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    2132 results match your criteria Behavioural Pharmacology[Journal]

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    The impact of stress on social behavior in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aDepartment of Psychology, Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois bDepartment of Applied Behavioral Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
    Stress has adverse effects on social behavior that is mediated by dopamine circuits in the midbrain. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of chronic stress and dopamine signals on social behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chronic stress was induced chemically with low dosage of ethanol (0. Read More

    Antinociceptive effects of JWH015 in female and male rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.
    Despite greater chronic pain prevalence in females compared with males, and the analgesic potential of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) agonists, CB2 agonists have rarely been tested in females. The aim of the present study was to compare the antinociceptive effects of a CB2-preferring agonist, (2-methyl-1-propyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenylmethanone (JWH015), in female and male rats against acute pain and persistent inflammatory pain. JWH015 (5-20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced dose-dependent and time-dependent increases in latency to respond on the tail withdrawal and paw pressure tests that did not differ statistically between the sexes. Read More

    Relationship of low doses of alcohol voluntarily consumed during adolescence and early adulthood with subsequent behavioral flexibility.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):531-544
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.
    Previous alcohol use is associated with impaired decision-making and impulsivity in humans, but the relationship between alcohol use and decision-making/impulsivity is unclear. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol during adolescence and early adulthood would alter or be correlated with performance in a go/no-go reversal task, a devaluation task, or operant extinction. Rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from postnatal day 26 to 66 and then behavioral testing was initiated 1. Read More

    Neuroprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 on paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease in experimental animals.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department (Pharmacology Group), Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects ∼1-2% of the elderly population. Development of a neuroprotective therapy that may be initiated early in the course of the disease to retard/prevent disease progression is highly desirable. This study aimed to investigate prophylactic treatment with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) before paraquat (PQ) exposure, a herbicide known to increase the risk for PD, to attain neuroprotection. Read More

    Dexamethasone impairs encoding and expression of aversive conditioning promoted by pentylenetetrazole.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    aDepartment of Pharmacology, Biological Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis bAcademic Unity of Health Sciences, University of Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Brazil.
    Behavioral and neuroendocrine responses following threatening situations promote the release of corticosterone, which is known to modulate trauma-related learning and memory process. However, it remains unknown whether the aversive learning generated by interoceptive fear conditioning is affected by glucocorticoid modulation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of dexamethasone suppression in encoding and expression of pentylenetetrazole-induced olfactory fear conditioning (OFC) and in contextual second-order conditioning promoted by the conditioned odor. Read More

    Varenicline and GZ-793A differentially decrease methamphetamine self-administration under a multiple schedule of reinforcement in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    aPsychology Department, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska bDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky cDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.
    Methamphetamine is a potent psychostimulant with high abuse rates. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine addiction. Ideally, a pharmacotherapy should selectively decrease methamphetamine self-administration without affecting responding for other reinforcers. Read More

    Histamine H3 receptor antagonists ameliorate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral changes caused by neonatal habenula lesion.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    aDepartment of Food Science and Nutrition, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, South Korea bCognition and Learning Section, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
    A partial agonist and a full antagonist of the histamine H3 receptor have been suggested to have therapeutic effects on cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders. We have previously shown that neonatal habenula lesion (NHL) induces behavioral deficits that resemble the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined the effects of three H3 antagonists on ADHD-like behavioral changes caused by NHL in rats. Read More

    Clinical potential of oxytocin in autism spectrum disorder: current issues and future perspectives.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    aDepartment of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo bDepartment of Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.
    The effects of oxytocin on social cognition and behavior have recently attracted considerable attention. In particular, oxytocin has been proposed as a novel therapeutic for psychiatric disorders with social deficits such as autism spectrum disorders. This review provides a brief overview of behavioral and neural responses to oxytocin manipulations in humans and animal models. Read More

    A serotonergic deficit in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter may underpin enhanced panic-like behavior in diabetic rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):558-564
    aDepartment of Pharmacology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba bDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, State University of Maringá, Maringá cDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    It is known that diabetic (DBT) animals present dysregulation on the serotonergic system in several brain areas associated with anxiety-like responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors on dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) in the behavioral response related to panic disorder in type-1 DBT animals. For this, the escape response by electric stimulation (ES) of dPAG in DBT and normoglycemic (NGL) animals was assessed. Read More

    Effects of systemic glutamatergic manipulations on conditioned eyeblink responses and hyperarousal in a rabbit model of post-traumatic stress disorder.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):565-577
    aBlanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute bDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.
    Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). Read More

    Mood-stabilizing effects of rapamycin and its analog temsirolimus: relevance to autophagy.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    aSchool of Behavioral Sciences, Tel Aviv-Yaffo Academic College, Tel Aviv, Israel bDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel cDepartment of Psychology, Saint Francis University, Loretto, Pennsylvania dDepartment of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Accumulated data support a relationship between mood disorders and cellular plasticity and resilience, some suggesting relevance to autophagy. Our previous data show that pharmacological enhancement of autophagy results in antidepressant-like effects in mice. The current study was designed to further examine the effects of autophagy enhancement on mood by testing the effects of subchronic treatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and autophagy enhancers rapamycin and temsirolimus in a model for mania and in a model for antidepressant action, respectively. Read More

    Insights into the potential antidepressant mechanisms of cilostazol in chronically restraint rats: impact on the Nrf2 pathway.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Ample evidence has pointed to a close link between oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and depression. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis and affects mitochondrial function. Nrf2 holds promise for depression prevention and treatment. Read More

    Intramuscularly injected neurotropin reduced muscular mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated cold stress in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    aDepartment of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Mejiro University, Saitama bDepartment of Physical Therapy, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai, Japan.
    An extract of rabbit skin inflamed by inoculation with the vaccinia virus, neurotropin [by intravenous, oral, and intramuscular (i.m.) administration], has been used in China and Japan for the treatment of chronic pain. Read More

    Trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists RO5263397 and RO5166017 attenuate quinpirole-induced yawning but not hypothermia in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):590-593
    aDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York bResearch Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
    Increasing evidence suggests that trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is an important modulator of the dopaminergic system. Existing molecular evidence indicates that TAAR1 regulates dopamine levels through interactions with dopamine transporters and D2 receptors. However, investigations to date have not been exhaustive and other pathways may be involved. Read More

    Effects of ceftriaxone on conditioned nicotine reward in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):485-488
    Center for Substance Abuse Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Nicotine is the addictive compound in tobacco products which exerts psychosomatic effects that contribute to abuse and to low rates of abstinence in treatment-seeking smokers. At present, the most successful smoking cessation aide helps one in four individuals quit smoking at 1 year postcessation. New adjunctive therapies are needed to improve status of smoking-related public health crises, and β-lactam antibiotics are one class of potential therapies as they favorably augment extrasynaptic glutamate clearance. Read More

    Effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on the discriminative stimulus effects of methylendioxypyrovalerone and mephedrone in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):586-589
    Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.
    Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine. Read More

    Agonist E-6837 and antagonist SB-271046 of 5-HT6 receptors both reverse the depressive-like effect induced in mice by subchronic ketamine administration.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):582-585
    aEscuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City bFaculty of Human Medicine, Autonomous University of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
    Major depression is one of the most common affective disorders caused by schizophrenia. The administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, can reproduce the negative and affective symptoms of this disorder in animals. Preclinical studies have shown that 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) agonists and antagonists have a considerable antipsychotic response. Read More

    Maternal separation induces long-term effects on monoamines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels on the frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus: differential effects after a stress challenge.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):545-557
    aDepartment of Pharmacobiology, Centre for Research and Advance Studies (Cinvestav-Coapa) bLaboratory of Psychopharmacology, Neuroscience, National Institute Of Psychiatry 'Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz', México D.F., México.
    The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is a well-known animal model that resembles the stress of early adverse life experiences and produces structural and functional abnormalities when animals are adults. The present study analyzed the effect of MS, in adult mice, on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) levels, and the turnover rate in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and amygdala, and brain regions that are associated with emotion. Also, the effects of MS in depression-like responses in adult mice were studied. Read More

    Anxiety does not contribute to social withdrawal in the subchronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):512-520
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
    Social withdrawal should not be considered a direct measure of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia as it may result not only from asociality (primary negative symptom) but also from other altered processes such as anxiety. To understand the contribution of these two factors to social deficit, we investigated whether the social withdrawal observed in the subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia could be attributed to increased anxiety. Compared to saline controls, PCP-treated rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days, followed by a washout period) spent significantly less time in social interaction, but did not show anxiety-like behaviors in different relevant behavioral paradigms. Read More

    Epigenetic mechanisms associated with addiction-related behavioural effects of nicotine and/or cocaine: implication of the endocannabinoid system.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):493-511
    Department of Legal Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    The addictive use of nicotine (NC) and cocaine (COC) continues to be a major public health problem, and their combined use has been reported, particularly during adolescence. In neural plasticity, commonly induced by NC and COC, as well as behavioural plasticity related to the use of these two drugs, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, in which the reversible regulation of gene expression occurs independently of the DNA sequence, has recently been reported. Furthermore, on the basis of intense interactions with the target neurotransmitter systems, the endocannabinoid (ECB) system has been considered pivotal for eliciting the effects of NC or COC. Read More

    Mitigation of adverse behavioral impact from predator exposure by the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide antagonist J-113397 in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):521-530
    Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor is believed to have an integral modulatory function in the stress response system. We evaluated the highly selective NOP antagonist J-113397 (7.5 and 20. Read More

    Synthetic cannabinoids: the hidden side of Spice drugs.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):409-419
    aDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari bDepartment of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy cPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Postgraduate Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Spice drugs are herbal mixtures sprayed with synthetic cannabinoids designed to mimic the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana [Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC)] and synthesized by introducing modifications to the chemical structure of parental compounds aiming to circumvent legal regulations. Synthetic cannabinoid use/abuse can be devastating as toxicological effects and adverse reactions cannot be entirely predicted and may vary with the dose, route of administration, individual vulnerability and concomitant intake with other drugs. The absence of validated testing procedures in the clinical field makes difficult the adoption of a therapeutic approach effective in coping with the synthetic cannabinoid phenomenon, posing a significant challenge for prevention, treatment and public health in general. Read More

    Fluoxetine induces paradoxical effects in C57BL6/J mice: comparison with BALB/c mice.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):466-476
    INSERM U930, Team 'Affective disorders', University of François Rabelais, Tours, France.
    The C57BL6/J mouse is the most commonly used strain in genetic investigations and behavioural tests. However, only a few studies have used C57BL6/J mice to assess the effects of antidepressant compounds. We carried out a study to compare the behavioural effects of fluoxetine (FLX) in a model of depression in two mice strains: C57BL6/J and BALB/c. Read More

    Characterization of the discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):394-400
    Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.
    Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0. Read More

    Suppressed play behaviour and decreased oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala after prenatal exposure to low-dose valproic acid.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):450-457
    aCenter of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience bDepartment of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Aarhus University and Hospital cTranslational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark dDepartment of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    To better understand the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we investigated potential deficits in social play behaviour and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) density alterations in the amygdala in a rodent model of ASD. Pregnant rats were injected daily with 20 or 100 mg/kg valproic acid (VPA) or saline from day 12 until the end of pregnancy. The number of pinning and pouncing events was assessed at postnatal days 29-34. Read More

    Antinociceptive effect of (-)-epicatechin in inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Jun 5. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    aSection of Postgraduate Studies and Research, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politecnico Nacional bDepartment of Biological Systems, Division of Biological Sciences and Health, UAM-Xochimilco cNeurobiology of Pain Laboratory, Department of Pharmacobiology, Cinvestav, Sede Sur dPharmacology Research Unit, INER, Ismael Cosio Villegas, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City, Mexico.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive potential of (-)-epicatechin and the possible mechanisms of action involved in its antinociceptive effect. The carrageenan and formalin tests were used as inflammatory pain models. A plethysmometer was used to measure inflammation and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation as a neuropathic pain model. Read More

    The immunomodulatory tellurium compound ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O') tellurate reduces anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone levels of submissive mice.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):458-465
    aDepartment of Molecular Biology, Ariel University, Ariel bThe Safdié AIDS and Immunology Research Center, C.A.I.R. Institute, The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences cInterdisciplinary Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    Ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O') tellurate (AS101) is a synthetic organotellurium compound with potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties shown to inhibit the function of integrin αvβ3, a presynaptic cell-surface-adhesion receptor. As partial deletion of αvβ3 downregulated reuptake of serotonin by the serotonin transporter, we hypothesized that AS101 may influence pathways regulating anxiety. AS101 was tested in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior using the selectively bred Submissive (Sub) mouse strain that develop anxiety-like behavior in response to an i. Read More

    Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):477-484
    aDepartment of Psychology bBorder Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA.
    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to negative health consequences, including obesity and insulin resistance. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as those found in fish oil) prevent high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Eating a high fat diet also enhances sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of drugs that act on dopamine systems (e. Read More

    The effect of litter separation on methamphetamine-conditioned place preference in post-partum dams.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):489-492
    aDepartment of Psychology bSchool of Life Sciences, Interdisciplinary Neuroscience, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse among women has recently increased to levels comparable to those observed in men. Although studies using animal models of addiction have begun to include more female subjects, examination of the effects of drugs of abuse on post-partum females is currently lacking. This is especially important in light of the significant hormonal and neurobiological changes that accompany pregnancy and rearing experiences. Read More

    Reinforcing effects of abused 'bath salts' constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone and their enantiomers.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Oct;28(7):578-581
    aDepartment of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio bSouth Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas cMolecular Targets and Medications Discovery Branch, NIDA and NIAAA, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Synthetic cathinones found in abused 'bath salts' preparations are chiral molecules. Racemic 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) are two common constituents of these preparations that have been reported to be highly effective reinforcers; however, the relative contribution of each enantiomer toward these effects has not been determined. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for racemic MDPV or α-PVP (n=9/drug), with full dose-response curves for the racemate and the S and R enantiomers of MDPV and α-PVP generated under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Read More

    Desipramine rescues emotional memory deficit induced by low doses of reserpine.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):441-449
    Department of Neurology, The First People's Hospital of Jingzhou, the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.
    Emotional memory deficit is a well-known complication in early Parkinson's disease. However, its molecular mechanism is still not well known. To address this issue, we examined the cue-related fear-conditioning task and long-term potentiation (LTP) of the thalamus to the lateral amygdala in rats treated with low doses of reserpine (Res). Read More

    Nitric oxide pathway presumably does not contribute to antianxiety and memory retrieval effects of losartan.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):420-427
    aDepartment of Neuroscience, Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Poursina Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences bDepartment of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Research Center, Poursina Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical sciences, Rasht cIntracellular Recording Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences dSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran eDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
    Nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin (AT) receptors have demonstrated well-established interactions in various physiological phenomena. AT1 receptors can play a part in stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; also, angiotensinergic neurotransmission plays a pivotal role in stress-evoked physiological responses. On the basis of the stress-modulating characteristics of NO, AT1, and AT2 receptors, the present study evaluated the roles of NO and AT1 receptors in the attenuation of stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors after administration of losartan, an AT1 antagonist. Read More

    Behavioural responses of zebrafish larvae to acute ethosuximide exposure.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Sep;28(6):428-440
    aTranslational Medical Center for Development and Disease, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Birth Defect, Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University bCenter for Chinese Medical Therapy and Systems Biology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    The anticonvulsant drug ethosuximide has shown diverse anxiety-related activity in rodents, but research in zebrafish is limited. To evaluate the effects of acute ethosuximide exposure on locomotor activity and anxiety-related thigmotaxis behaviours of zebrafish larvae, the activity of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days postfertilization (dpf) was analysed under normal constant illumination and stressful light-dark transitions. Under constant illumination, ethosuximide at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 mmol/l increased the distances travelled and intensified locomotor responses to a novel environment. Read More

    Reinforcing effectiveness of midazolam, ethanol, and sucrose: behavioral economic comparison of a mixture relative to its component solutions.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):386-393
    aDepartment of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Division of Neurobiology and Behavior Research bGraduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi cInstitutes for Behavior Resources dDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Benzodiazepines (BZs) are relatively safe when administered alone. However, these drugs can produce severe side effects when coadministered with ethanol. Despite these adverse consequences, rates of concurrent BZ and ethanol misuse are increasing, and it is unclear whether this behavior is maintained by an enhanced reinforcing effect of the mixture. Read More

    Locomotor and discriminative stimulus effects of four novel hallucinogens in rodents.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):375-385
    Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.
    There has been increasing use of novel synthetic hallucinogenic compounds, 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25B-NBOMe), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25C-NBOMe), 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25I-NBOMe), and N,N-diallyl-5-methoxy tryptamine (5-MeO-DALT), which have been associated with severe toxicities. These four compounds were tested for discriminative stimulus effects similar to a prototypical hallucinogen (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and the entactogen (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Locomotor activity in mice was tested to obtain dose range and time-course information. Read More

    Loss of control over alcohol seeking in rats depends on individual vulnerability and duration of alcohol consumption experience.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):334-344
    Department of Animals in Science and Society, Division of Behavioural Neuroscience, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by excessive alcohol use and persistent alcohol seeking despite knowledge of its negative consequences. Importantly, AUD typically develops after chronic excessive alcohol use in a subgroup of individuals who drink alcohol, suggesting that AUD results from an interaction between individual vulnerability and prolonged alcohol exposure. The present study assessed the contribution of prolonged exposure to alcohol and individual levels of alcohol intake to the development of loss of control over alcohol seeking in a conditioned suppression model. Read More

    Response rate decreasing effects of naloxone during chronic sucrose availability.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):401-404
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, New Jersey, USA.
    Studies in animal models suggest that sugar deprivation following excessive intake elicits some opioid-like withdrawal signs. In the present study, opioid-like effects of excessive sucrose intake were further characterized in C57BL/6 mice by comparing the effects of the opioid antagonist naloxone on food-reinforced responding before and during sucrose availability and, in parallel experiments, following chronic morphine administration. Results show that naloxone produced time-dependent and dose-dependent decreases in operant response rates after 4 weeks of excessive sucrose consumption, and that these effects were comparable with those produced by chronic morphine injections. Read More

    Prenatal fluoxetine modifies the behavioral and hormonal responses to stress in male mice: role for glucocorticoid insensitivity.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):345-355
    School of Behavioral Sciences, The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Women with major depressive disorder during pregnancy often use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants. These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. Recently, we reported that prenatal fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, altered corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mouse offspring. Read More

    2, 3, 5, 4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice involves neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress inhibition.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):365-374
    Departments of aInvasive Technology bDepartment of Respiratory, Nantong First People's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University cDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.
    Although numerous hypotheses have been raised in recent years, the exact mechanisms that promote the development of major depression are largely unknown. Recently, strategies targeting the process of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in depression have been attracting greater attention. 2, 3, 5, 4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), a compound purified from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine polygonummultiflorum, has been widely reported to inhibit neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Read More

    Mangiferin inhibits hippocampal NLRP3 inflammasome and exerts antidepressant effects in a chronic mild stress mice model.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):356-364
    aDepartment of Pharmacy, Center Hospital of Linyin, Shandong bSchool of Food Science, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.
    A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute toward the development of major depressive disorder. Mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone from Mangifera indica, exerts a number of biological actions, including anti-inflammatory effects. Although mangiferin has potential antidepressant activity, the mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. Read More

    Neuroprotective effects of pretreatment with minocycline on memory impairment following cerebral ischemia in rats.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):214-222
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Cerebral ischemia leads to memory impairment that is associated with loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion damage. Minocycline has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Read More

    Alzheimer's disease pathology and the unfolded protein response: prospective pathways and therapeutic targets.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):161-178
    Translational Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Many vital interdependent cellular functions including proteostasis, lipogenesis and Ca homeostasis are executed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Exogenous insults can impair ER performance: this must be rapidly corrected or cell death will ensue. Protective adaptations can boost the functional capacity of the ER and form the basis of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Read More

    A second wind for the cholinergic system in Alzheimer's therapy.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):112-123
    aFaculty of Psychology, Laboratory of Cognitive and Adaptive Neuroscience, CNRS-UMR7364, Neuropôle of Strasbourg, GDR/CNRS2905 bFaculty of Psychology, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. Read More

    A preclinical screen to evaluate pharmacotherapies for the treatment of agitation in dementia.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):199-206
    aSchool of Psychology, Queen's University, Belfast bSchool of Psychology, Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK cDivision of Animal Care, Yonam College, Chungcheongnam-do, Republic of Korea.
    Agitation associated with dementia is frequently reported clinically but has received little attention in preclinical models of dementia. The current study used a 7PA2 CM intracerebroventricular injection model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to assess acute memory impairment, and a bilateral intrahippocampal (IH) injection model of AD (aggregated Aβ1-42 injections) and a bilateral IH injection model of dementia with Lewy bodies (aggregated NAC61-95 injections) to assess chronic memory impairment in the rat. An alternating-lever cyclic-ratio schedule of operant responding was used for data collection, where incorrect lever perseverations measured executive function (memory) and running response rates (RRR) measured behavioral output (agitation). Read More

    Downregulation of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 contributes to memory impairment in aged mice after sevoflurane anesthesia.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):238-243
    Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective hormone and a decrease in levels of circulating IGF-1 contributes toward cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane on the level of circulating IGF-1 and cognitive function in aged mice and the role of circulating IGF-1 in the cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane. Aged mice were exposed to 1 or 2 minimal alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane for 4 or 8 h. Read More

    The contribution of transgenic and nontransgenic animal models in Alzheimer's disease drug research and development.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):95-111
    aDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome bInstitute of Pharmacology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
    Over the last few years, several papers have become available in the literature on both the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the several intracellular pathways whose alteration is responsible for its onset and progression. The use of transgenic and nontransgenic animal models has played a key role in achieving such a remarkable amount of preclinical data, allowing researchers to dissect the cellular changes occurring in the AD brain. In addition, the huge amount of preclinical evidence arising from these animal models was necessary for the further clinical development of pharmacological agents capable of interfering with most of the impaired neural pathways in AD patients. Read More

    Pharmacological activation of protein kinase A improves memory loss and neuropathological changes in a mouse model of dementia of Alzheimer's type.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):187-198
    aCNS and CVS Research Lab, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Pharmacology Division, Punjabi University Patiala bDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Pharmacology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
    The study investigates the therapeutic potential of the protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin in cognitive deficits of mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) [3 mg/kg, intracerebroventricularly (i.c. Read More

    High-fat diet alters weight, caloric intake, and haloperidol sensitivity in the context of effort-based responding.
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Aug;28(5):323-333
    Department of Psychology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, USA.
    High-fat (HF) diets result in weight gain, hyperphagia, and reduced dopamine D2 signaling; however, these findings have been obtained only under free-feeding conditions. This study tested the extent to which HF diet affects effort-dependent food procurement and the extent to which dopamine signaling is involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a HF (n=20) or a standard-chow (n=20) diet. Read More

    Alzheimer's disease in the zebrafish: where can we take it?
    Behav Pharmacol 2017 Apr;28(2 and 3 - Special Issue):179-186
    Department of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA.
    With the ever-growing geriatric population, research on brain diseases such as dementia is more imperative now than ever. The most prevalent of all dementias is Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents with deficits in memory, cognition, motor skills, and a general decline in the quality of life. The social and economic burden associated with Alzheimer's disease is tremendous and is projected to grow even greater over the coming years. Read More

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