold conditions.

Authors:
Jacopo P Mortola

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Physiology, McGill University, room 1121, 3655 Sir William Osler promenade, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 Canada. Electronic address:

During the last days of incubation vocalization is a form of communication between the avian embryo and the incubating parent. Commonly, embryonic calls increase when ambient temperature (Ta) deviates from the optimal range, but no information is available on whether the characteristics of the calls differ between warming and cooling. Rate of calls, power spectra (distribution of the call's energy among its frequency components) and spectrograms (time-frequency plots) were obtained in chicken embryos during the external pipping phase, in normothermia (38 °C), during progressive cooling to Ta = 27 °C (C) or progressive warming to Ta = 43 °C (W) over a short (30 min) or a long (150 min) period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.007DOI Listing

Particle motion and sound pressure in fish tanks: A behavioural exploration of acoustic sensitivity in the zebrafish.

Authors:
James Campbell

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Underwater sound fields can be complex, both in open water and small tank environments. Here we measured 1) spatial variation in artificially elevated sound levels in a small fish tank for both particle motion and sound pressure. We confirmed that the ratio of pressure and particle motion deviated considerably from what would be expected in theoretical far field environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Sex-dependent discrimination learning in lizards: a meta-analysis.

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

University of New South Wales, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ecology & Evolution Research Centre, Sydney, Australia; Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

We have a poor understanding of differences in learning performance between male and female non-avian reptiles compared to other vertebrates. Recently, learning studies in non-avian reptiles greatly increased enabling us to test for sex-based learning using a meta-analysis. Although, we initially considered all reptiles, only lizard studies (N = 11) provided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Presence of humans and domestic cats affects bat behaviour in an urban nursery of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 3;164:4-9. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Wildlife Research Unit, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy; School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, UK. Electronic address:

Proximity to humans is a primary stressor for wildlife, especially in urban habitats where frequent disturbance may occur. Several bat species often roost in buildings but while the effects of disturbance inside the roost are well documented, little is known about those occurring in the proximity of roosts. We tested the effects of anthropogenic stressors on bats by monitoring reactions to disturbance in a colony of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Interbehavioral psychology and the behavior systems framework: A brief reply.

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 27;164:1-3. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

University of Nevada, Reno, United States.

The present commentary considers a paper by Silva, Silva, and Machado (2019) published in this special issue, which describes some relations between Behavior Systems Theory and Interbehavioral Psychology. In particular, the systems aspects, field orientation, and role of experimentation in both Behavior Systems Theory and Interbehavioral Psychology are discussed. Similarities and differences among the two perspectives are highlighted, and misconceptions about Interbehavioral Psychology are addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Insular geckos provide experimental evidence on refuge selection priorities by ectotherms.

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

CIBIO Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Universidade do Porto, Campus de Vairão, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, 4485-661, Vairão, Portugal; FECM Faculdade de Engenharias e Ciências do Mar, Uni-CV Universidade de Cabo Verde, CP 163, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cabo Verde. Electronic address:

In small sedentary ectotherms, patterns of spatial use result from the interplay between multiple, often conflicting factors, including abiotic and biotic interactions. Evaluating the costs and benefits of these pressures is crucial to make correct behavioural decisions in terms of fitness. The insular São Vicente's wall gecko Tarentola substituta provides a relatively simple model system to study these questions as it inhabits arid rocky habitats where refuges are limited, density of conspecifics is high, and terrestrial predators are almost absent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.008DOI Listing

Does the sex and age of birds and the size of human settlements affect recapturing of the Great Tit (Parus major) at bird feeders?

Behav Processes 2019 May 15;162:162-166. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Avian Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, ul. Umultowska 89, PL-61-614 Poznań, Poland.

Urban and rural habitats provide different conditions to wintering birds mainly due to different access to bird feeders. Returning to the food sources, even under the stress related to trapping, could play an important role in the energetic budget of wintering birds. We studied the duration of period between the first and the second capture of the Great Tits (Parus major) caught and ringed at bird feeders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Genomic basis of delayed reward discounting.

Behav Processes 2019 May 12;162:157-161. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity, reflecting how rapidly a reward loses value based on its temporal distance. In humans, more impulsive DRD is associated with susceptibility to a number of psychiatric diseases (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Resurgence of a target behavior suppressed by a combination of punishment and alternative reinforcement.

Behav Processes 2019 May 9;162:177-183. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Utah State University, United States.

Differential-reinforcement-based treatments involving extinction of target problem behavior and reinforcement of an alternative behavior are highly effective. However, extinction of problem behavior is sometimes difficult or contraindicated in clinical settings. In such cases, punishment instead of extinction may be used in combination with alternative reinforcement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Behavioral responses to changes in group size and composition: a case study on grooming behavior of female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

Behav Processes 2019 May 9;162:142-146. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Biology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan.

Primates flexibly change their grooming behavior depending on group size and composition to maintain social relationships among group members. However, how drastic social changes influence their grooming behavior remains unclear. We observed the grooming behavior of adult female Japanese macaques in two groups temporarily formed as one-female groups from multi-female groups and compared their behaviors between the multi-female and one-female periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Distributed cognition criteria: Defined, operationalized, and applied to human-dog systems.

Behav Processes 2019 May 5;162:167-176. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Philosophy, University of Central Florida, 4111 Pictor Lane, Suite 220, Orlando, FL, 32816-1352, USA; Cognitive Sciences Program, University of Central Florida, 4111 Pictor Lane, Suite 220, Orlando, FL, 32816-1352, USA.

Distributed cognition generally refers to situations in which task requirements are shared among multiple agents or, potentially, off-loaded onto the environment. With few exceptions, socially distributed cognition has largely been discussed in terms of intraspecific interactions. This conception fails to capture some forms of group-level cognition among human and non-human animals that are not readily measured or explained in mentalistic or verbal terms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Decoy effects in intertemporal and probabilistic choices the role of time pressure, immediacy, and certainty.

Behav Processes 2019 May 5;162:130-141. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma, Italy.

A decoy is an irrelevant option that, when added to a binary choice, is not selected but nonetheless alters the subjects' preferences, systematically biasing towards its target. The decoy effect, also known as attraction effect, is considered an anomaly of rational decision-making, albeit its applicability to real-life choices outside of laboratory settings has been challenged. In particular, when decoys have been studied in choices between outcomes occurring at different points in time, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.03.002DOI Listing

Disequilibrium in behavior analysis: A disequilibrium theory redux.

Behav Processes 2019 May 1;162:197-204. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

SEEK Education, Inc., 9060 Huntington Drive, San Gabriel, CA, 91775, United States.

Disequilibrium theory is an approach to reinforcement that reconsiders the putative response strengthening prowess of stimuli. This disequilibrium approach-the pinnacle of the response deprivation hypothesis-reliably predicts changes in behavior without reference to a response strengthening process. While the strengthening model of reinforcement has received renewed and critical appraisal in behavior analysis, its appraisers have not fully considered the role that a disequilibrium conceptualization might play in their respective theories of reinforcement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.02.006DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

The behavior system for sexual learning.

Behav Processes 2019 May 1;162:184-196. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia.

In this paper we review and update evidence relevant to formulating a behavior system for sexual learning. We emphasize behavioral rather than neurobiological evidence and mechanisms. Our analysis focuses on three types of responses or response modes: general search, focal search, and consummatory or copulatory behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.013DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Water restriction influences intra-pair vocal behavior and the acoustic structure of vocalisations in the opportunistically breeding zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

Behav Processes 2019 May 27;162:147-156. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences UMR 7618, F-75005 Paris, France.

Seasonally-breeding species experience significant and predictable shifts in vocal behaviour; however, it is unclear to what extent this is true for species that breed opportunistically. The Australian zebra finch is an opportunistically breeding species, which means individuals must time breeding bouts based on many environmental factors. Here we tested the effect of experimental water restriction, which suppresses reproductive readiness in zebra finches, on vocal behaviour of males and females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.02.007DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Lateralization in accuracy, reaction time and behavioral processes in a visual discrimination task in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus).

Behav Processes 2019 May 16;162:112-118. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Ocean Park, 180 Wong Chuk Hang Road, Aberdeen, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Perceptual and behavioral asymmetry has been observed in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species with its origin estimated to go back over 500 million years. Previously, hemispheric lateralization in marine mammals has been recorded during foraging, parental care, preferred swimming direction as well as when solving cognitive challenges. Visual laterality has been demonstrated in preferred eye use and performance accuracy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.02.003DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Chemical alarm cues allow prey to adjust their defensive behaviour to cover abundance.

Behav Processes 2019 May 12;162:86-89. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy; Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

Aquatic prey species show sophisticated mechanisms to adjust their antipredator behaviours to the level of risk, which they estimate either by direct experience with predators or from indirect indicators such as chemical alarm cues released by injured conspecifics. For instance, evidence suggests that the alarm cues of tadpoles exposed to high levels of background predation risk elicit a stronger antipredator response compared to alarm cues of tadpoles exposed to low risk. Similarly, the alarm cues of tadpoles from environments with reduced vegetation cover might cause a stronger response than alarm cues of tadpoles from environments with abundant vegetation because tadpoles suffer high predation when vegetation is scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.02.004DOI Listing

Self-organizing conflicts: Group assessment and the spatio-temporal dynamics of ant territory battles.

Behav Processes 2019 May 10;162:119-129. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Life Sciences Department, Mesa Community College, Mesa, AZ 85202, United States.

Territorial battles among ants exhibit temporal and spatial patterns that self-organize, arising spontaneously from distributed decisions by large numbers of individuals. We describe agent-based models of inter-group fights in ants and show that two behavioral mechanisms that are rarely quantified have large effects on the dynamics of intraspecific battles; specifically, the pattern of search by unengaged ants, and assessment of relative numbers. In the absence of assessment, recruitment by both colonies rises to steady averages. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03766357183025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.009DOI Listing
May 2019
7 Reads

Rats' optimal choice behavior in a gambling-like task.

Behav Processes 2019 May 8;162:104-111. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F., 04510, Mexico.

Among the different procedures that model gambling behavior in non-human animals, the "suboptimal choice procedure" has been extensively employed for analyzing the impact of environmental cues on choice behavior. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that pigeons prefer an alternative that infrequently presents a stimulus that signals a larger amount of reinforcement, than another alternative that always presents a stimulus associated with a smaller amount of reinforcement, even though the net rate of reinforcement is lower in the former. In the present study, we tested rats in the magnitude version of the suboptimal choice procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.02.002DOI Listing

Testing the dear enemy relationship in fiddler crabs: Is there a difference between fighting conspecific and heterospecific opponents?

Behav Processes 2019 May 7;162:90-96. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Ecology and Animal Behavior, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Institute of Biosciences, Coastal Campus, São Vicente, São Paulo, Brazil.

Reduction of aggressiveness toward familiar neighbors, when compared to aggressiveness toward unfamiliar strangers, can decrease the costs of territory defense. This phenomenon is known as the "dear enemy effect". Individuals may shift their aggressiveness toward neighbors or strangers from the same or different species, depending on the relative threat associated with different opponents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.02.001DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Defense by exploitation in Negev gerbils.

Behav Processes 2019 May 1;162:97-103. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Marco and Louise Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology, SIDEER, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, 8499000, Israel. Electronic address:

In this study, we addressed how frequently a non-traplining animal should visit food patches. More specifically, we investigate if non-traplining animals engage in a behavior called "defense by exploitation", which is characterized by an increase in visitation rates with increased intra-specific competition. We ran four tests with two gerbil species in the Negev Desert. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.015DOI Listing

Piloting a new prosociality paradigm in dogs and wolves: The location choice task.

Behav Processes 2019 May 1;162:79-85. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Wolf Science Center, Konrad-Lorenz Institute of Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria; Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether or not dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves (Canis lupus) show prosociality in a simple T-maze experiment based on a previous study by Hernandez-Lallement et al. (2015). Prosociality, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.004DOI Listing

Auditory sequence perception in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

Authors:
Masumi Wakita

Behav Processes 2019 May 1;162:55-63. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Cognitive Neuroscience Section, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kanrin 41-2, Inuyama, Aichi, 484-8506, Japan. Electronic address:

One of the essential linguistic and musical faculties of humans is the ability to recognize the structure of sound configurations and to extract words and melodies from continuous sound sequences. However, monkeys' ability to process the temporal structure of sounds is controversial. Here, to investigate whether monkeys can analyze the temporal structure of auditory patterns, two common marmosets were trained to discriminate auditory patterns in three experiments. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03766357183039
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.014DOI Listing
May 2019
8 Reads

Overwinter temperature has no effect on problem solving abilities or responses to novelty in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

Behav Processes 2019 May 31;162:72-78. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada; Advanced Facility for Avian Research, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada. Electronic address:

Birds overwintering at northern latitudes face challenging environments in which refined cognitive and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli could be a benefit. Populations of the same species from different latitudes have been shown to differ in their cognitive and behavioural responses, and these differences have been attributed to local adaptation. However, individuals overwintering at intermediate latitudes experience great breadth and variation in environmental conditions, and thus it is reasonable that these individuals would alter their responses based on current conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.012DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

A review of boundary conditions and variables involved in the prevention of return of fear after post-retrieval extinction.

Behav Processes 2019 May 29;162:39-54. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Experimental evidence suggests that the return of fear may be prevented by post-retrieval extinction (PRE), a procedure consisting of extinction training after the presentation of a retrieval cue. However, attempts to replicate these findings have yielded mixed results, with some studies showing diminished fear responses after PRE, whereas others show no effect on the return of fear following this procedure. The discrepancies across studies have been interpreted as evidence that there might be conditions under which PRE is not effective (boundary conditions), but these variables have yet to be fully described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.011DOI Listing

Behavioral persistence is associated with poorer olfactory discrimination learning in domestic dogs.

Authors:
S Dalal N J Hall

Behav Processes 2019 May 28;162:64-71. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Animal and Food Science, Texas Tech University, USA. Electronic address:

Domestic dogs are trained for a wide variety of jobs; however, half of dogs that enter working dog training organizations never become certified. The aim of this study was to identify whether a basic measure of behavioral persistence was associated with sixteen dogs' performance on an odor discrimination learning task. Further, we evaluated whether dogs that adopted more of a win-stay or win-shift strategy during discrimination learning was associated with greater persistence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.010DOI Listing

Gastrointestinal nematode infection and feeding behaviour of goats in a heterogeneous vegetation: No evidence of therapeutic self-medication.

Behav Processes 2019 May 24;162:7-13. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Km 15.5 Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil, Apdo. 4-116 Itzimná, Mérida, Yucatán, 97100, Mexico.

The aim of this study was to identify modifications in the feeding behaviour of goats browsing a tropical deciduous forest (TDF) when natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection was suppressed. Continuous bite monitoring through direct observation was implemented in 12 Criollo goats (adults, non-pregnant) foraging for 4 h per day during the rainy season. In the first Period (P1, one observation point) all goats were maintained with natural GIN infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.006DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

The effect of economy type on reinforcer value.

Authors:
David N Kearns

Behav Processes 2019 May 24;162:20-28. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

American University, Psychology Department, American University 4400 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, 20016, DC, United States. Electronic address:

This article reviews studies investigating the effect of economy type on reinforcer value. In a closed economy, consumption of the reinforcer depends entirely on the subject's behavior, whereas in an open economy it does not, due, for example, to the provision of free reinforcers after the session. In theory, reinforcers should have higher value in a closed economy than in an open economy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445746PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Do dogs experience frustration? New contributions on successive negative contrast in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

Behav Processes 2019 May 23;162:14-19. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de investigaciones Médicas (IDIM), Grupo de Investigación del Comportamiento en Cánidos (ICOC), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas A Lanari, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

An unexpected change in reward quantity or quality frequently elicits a sharp decrease of responses as well as a negative emotional state. This phenomenon is called successive negative contrast (SNC) and, although it has been observed in numerous mammals, results in dogs have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate SNC in dogs, comparing the effects of rewards of different qualities in a non-social task carried out in the dogs' usual environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.007DOI Listing

Perceptual learning after test-stimulus exposure in humans.

Behav Processes 2019 May 23;162:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Sarriena, s/n, 48940, Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain. Electronic address:

Exposure to a to-be-tested stimulus produces a reduction in generalization to that stimulus from another similar conditioned stimulus (e.g. Bennett et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.005DOI Listing

Progression and stop organization reveals conservation of movement organization during dark exploration across rats and mice.

Behav Processes 2019 May 23;162:29-38. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Northern Illinois University, Department of Psychology, DeKalb, IL, 60115, United States. Electronic address:

Spatial orientation is a ubiquitous feature of animal behavior. Environmental and self-movement cues are sources of information used to maintain spatial orientation. The literature has typically focused on differences between mice and rats using environmental cues to guide movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.003DOI Listing

Models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Authors:
Peter R Killeen

Behav Processes 2019 May 21;162:205-214. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Arizona State University, United States. Electronic address:

One of the most notable aspects of the behavior of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increased variability in many aspects of their behavior, including response times and attentional focus. Among the many theories of ADHD is one that identifies its material cause as phasic malnutrition of the neurons required to maintain constancy of performance. Of the diverse predictions issuing from this theory, one concerns ubiquitous data: response times and their variance in decision tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.001DOI Listing

Consistent meal times improve performance on a daily time-place learning task.

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 18;160:26-32. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. Electronic address:

The ability of an animal to learn the spatiotemporal variability of stimuli is known as time-place learning (TPL). The present study investigated the role of the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) in TPL. Rats were trained in an operant conditioning chamber which contained two levers that distributed a food reward, such that one lever provided food rewards in morning sessions, while the other lever provided food rewards in afternoon sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Is play a behavior system, and, if so, what kind?

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 14;160:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Given that many behavior patterns cluster together in sequences that are organized to solve specific problems (e.g., foraging), a fruitful perspective within which to study behaviors is as distinct 'behavior systems'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.011DOI Listing

Courtship behavior and coloration influence conspicuousness of wolf spiders (Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz)) to avian predators.

Behav Processes 2019 May 14;162:215-220. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 210006, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA. Electronic address:

Signalers must balance the benefits of detection by intended receivers with the costs of detection by eavesdroppers. This trade-off is exemplified by sexual signaling systems, in which signalers experience sexual selection for conspicuousness to mates as well as natural selection for crypsis to predators. In this study, we examined how courtship behavior and body coloration influenced the conspicuousness of males to avian predators in the well-studied brush-legged wolf spider system (Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz)). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.023DOI Listing

Costly curiosity: People pay a price to resolve an uncertain gamble early.

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 12;160:20-25. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

University of Warwick, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Humans are inherently curious creatures, continuously seeking out information about future outcomes. Such advance information is often valuable, potentially allowing people to select better courses of action. In non-human animals, this drive for information can be so strong that they forego food or water to find out a few seconds earlier whether an uncertain option will provide a reward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.015DOI Listing

Comparative inspiration: From puzzles with pigeons to novel discoveries with humans in risky choice.

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 3;160:10-19. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Both humans and non-human animals regularly encounter decisions involving risk and uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of our research program examining risky decisions in which the odds and outcomes are learned through experience in people and pigeons. We summarize the results of 15 experiments across 8 publications, with a total of over 1300 participants. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03766357183042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.009DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Anticipation of a midsession reversal in humans.

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 3;159:60-64. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

In a two-stimulus visual discrimination choice task with a reversal in reward contingencies midway through each session, pigeons produce a surprising number of anticipatory errors (i.e., responding to the second-correct stimulus before the reversal) based on failure to inhibit timing-based intrusion errors; limited prior research has suggested humans' performance is qualitatively different. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Standing on shoulders of a giant: Marcia Spetch's contributions to the study of spatial reorientation.

Behav Processes 2019 Mar 3;160:33-41. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Athabasca University, Canada; Mount Royal University, Canada; University of Calgary, Canada. Electronic address:

Navigation is an important skill for mobile creatures. One important aspect of navigation is the ability to regain your position (reorient) if you become lost. Over the last 20 years, Marcia Spetch has added substantially to our understanding of reorientation and has advanced the fields of both comparative cognition and spatial cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.017DOI Listing

Comparative spatial memory and cue use: The contributions of Marcia L. Spetch to the study of small-scale spatial cognition.

Authors:
Eric L G Legge

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 3;159:65-79. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Psychology, MacEwan University, 10700 - 104 Avenue, City Centre Campus, Edmonton, AB, T5J 4S2, Canada. Electronic address:

Dr. Marcia Spetch is a Canadian experimental psychologist who specializes in the study of comparative cognition. Her research over the past four decades has covered many diverse topics, but focused primarily on the comparative study of small-scale spatial cognition, navigation, decision making, and risky choice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Judgement bias testing in group-housed gestating sows.

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 2;159:86-92. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Clinical Studies, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, 382 W Street Road, Kennett Square, PA, 19348, USA.

Societal concerns about animal welfare have triggered the movement of gestating sows from individual stalls to group housing in many countries. Common methods of assessing sow welfare focus on overt physical ailments, and potentially neglect psychological stressors. A judgement bias task may allow researchers to evaluate an animal's subjective mental or affective state to provide a more comprehensive welfare assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.021DOI Listing
February 2019
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Human facial expression affects a dog's response to conflicting directional gestural cues.

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 2;159:80-85. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7DL, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

There is growing scientific interest in both the ability of dogs to evaluate emotional cues and their response to social cueing, we therefore examined the interaction between these by investigating whether human facial expression impact on dogs' approach preference to conflicting directional gestural signals. During testing, a human demonstrator simultaneously pointed in one direction and faced (looked towards) in another towards one of two food bowls placed on opposite sides of the demonstrator with either a happy, angry or neutral facial expression. Thirty-six pet dogs were assessed for their approach preference, approach time, alongside aspects of their temperament (positive/negative activation and impulsivity via validated questionnaires). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.022DOI Listing
February 2019
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The effect of stimulus encounter rate on response decrement in jumping spiders.

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 31;159:57-59. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand.

The inability to maintain signal detection performance with time on task, or response decrement, has been widely studied. In animals with small brains, the ability to filter out repetitive, irrelevant stimuli may prevent the nervous system from being saturated with information. However, animals must be particular to which stimuli they attend and those to ignore, as mistakes may be costly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.020DOI Listing
February 2019

Horizontal and vertical exploration in woodlice: A dual-process model.

Authors:
Patrick Anselme

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 31;159:55-56. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, University of Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Woodlice placed in an unknown experimental enclosure typically run (horizontal exploration) and rear up on the enclosure's walls (vertical exploration). Previous findings with Porcellio scaber indicate that these two behaviors have an opposite temporal distribution and show differential sensitivity to rotation-induced physiological stress. It is argued that the dual-process theory of habituation and sensitization can serve as a basis to account for horizontal and vertical exploratory activities in woodlice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.019DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of the physical and social environment on flight response and habitat use in a solitary ungulate, the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus).

Behav Processes 2019 Jan 25;158:228-233. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Laboratory of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan.

Observations of the flight response of ungulates are commonly used to test behavioral responses to predation risk. In gregarious ungulates with sexual body-size dimorphism such responses are likely to be stronger in situations where individuals have perceptions of less security as well as among more-sensitive individuals, such as female groups or female groups with offspring which are understood to use safety habitats more often than males do. However, little is known about these behaviors in solitary ungulates with little sexual dimorphism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.10.018DOI Listing
January 2019

Male attraction to female airborne cues by the net-casting spider, Deinopis spinosa.

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 15;159:23-30. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

University of Nebraska - Lincoln, School of Biological Sciences, NE, USA.

For many animals, finding a mate can be a difficult task. For males, it often involves actively searching for conspecific females, sometimes over great distances. This mate-searching can be aided through chemical or visual signals or cues produced by sexually receptive females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.014DOI Listing
February 2019

The principle of consistency and the cause and function of behaviour.

Behav Processes 2019 Feb 15;159:42-54. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Cognitive Neurobiology and Helmholtz Institute, Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

At all levels of information processing in the brain, neural and cognitive structures tend towards a state of consistency. When two or more simultaneously active cognitive structures are logically inconsistent, arousal is increased, which activates processes with the expected consequence of increasing consistency and decreasing arousal. Increased arousal is experienced as aversive, while the expected or actual decrease in arousal as a result of increased consistency is experienced as rewarding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.013DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads