4,157 results match your criteria Behavioural Processes[Journal]


Egg rejection and egg recognition mechanism of chestnut thrushes (Turdus rubrocanus).

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 1:104158. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China. Electronic address:

Recognizing and rejecting foreign eggs is one of the most effective anti-parasite strategies for hosts in avian brood parasitism. Studies have shown that most cuckoo (Cuculus spp.) hosts have evolved egg recognition abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104158DOI Listing

Suboptimal choice by pigeons is eliminated when key-pecking behavior is replaced by treadle-pressing.

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 1:104157. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, DF, 04510, Mexico. Electronic address:

In the study of suboptimal choice, a reliable result is that pigeons strongly prefer an alternative that signals whether a reinforcer will be delivered or not over another alternative without that information even if the first provides a lower probability of reinforcement. In the aforementioned research, key pecking has been the operant response and illuminated keys the discriminative stimuli. In the present study we modified both of these aspects of the procedure in order to analyze the generality of suboptimal preferences of pigeons and to investigate the effect of changes in the incentive salience of the discriminative stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104157DOI Listing

Azure-winged magpies fail to understand the principle of mirror imaging.

Behav Processes 2020 May 30:104155. Epub 2020 May 30.

School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is considered a crucial step in the emergence of self-cognition. The MSR paradigm has become a standard method for evaluating self-cognition in several species. For example, Eurasian magpies and Indian house crows have passed the mark test for self-cognition, whereas efforts to find MSR in other corvid species have failed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104155DOI Listing

Compensation for wind drift in the nocturnally migrating Song Thrushes in relation to altitude and wind.

Behav Processes 2020 May 29:104154. Epub 2020 May 29.

Biological Station "Rybachy", Zoological Institute of the RAS, Rybachy, 238535, Kaliningrad reg., Russia.

Compensation for wind drift in relation to the side-wind velocity and altitude was investigated in Song Thrushes during autumn migration. The birds were recorded at night flying above the prominent leading line of a marine spit which coincided with the general direction of their migration. Among the large size passerine species, Song Thrushes were identified by a combination of five flight characteristics typical only of this species during particular periods of autumn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104154DOI Listing

The choice and handling of supplemental food by red squirrels in an urban park.

Behav Processes 2020 May 29:104153. Epub 2020 May 29.

Dept. of Forest Zoology and Wildlife Management, Warsaw University of Life Sciences WULS-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, Warsaw, 02-776, Poland. Electronic address:

One of the main factors that allow the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) to live in cities may be the availability of supplemental food provided by people. In this article, preferences of red squirrels in relation to supplemental food, how it is handled, and whether change seasonally, is investigated. A cafeteria test was performed, in which squirrels could choose one from six kind of nuts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104153DOI Listing

Female and male rufous horneros eject shiny cowbird eggs using a mental template of the size of their own eggs.

Behav Processes 2020 May 27:104152. Epub 2020 May 27.

Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución & IEGEBA-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Hosts of interspecific brood parasites often evolve antiparasitic defences, like the recognition and rejection of parasite's eggs. Most hosts use differences in coloration and maculation to discriminate between their own and parasitic eggs, but there are a few cases of hosts using the size of eggs as a cue. To recognise parasite eggs, hosts may require the presence of their own eggs and use a discordancy rule or may use a mental template of their own eggs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104152DOI Listing

Diverse styles of running-wheel behavior in antelope ground squirrels.

Behav Processes 2020 May 27:104149. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, 70148, USA. Electronic address:

The running-wheel behavior of white-tailed antelope squirrels was studied in the laboratory by quantitative analysis of wheel revolutions and by visual inspection of video recordings with the assistance of Google Nest's detection algorithm. There was great interindividual diversity of running styles, although no systematic difference was found between male and female squirrels. Some animals ran on the outside of the wheel instead of inside, some ran consistently inside the wheel but alternating directions every few seconds, some ran on a virtual wheel while avoiding the actual wheel and doing back flips in the air instead, and some ran around the cage and occasionally hit the wheel thus generating a stable record of wheel revolutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104149DOI Listing

Can the frequency of defensive posture adoption influence the expression of active behavior of adult rats?

Behav Processes 2020 May 27:104151. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, CAV, Federal University of Pernambuco, 55608-680, Recife, PE, Brazil; Laboratory of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Neuroplasticity - Academic Center of Vitória - Federal University of Pernambuco, Vitória De Santo Antão, 55608-680, PE, Brazil.

During the youth, rats spend a long time in play fighting (PF), and asymmetries are observed in terms of the frequency of adoption of the supine posture. This study investigated the effects of asymmetry in adopting supine posture during PF on the time spent in locomotor activity-related contextual behaviors during youth and adulthood. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to the number of times of their adoption of a defensive supine (S) posture: low (LS, n = 10), intermediary (IS, n = 10) and high (HS, n = 10) Rats aged 21-62 days were placed in voluntary physical active cages (VPAC) with running wheels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104151DOI Listing

Effects of Differential Probabilities of Reinforcement on Human Timing.

Behav Processes 2020 May 26:104146. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Education and Psychology, University of Aveiro, Portugal.

We investigated how differential payoffs affect the temporal discrimination of humans. In a temporal bisection task, participants learned to make one response after a short sample and another after a long sample. When presented with a range of intermediate samples, the proportion of responses fitted well a Gaussian-like distribution function characterized by a location (bias), a scale (sensitivity) parameter, and two asymptote (discrimination) parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104146DOI Listing

The Midsession Reversal Task with Pigeons Does a Brief Delay Between Choice and Reinforcement Facilitate Reversal Learning?

Behav Processes 2020 May 26;177:104150. Epub 2020 May 26.

University of Kentucky, United States. Electronic address:

In a midsession reversal task, the session begins with a simple simultaneous discrimination in which one stimulus (S1) is correct and the other stimulus (S2) is incorrect (S1+/S2-). At the midpoint of the session, the discrimination reverses and S2 becomes the correct choice (S2+/S1-). When choosing optimally, a pigeon should choose S1 until the first trial in which its choice is not reinforced and then it should shift to S2 (win-stay/lose-shift). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104150DOI Listing

Generalization and Discrimination of Molecularly Similar Odorants in Detection Canines and the Influence of Training.

Behav Processes 2020 May 25;177:104148. Epub 2020 May 25.

Florida International University, International Forensic Research Institute, Chemistry Department, 11200 SW 8(th)St., Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

Operationally-deployed canine detectors are often trained on one or a limited number of materials representing a single target odor, and training frequently occurs using materials of a high purity grade in controlled scenarios with minimal other background odors. Conversely, in the field, canine detectors are expected to generalize and identify variations of the target odor, while discriminating from similar extraneous or background odors. This exemplifies the balance between generalization and discrimination required for effective canine detectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104148DOI Listing

Personality variation improves collective decision-making in cockroaches.

Behav Processes 2020 May 23:104147. Epub 2020 May 23.

Systematic Zoology Laboratory, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0397, Japan. Electronic address:

Many animals live in groups and engage in collective actions which can enhance their fitness. One common example is collective decision-making, which mainly arises from social interactions that modify the individual behaviour. Despite the widespread interest in animal personalities on the one hand and in social effects (such as social organisation, social learning or anti-predator behaviour) on the other, the question of how the amount of among-individual differences, coupled with social interactions, influence group cohesion has rarely been addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104147DOI Listing

A MISSING LINK BETWEEN DEPRESSION MODELS: FORCED SWIMMING TEST, HELPLESSNESS AND PASSIVE COPING IN GENETICALLY HETEROGENEOUS NIH-HS RATS.

Behav Processes 2020 May 24:104142. Epub 2020 May 24.

Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

The forced swimming test (FST) and helplessness reactions at two-way active escape/avoidance task are used in the study of depressive-like symptoms and antidepressant treatments in rodents. In both tests/tasks the animals are submitted to stressful situations, known to induce several responses that have been considered as parallels of some symptoms of the human depressive disorder. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence supporting associations between the behavioral responses displayed in both behavioral procedures by outbred rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104142DOI Listing

Minor Procedural Variations Affect Canine Behavior during Sociability Assessments.

Behav Processes 2020 May 20:104145. Epub 2020 May 20.

Animal and Food Science Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States.

A growing number of studies make claims about canine sociability in both applied and basic contexts. Yet, there is currently no standard for measuring sociability in dogs. The purpose of this two-part study was to determine whether procedural differences among canine sociability tests would affect dogs' behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104145DOI Listing

Patterns of nest box sharing in woodland dormice (Graphiurus murinus): evidence for intra-sexual tolerance and communal nesting.

Behav Processes 2020 May 20:104141. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, 5700, Alice, South Africa. Electronic address:

Nest sharing in rodents and other vertebrates is believed to be promoted by the gain of thermoregulatory advantages, reproductive imperatives or to be a by-product of other benefits to group living. Here, we studied the patterns of nest box sharing over a yearly cycle in a wild population of the arboreal, nocturnal and heterothermic woodland dormouse (Graphiurus murinus). We evaluated whether the timing of dormouse aggregations and group composition were compatible with thermoregulatory or reproductive imperatives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104141DOI Listing

Renewal of conditioned tentacle lowering by circadian contextual cues in snails Cornu aspersum.

Behav Processes 2020 May 20:104144. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Spain.

Previous experiments using tentacle lowering conditioning in terrestrial snails Cornu aspersum have shown extinction and recovery of the conditioned response (CR) as a consequence of both inserting a delay between the extinction and test (spontaneous recovery) and of re-exposing the animal to the unconditioned stimulus after extinction (reinstatement). Two experiments that examined recovery of the CR due to a change in context (renewal effect) were carried out to continue this line of research. In Experiment 1, subjects received conditioning with an odour (CS) followed by extinction in the presence of another odour (CS + C), before being exposed to the original one (CS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104144DOI Listing

Repeated predator odor exposure alters maternal behavior of postpartum Brandt's voles and offspring's locomotor activity.

Behav Processes 2020 May 21;177:104143. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Animal Behavior, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China. Electronic address:

Recent evidence indicates that predation risk plays a special role in the rodent behavior of dams and offspring, but little is known about the effect of maternal exposure to the predator cues in the absence of pups. Here, we assessed the effects of repeated predator odor exposure on various maternal responses in postpartum Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). We also examined offspring's behavioral response to a novel environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104143DOI Listing

Effects of alcohol consumption induced by reward loss on behavior in the hole-board test: Reward loss, alcohol consumption, and anxiety.

Behav Processes 2020 May 10:104135. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain. Electronic address:

Rats exposed to reward downshift (from 32% to 4% sucrose) increase 2% alcohol intake in a 2-h, free-choice preference test which also offered water. This effect was accompanied by augmented general activity in the elevated plus maze (Donaire et al., 2018, Behav Proc, 150, 59-65). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104135DOI Listing

Contextual factors modulate risk preferences in adult humans.

Behav Processes 2020 May 14;176:104137. Epub 2020 May 14.

CNR, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Unità di Primatologia Cognitiva e Centro Primati, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Humans have generally been considered risk averse for gains. Yet, growing evidence shows that risk preferences may change across reward currencies and depend on the type of tasks used to measure them. Here, we examined how context affects human risk preferences to shed light on the psychological mechanisms underlying human decision-making under risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104137DOI Listing

Does Conditioned Reinforcement Play a Role in Procrastination: A Pigeon Model.

Authors:
Thomas R Zentall

Behav Processes 2020 May 13:104139. Epub 2020 May 13.

University of Kentucky.

The traditional view of human procrastination is that engaging in an aversive task will be avoided until the anxiety associated with the consequences of missing the deadline exceeds the aversiveness of the task. Delay reduction theory suggests that there may be an additional mechanism, conditioned reinforcement associated with completion of the task close to the deadline. The results of several experiments support this hypothesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104139DOI Listing

Tail and ear postures of growing pigs in two different housing conditions.

Behav Processes 2020 May 13;176:104138. Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Olshausenstraße 40, 24118, Kiel, Germany.

This study analyses tail and ear postures of growing pigs in two different housing systems throughout the growing period. On one farm, 168 undocked pigs (84: barren housing, 84: enriched housing) were observed individually at three time periods: beginning, middle and end of the growing period. By scan sampling, the tail (curled-up, raised, hanging, tucked under, wagging) and ear posture (forwards, sidewards, backwards, mixed) was noted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104138DOI Listing

Acute stress differentially affects grooming subtypes and ultrasonic vocalisations in the open-field and home-cage test in rats.

Behav Processes 2020 May 13;176:104140. Epub 2020 May 13.

Neuroscience Research Center, University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica; Institute for Psychological Research, University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

Grooming behaviour in rodents has been associated with emotional distress, especially in unfamiliar and aversive contexts. However, the biological function of grooming in such situations is still unclear. We hypothesised that particular grooming subtypes are differentially associated with the stress response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104140DOI Listing

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) cannot recognize global configurations of sound patterns but can recognize adjacent relations of sounds.

Authors:
Masumi Wakita

Behav Processes 2020 May 11;176:104136. Epub 2020 May 11.

Cognitive Neuroscience Section, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kanrin 41-2, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan. Electronic address:

Processing the temporal configuration of discrete sounds to extract a regular pattern is fundamental to humans' faculties of perceiving words and musical phrases. To investigate such auditory pattern perception in monkeys, I trained two common marmosets to discriminate between AB-AB and AA-BB patterns under two training paradigms. One was an absolute discrimination task, in which the discrimination between these stimuli without reference cues was required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104136DOI Listing

Vigilance strategy differentiation between sympatric threatened and common crane species.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 29;176:104119. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650203, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Studies have indicated that threatened species may show reduced or elevated antipredator behavior compared with their close common relatives, but remarkably few studies revealed such differences in behavior among populations. Exploring factors affecting behavior between phylogenetically related common and threatened species could help understand such discrepancy. We tested for effects of external and internal variables including month, time of day, habitat type, distribution area, group composition status and group size on vigilance behavior (including group scan frequency and level) of two sympatric common Grus grus and threatened G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104119DOI Listing

Resistance to change as function of different physical-effort requirements in humans.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 29;176:104123. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Universidade Positivo - Faculdade Londrina, 86061-450, Londrina, PR, Brazil; Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Psicologia Geral e Análise do Comportamento, Caixa Postal: 10.011, 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil; Núcleo Evoluir, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effects of different physical-effort requirements on behavioral resistance to change were examined with undergraduate students engaging in a computer task for points exchangeable for money. In Baseline, button pressing was maintained on a multiple variable interval (VI) 45-s VI 45-s schedule of reinforcement with two physical-effort requirements: 10 N in the Low-Effort Component and 50 N in the High-Effort Component. In Test, button pressing was disrupted by a multiple extinction (EXT) EXT schedule plus anagrams as a concurrent task for five participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104123DOI Listing

Test-retest reliability of response recovery after discrimination reversal learning.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 27;176:104107. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

In one human predictive learning experiment, we demonstrated that an individual's propensity for response recovery following discrimination reversal learning is stable over time. Participants received four sessions of training with the first three sessions being separated by one week each, while the last session was conducted after a delay of four weeks. During each session, participants initially received discrimination training (E+, F-) in one context, followed by discrimination reversal training (E-, F+) in another context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104107DOI Listing

Examining delay of gratification in healthy aging.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 24;176:104125. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis (US)., United States.

Delay of gratification (DofG) refers to the capacity to forego an immediate reward in order to receive a more desirable reward later. As a core executive function, it might be expected that DofG would follow the standard pattern of age-related decline observed in older adults for other executive tasks. However, there actually have been few studies of aging and DofG, and even these have shown mixed results, suggesting the need for further investigation and new approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104125DOI Listing

Contribution of alcohol- and cigarette-related cues to concurrent reinforcer choice in humans.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 17;176:104124. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Drug-related cues have been extensively studied for their contributions to decision-making processes involving drug consumption. Less studied is how drug-related stimuli may impact decisions involving outcomes not directly related to substance use. Studies using concurrent choice tasks have demonstrated that cocaine and cannabis cues result in robust and selective biases for monetary reinforcers contiguous with those cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104124DOI Listing

Attractiveness to highly informative flowers and absence of conditioning in the southern monarch butterfly.

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 9;175:104120. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Laboratório de Interações Inseto-Planta, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Flower cues serve as information that improves foraging by flower visitors. These cues may act in a synergic, redundant or complementary way. We examined how the integration of visual cues affects foraging in the southern monarch butterfly, and whether these combined cues can be learned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104120DOI Listing

Preimaginal conditioning affects oviposition choices in the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori).

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 4;175:104121. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Universidad de Jaén, Spain.

Nowadays we can find a number of experiments that have showed the importance of learning in several situations related with survival of many animal species. For instance, knowledge acquired in the early stages of life could be crucial on the choice of egg-laying site. In this study we explored the influence of Pavlovian conditioning of silkworm larvae on their oviposition behaviour as adult female moths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104121DOI Listing

Anisotropy of perceived space in non-primates? The horizontal-vertical illusion in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria).

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 4;176:104117. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Italy; Padua Neuroscience Center, University of Padova, Italy.

The horizontal-vertical illusion is a size illusion in which two same-sized objects appear to be different if presented on a horizontal or vertical plane, with the vertical one appearing longer. This illusion represents one of the main evidences of the anisotropy of the perceived space of humans, an asymmetrical perception of the object size presented in the vertical and horizontal space. Although this illusion has been widely investigated in humans, there is an almost complete lack of studies in non-human animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104117DOI Listing

Long-term reproductive success is predicted by sexual behavior and impaired by temporary nutritional stress during sexual maturation.

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 4;175:104122. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, 1881 Natural Area Drive, Bldg. 970, PO Box 110620, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Nutritional stress during the earliest stages of an animal's life can have long-term effects on its behavior and reproductive performance, but the effects of brief periods of nutritional stress later in life are less well-studied. We manipulated female diet in Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and investigated to what extent nutritional stress during sexual maturation affects subsequent sexual behavior and long-term offspring production. We show that nutritional stress at this key point during early adulthood can have lasting effects on reproduction, impairing long-term offspring production despite the subsequent return of good nutrition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104122DOI Listing

Evaluating the social networks of four flocks of captive flamingos over a five-year period: Temporal, environmental, group and health influences on assortment.

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 4;175:104118. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, Psychology, Washington Singer, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QG, United Kingdom.

Flamingos are well known for their gregarious habits and aggregations in large flocks, but evaluation of the mechanisms behind social grouping remain poorly understood. Captive birds provide a useful model for investigating aspects of social choice in highly gregarious, long-lived species. Animals invest in social relationships that convey fitness benefits and bonds can be long-lasting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104118DOI Listing

An evolutionary model of reinforcer value.

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 21;175:104109. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

University of Bamberg, Markusplatz 3, D-96047 Bamberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Within the field of evolutionary biology, natural selection is often thought to favor traits that lead to individuals behaving as if they were maximizing their evolutionary fitness. The concept of the individual as a maximizer is also popular in behavioral psychology, especially when it comes to theories of operant learning. Here, the individual is taken to adapt its behavior to the local environment, such that the expected amount of reinforcer value is maximized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104109DOI Listing

Factors controlling the micro-structure of human free-operant behaviour: Bout-initiation and within-bout responses are effected by different aspects of the schedule.

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 21;175:104106. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Swansea University, UK. Electronic address:

Two experiments examined factors controlling human free-operant performance in relation to predictions based on the nature of bout-initiation and within-bout responding. Overall, responding was higher for a random ratio (RR) than a random interval (RI) schedule, with equal rates of reinforcement. Bout-initiation rates were not different across the two schedules, but within-bout rates were higher on the RR schedule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104106DOI Listing

Effects of combined coffee and alcohol use over cigarette demand among treatment-seeking smokers.

Behav Processes 2020 May 18;174:104108. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Plaza Feijoo s/n, 33003, Oviedo, Spain.

Objective: This study is aimed at comparing the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of nicotine though CPT performance in function of alcohol and coffee consumption of treatment-seeking smokers.

Material And Methods: A total of 88 treatment-seeking smokers (60.2 % female) completed the CPT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104108DOI Listing

Repeated resurgence with and without a context change.

Behav Processes 2020 May 10;174:104105. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Aichi Bunkyo University, Japan.

Resurgence is the reoccurrence of a target response when reinforcement for a more recently reinforced alternative response is eliminated or reduced. The present study arranged two successive three-phase procedures to assess whether resurgence decreases with repeated assessments. Moreover, we arranged a contextual change from the first to second assessment for some groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104105DOI Listing

Low cognitive competence as a vulnerability factor for behavioral despair in rats.

Behav Processes 2020 May 9;174:104103. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Boğaziçi University, 34342, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Elucidating the multi-faceted relationship between cognitive competence and affective states is a major pursuit in behavioral sciences. Mood disorders constitute a good research model for this question, as cognitive impairment may accompany clinical depression and persist after full remission. This suggests cognitive dysfunction as an etiological factor of depression, rather than an epiphenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104103DOI Listing

Levelling playing field: synchronization and rapid facial mimicry in dog-horse play.

Behav Processes 2020 May 7;174:104104. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Unit of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Via Volta 6, 56126, Pisa, Italy; Natural History Museum, University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Social play is a window on cognitive and communicative abilities of species. Inter-specific play, in particular, is a fertile venue to explore the capacity to correctly perceive and interpret signals emitted by partners. Up to now, most studies have focussed on dog-human play due to the important implications such studies have in understanding the peculiar relationship we establish with our pets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104104DOI Listing

Female degus show high sociality but no preference for familiar peers.

Behav Processes 2020 May 4;174:104102. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, Department of Biology, Program in Neuroscience. Smith College, Northampton, MA, 01063, USA. Electronic address:

Group-living animals vary in social behavior across multiple dimensions, including in the selectivity of social interactions with familiar versus unfamiliar peers. Standardized behavioral tests can be used to tease apart different dimensions of behavior. These serve a dual function-on one hand, helping to isolate behavioral factors that may support collective behavior in natural habitats, and, on another, providing a basis for comparative approaches to understanding physiological mechanisms of behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164678PMC

Rapid changes in sociosexual behaviors around transition to and from behavioral estrus, in female rats housed in a seminatural environment.

Behav Processes 2020 May 28;174:104101. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, Huginbakken 32, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Gonadally intact female rats display sexual behaviors only during a portion of the estrus cycle. In standard experimental setups, the on- and offset of sexual behavior is gradual. However, in naturalistic settings, it is almost instantaneous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104101DOI Listing

Do songbirds hear songs syllable by syllable?

Behav Processes 2020 May 24;174:104089. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan. Electronic address:

Songbirds as vocal learners have been one of the most popular model species to investigate the biological prerequisite to human language. Their songs consist of syllables, which appear as pulse trains in sound spectrograms. When describing the song sequence, researchers consider the syllable to be the unit of the song. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104089DOI Listing

Signaled reinforcement: Effects of signal reliability on choice between signaled and unsignaled alternatives.

Behav Processes 2020 May 21;174:104088. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

When reinforcer availability on one alternative of a concurrent schedule is signaled by a discriminative stimulus, responding on that alternative decreases. We investigated how the correlation between signal presentation and reinforcement (signal reliability) affects choice between signaled and unsignaled alternatives. Six pigeons responded in a concurrent schedule, in which reinforcers on one alternative were signaled by a key-color change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104088DOI Listing

Lack of fine-tuned egg rejection adjustment in barn swallows with variable local abundance of common cuckoos.

Behav Processes 2020 May 21;174:104087. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, PR China.

Tracking variation in hosts' responses to parasitism across space in a metapopulation is critical to assess the current status of parasitism/anti-parasitism in a host-parasite system, which is also helpful to infer its coevolutionary history. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is a tractable bird species to understand potential fine-tuned adaptations to avian brood parasitism across small geographic scales, both in the context of variation in its foreign-egg rejection pattern, and its widespread distribution in cuckoo-free urban areas and in cuckoo-present rural habitats, including reedbeds. Here we tested whether variation in co-occurrence between the host and its rare brood parasite, the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104087DOI Listing

Towards simplicity and accuracy: Assessing traditional and new estimators of orb-web capture thread length.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 19;173:104086. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.

Before using estimators, it is essential to consider their efficiency in order to avoid bias in results. Due to the architectural and structural complexity of spider webs, some important variables involved in prey capture are usually estimated based on a few measurements obtained from photographs. One of these variables is the capture thread length (CTL), which can provide valuable information on foraging behaviours and the energetic investment in prey capture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104086DOI Listing

Rapidly training African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) with multiple targets for scent detection.

Behav Processes 2020 May 14;174:104085. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Garland Hall 224, 2441 East Hartford Ave, 53211, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Since 1997, APOPO, a non-profit organization based in Tanzania, has deployed African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) to detect landmines in post-conflict areas. More recent research suggests the pouched rats can also be trained to detect tuberculosis in human sputum samples. Despite proven success on both tasks, the potential impact of each rat is limited by the required training time and constraint to a single target odor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104085DOI Listing

Spontaneous color preferences in rhesus monkeys: What is the advantage of primate trichromacy?

Behav Processes 2020 May 13;174:104084. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, the Czech Republic; Department of Physiology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, the Czech Republic; Ethology and Ecology Research Group, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, the Czech Republic; Department of Ethology and Companion Animal Science, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, the Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Color perception and color signaling play an important role in various aspects of animal behavior. However, in mammals, trichromatic vision characterized by three retinal photopigments tuned to peak short, middle and long wavelengths is limited only to some primate species. In Old and New World primates a second photopigment has appeared repeatedly during phylogeny, allowing red colors to be distinguished from yellows and greens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104084DOI Listing

Context controls the timing of responses to an alcohol-predictive conditioned stimulus.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 1;173:104061. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Room SP 244, Montreal, QC, H4B-1R6, Canada. Electronic address:

Context can influence the number of responses elicited by a discrete, appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) but can context control when a CS elicits a response? To test this fundamental question, we gave male, Long-Evans rats Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which the same auditory conditioned stimulus (CS, 30 s, 15 trials/session) was presented in 2 different physical contexts on alternating days, according to a within-subjects design. In one context, called the early context, alcohol (15 % ethanol, 0.2 ml/trial) was delivered from the onset of the 5 second until the termination of the 10 second of the 30 s CS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104061DOI Listing

Personality and physiological traits predict contest interactions in Kryptolebias marmoratus.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 30;173:104079. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Section 4, Tingchou Rd, Taipei 11677, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Personality and physiological traits often have close relationships with dominance status, but the significance and/or direction of the relationships vary between studies. This study examines whether two personality traits (aggressiveness and boldness) and three physiological traits (testosterone and cortisol levels and oxygen consumption rates) are associated with contest decisions/performance using a mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. The results show that individuals that attacked their own mirror images (an aggressiveness index) at higher rates or had higher levels of testosterone were more likely to attack their opponent and win non-escalated contests, while individuals that had higher levels of cortisol were more likely to lose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104079DOI Listing
April 2020
1.567 Impact Factor

Variation in boldness and novelty response between rural and urban predatory birds: The Chimango Caracara, Milvago chimango as study case.

Behav Processes 2020 Apr 30;173:104064. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (CONICET- Universidad Nacional de Mar Del Plata), Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The study of traits that enable species to thrive in urban habitats is critical to a better understanding the evolution of urban ecosystems. Here, we examined variation in boldness, neophobia, and exploratory behavior in a generalist raptor, the Chimango Caracara, Milvago chimango, occurring in areas with different urbanization level. We also focused on the relationship between object exploration and neophobia in rural and urban population of this species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104064DOI Listing