11,349 results match your criteria Behavioural Brain Research [Journal]


The rostromedial tegmental nucleus modulates the development of stress-induced helpless behavior.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 19. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

(a)Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21228, United States.

A growing body of clinical and preclinical research suggests that structural and functional changes in the habenula, a component of the epithalamus, are associated with major depressive disorder. A major excitatory, efferent projection from the habenula targets the rostromedial tegmentum (RMTg), a mesopontine region that provides significant input to the ventral tegmentum and raphe nuclei. While the RMTg contributes to monoaminergic response to aversive events, its role in stress-based animal models of depression has yet to be determined. Read More

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Differential function of medial prefrontal cortex catecholaminergic receptors after long-term sugar consumption.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

(a)Departamento de Neurobiología Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiología, UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, 76230, Mexico. Electronic address:

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has reciprocal projections with many cerebral structures that are crucial in the control of food ingestion behavior and reward processing; therefore, the mPFC has an important function in taste memory recognition. Previous results indicate that long-term consumption of sugar produces changes in appetitive re-learning and suggest that this could trigger an escalating consumption due to the inability to learn new negative consequences related to the same taste. Further evidence suggests that general identity reward value could be encoded in the mPFC. Read More

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BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE mlh MUTANT MICE LACKING OTOCONIA.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

(a)Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil. Electronic address:

Otoconia are crucial for the correct processing of positional information and orientation. Mice lacking otoconia cannot sense the direction of the gravity vector and cannot swim properly. This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Read More

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Maternal separation stress reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced increase in exploratory behaviour and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Human Biology, Anatomy Building, Observatory, South Africa, 7925. Electronic address:

In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress. Therefore, these kinases may also contribute to the behavioural changes observed after the combination of both developmental insults. Read More

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Orexin signaling during social defeat stress influences subsequent social interaction behaviour and recognition memory.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

(a)Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, United States; (c)University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19104, United States. Electronic address:

Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Read More

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Neurocircuitry of fear extinction in adult and juvenile rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 10. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

(a)Behavioural Neuroscience Division, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC 3052 Australia; (b)Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052 Australia. Electronic address:

In contrast to adult rodents, juvenile rodents fail to show relapse following extinction of conditioned fear. Using different retrograde tracers injected into the infralimbic cortex (IL) and the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) in conjunction with c-Fos and parvalbumin (PV) immunochemistry, we investigated the neurocircuitry of extinction in juvenile and adult rats. Regardless of fear extinction or retrieval, juvenile rats had more c-Fos+ neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) compared to adults, and showed a higher proportion of c-Fos+ IL-projecting neurons. Read More

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ZENK expression in the auditory pathway of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) as a function of D note number and duty cycle of chick-a-dee calls.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 8. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

(a)University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use their namesake chick-a-dee call for multiple functions, altering the features of the call depending on context. For example, duty cycle (the proportion of time filled by vocalizations) and fine structure traits (e.g. Read More

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The relation of hippocampal subfield volumes to verbal episodic memory measured by the California Verbal Learning Test II in healthy adults.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 8. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

(d)Department of Radiology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Total hippocampal volume has previously been shown to correlate with performance on tests for verbal episodic memory. However, there are sparse evidence on how hippocampal subfield volumes are related to verbal episodic memory in healthy adults. The present study investigated the association between volumes of separate hippocampal subfields and verbal episodic memory performance in healthy volunteers. Read More

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Fluoxetine and stress inversely modify lateral septal nucleus-mpfc neuronal responsivity.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 8;351:114-120. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.

Several clinically effective antidepressants increase the neuronal firing rate in the lateral septal nucleus (LSN), a forebrain structure that is anatomically related to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions. mPFC function is related to depression and the regulation of fear. However, unknown is whether antidepressant treatment or chronic stress modifies the responsivity of neuronal LSN-mPFC connections. Read More

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June 2018
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PPARß/δ agonist alleviates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

(a)Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Huaian No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, P.O. Box 223300, No. 6 Beijing Road West, Huaian, PR China. Electronic address:

Recent studies have indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARß/δ) agonists exert neuroprotective effects in the model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, PPARß/δ agonists have been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Emerging evidence indicates that the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PD. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Activation of cortical and striatal regions during the expression of a naturalistic compulsive-like behavior in the rabbit.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

(b)Centro de Investigación en Reproducción Animal (CIRA), Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala-CINVESTAV, Mexico.

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June 2018
2 Reads

Abnormal spontaneous brain activity is associated with impaired emotion and cognition in hyperthyroidism: A rs-fMRI study.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

(b)Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; (c)Neuropsychiatric Institute, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009, China. Electronic address:

Hyperthyroid patients undergo emotional and cognitive dysfunction. However, the neurological basis for it remains ambiguous. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were used to investigate abnormal spontaneous activity in hyperthyroidism for the first time. Read More

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Cerebral oxidative metabolism mapping in four genetic mouse models of anxiety and mood disorders.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

(a)Division of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A Chemicum, 50411 Tartu, Estonia. Electronic address:

The psychopathology of depression is highly complex and the outcome of studies on animal models is divergent. In order to find brain regions that could be metabolically distinctively active across a variety of mouse depression models and to compare the interconnectivity of brain regions of wild-type and such genetically modified mice, histochemical mapping of oxidative metabolism was performed by the measurement of cytochrome oxidase activity. We included mice with the heterozygous knockout of the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), full knockout of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1), an anti-sense knockdown of the glucocorticoid receptor (GRi) and overexpression of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (h5-HTT). Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

FoxO1-mediated autophagy plays an important role in the neuroprotective effects of hydrogen in a rat model of vascular dementia.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

(a)Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, No. 361 Zhongshan East Road, Changan District, Shijiazhuang 050017, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China; (b)Department of Neurology, Hebei General Hospital, No. 348 Heping West Road, Xinhua District, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Vascular dementia (VD) is a heterogeneous group of brain disorders in which cognitive impairment is attributed to cerebrovascular pathologies. Autophagy, a self-cannibalization mechanism, has been demonstrated to be involved in VD progression. Molecular hydrogen is known for its powerful anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, and it is also involved in autophagy. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Processing emotions: Effects of menstrual cycle phase and premenstrual symptoms on the startle reflex, facial EMG and heart rate.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Personality and Individual Differences, Institute of Psychology I, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Emotional reactivity varies across the menstrual cycle although physiological findings are not entirely consistent. We assessed facial EMG and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy free cycling women (N = 45) with an emotional startle paradigm both during the early follicular and the late luteal phase, verified by repeated salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assessments. Cycle phase impacted startle responses with larger magnitudes during the luteal phase. Read More

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Emerging category representation in the visual forebrain hierarchy of pigeons (Columba livia).

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Institute for Neural Computation, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

Recognizing and categorizing visual stimuli are cognitive functions vital for survival, and an important feature of visual systems in primates as well as in birds. Visual stimuli are processed along the ventral visual pathway. At every stage in the hierarchy, neurons respond selectively to more complex features, transforming the population representation of the stimuli. Read More

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June 2018
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sickness in adolescent female rats alters the acute-phase response and lithium chloride (LiCl)- induced impairment of conditioned place avoidance/aversion learning, following a homotypic LPS challenge in adulthood.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 6;351:121-130. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The multi-variable locomotor activity effects of LiCl treatment in female rats were examined in a conditioned place avoidance/aversion (CPA) paradigm. In addition, the sickness effects of an LPS injection (200 μg/kg), given during adolescents, on CPA learning in adulthood were examined, as were the effects of a homotypic LPS injection (200 μg/kg) just prior to CPA acquisition trials. Female rats were injected with LPS or saline during adolescents (6 weeks of age) and later pretreated with LPS again or saline in an automated two-chamber CPA paradigm with LiCl (95 mg/kg) treatments as the aversive toxin. Read More

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Rats with ventral hippocampal damage are impaired at various forms of learning including conditioned inhibition, spatial navigation, and discriminative fear conditioning to similar contexts.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

The Canadian Center for Behavioural Neuroscience, The University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4, Canada.

The ventral hippocampus (vHPC) has been implicated in learning and memory functions that seem to differ from its dorsal counterpart. The goal of this series of experiments was to provide further insight into the functional contributions of the vHPC. Our previous work implicated the vHPC in spatial learning, inhibitory learning, and fear conditioning to context. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

The role of omega-3 on modulation of cognitive deficiency induced by REM sleep deprivation in rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmacology School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Neuroendocrinology, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Prolonged sleep deprivation causes cognitive deficits. In rats, for instance, sleep deprivation weakens spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). We examined the effects of omega-3 on cognitive deficiency induced by REM sleep deprivation (RSD). Read More

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Acute oral cannabidiolic acid methyl ester reduces depression-like behavior in two genetic animal models of depression.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 31;351:1-3. Epub 2018 May 31.

Geha Mental Health Center, Petah Tiqva, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester (HU-580) was recently shown to reduce stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to examine the antidepressant effect of HU-580 in two different rat models of depression.

Experimental Approach: Using the forced swim test (FST), we evaluated the effect of HU-580 in 43 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and 23 Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) adult male rats. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Inhibition of histone deacetylase 3 via RGFP966 facilitates cortical plasticity underlying unusually accurate auditory associative cue memory for excitatory and inhibitory cue-reward associations.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

(a)Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; (b)Department of Psychology, Behavioral & Systems Neuroscience, 152 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 USA. Electronic address:

Epigenetic mechanisms are key for regulating long-term memory (LTM) and are known to exert control on memory formation in multiple systems of the adult brain, including the sensory cortex. One epigenetic mechanism is chromatin modification by histone acetylation. Blocking the action of histone de-acetylases (HDACs) that normally negatively regulate LTM by repressing transcription, has been shown to enable memory formation. Read More

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Inhibiting ERα expression in the medial amygdala increases prosocial behavior in male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 30;351:42-48. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Biology and Integrated Bioscience Program, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso 79968, United States. Electronic address:

This study tested the hypothesis that site-specific estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression is a critical factor in the expression of male prosocial behavior and aggression. Previous studies have shown that in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) low levels of ERα expression, in the medial amygdala (MeA), play an essential role in the expression of high levels of male prosocial behavior and that increasing ERα expression reduced male prosocial behavior. We used an shRNA adeno-associated viral vector to knock down/inhibit ERα in the MeA of the polygynous male meadow vole (M. Read More

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May 2018
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Sex-dependent behavior, neuropeptide profile and antidepressant response in rat model of depression.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 29;351:93-103. Epub 2018 May 29.

Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

A plethora of animal models of depression is described in the literature, aiming at mimicking different aspects of depression. Understanding the link between depression and stress has been and remains a major focus area for development of animal models, but lines of research with a more mechanistic focus targeting deficiencies in neurotransmitter systems or dysfunctional neuronal circuitries and neuroinflammation are also pursued vigorously. The main objectives of the present study were systematically to evaluate strain and sex characteristics of a genetic animal model, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL)/ Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), by applying behavioral, molecular and pharmacological measures relevant to depression, and compare it with the outbred Sprague Dawley rat. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

High fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance exacerbates 6-OHDA mediated neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 26;351:17-23. Epub 2018 May 26.

Neuropharmacology Division, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031, Rajasthan, India.

Some of the clinical reports suggest that insulin resistance could be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) development, however experimental data is scarce. Our previous work has suggested that insulin resistance could be an important factor that leads to diabetes associated neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated whether insulin resistance is linked to PD pathology or not. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves language control during language switching.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 26;351:34-41. Epub 2018 May 26.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China.

Currently, there is increasing attention on how to best improve language control efficiency and minimize cross-language interference in bilinguals. Previous studies have demonstrated that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) plays an important role in inhibiting unrelated stimuli. The current study applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during language switching to determine whether modulation of rDLPFC would affect language control mechanisms. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Apolipoprotein E DNA Methylation and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are Associated with Plasma ApoE Level: A Preliminary Study.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.

(a)Neurorehabilitation: Neurons to Networks Traumatic Brain Injury Center of Excellence, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, United States; (b)Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; (c)Houston VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, United States.

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) occurred in 15-30% of Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. We examined whether DNA methylation of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene promoter region or plasma ApoE protein levels are altered in mTBI. APOE promoter region DNA methylation, APOE genotypes, and plasma ApoE concentration were determined in 87 Veterans with or without mTBI who were recruited from 2010-2014. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Immediate and long-term antidepressive-like effects of pre-pubertal escitalopram and omega-3 supplementation combination in young adult stress-sensitive rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 26;351:49-62. Epub 2018 May 26.

Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, North West-University, South Africa. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects a significant number of children and adolescents, yet treatment options for this population remain very limited. Escitalopram (ESC) is one of only two antidepressants approved as treatment for juvenile depression. Still, delayed onset of action, and immediate plus the risk of lasting side effects contribute to low patient adherence, and places the medical prescriber in a difficult situation weighing the potential long-term effects of juvenile treatment against the known consequences of untreated MDD. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Fasudil hydrochloride ameliorates memory deficits in rat model of streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease: Involvement of PI3-kinase, eNOS and NFκB.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 25;351:4-16. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Pharmacology, ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, Bela, Ropar, Punjab, 140111, India. Electronic address:

Restoration of PI3-kinase signaling portrays therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hyperactive Rho-kinase in AD negatively modulates PI3-kinase pathway, thereby cause cognitive decline. Fasudil is a Rho-kinase inhibitor that has shown therapeutic benefits in brain disorders. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Insulin dependent and independent normalization of blood glucose levels reduces the enhanced rewarding effects of nicotine in a rodent model of diabetes.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 24;351:75-82. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The rewarding effects of nicotine have been previously shown to be enhanced in rodent models of diabetes. It is presently unclear whether the enhanced nicotine reward observed in the diabetes models are mediated via an insulin or glucose mechanism. This study examined whether the enhanced rewarding effects of nicotine observed in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats are insulin-mediated. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior and dysregulation of brain levels of biogenic amines in Drosophila melanogaster.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 24;351:104-113. Epub 2018 May 24.

Laboratório de Avaliações Farmacológicas e Toxicológicas Aplicadas às Moléculas Bioativas (LaftamBio Pampa), Universidade Federal do Pampa, Itaqui, CEP 97650-000, RS, Brazil; Departamento de Nutrição, UNIPAMPA- Campus, Itaqui, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

The etiopathogenesis of depression may involve repeated exposure to several unpredictable stressors. This study was conducted to investigate changes induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to assess behavioral and neurochemical changes that predict depressive-like behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Male Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to CUMS with several stressors (cold, heat, starvation, and sleep deprivation) in an unpredictable and chronic manner for ten days. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

No effect of sex and estrous cycle on the fear potentiated startle response in rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 24;351:24-33. Epub 2018 May 24.

Division of Pharmacology, UIPS (Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences), Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, Netherlands.

The prevalence of anxiety disorders is higher in women than in men. Yet preclinical studies on anxiety are mostly performed in male subjects. This may have limited our understanding of mechanisms contributing to anxiety disorders. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

The visual cortex and visual cognition in Huntington's disease: An overview of current literature.

Behav Brain Res 2018 May 21;351:63-74. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Environmentally enriched pigs have transcriptional profiles consistent with neuroprotective effects and reduced microglial activity.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 17;350:6-15. Epub 2018 May 17.

The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, EH25 9RG, UK; SRUC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK.

Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used to study the effects of external factors on brain development, function and health in rodent models, but very little is known of the effects of EE on the brain in a large animal model such as the pig. Twenty-four young pigs (aged 5 weeks at start of study, 1:1 male: female ratio) were housed in environmentally enriched (EE) pens and provided with additional enrichment stimulation (a bag filled with straw) once daily. Litter, weight and sex matched controls n= (24) were housed in barren (B) conditions. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Impaired spatial processing in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 17;350:72-79. Epub 2018 May 17.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; Island Medical Program, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual impairment. The Fmr1 mouse model has been previously shown to have deficits in context discrimination tasks but not in the elevated plus-maze. To further characterize this FXS mouse model and determine whether hippocampal-mediated behaviours are affected in these mice, dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent spatial processing and Cornu ammonis 1 (CA1)-dependent temporal order discrimination tasks were evaluated. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Factors underlying risk taking in heroin-dependent individuals: Feedback processing and environmental contingencies.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 17;350:23-30. Epub 2018 May 17.

School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Marcs Institute for Brain and Behaviour, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

The mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 in the dopaminergic modulation of motor impulsivity.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 17;350:16-22. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The current study investigated the mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) regulated cAMP in the dopaminergic modulation of premature responding (action restraint) in rats. Response inhibition, which includes action restraint, finds its neurobiological origin in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry and can be modulated by dopamine. Intracellularly, the effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Activation of kappa opioid receptors in the dorsal raphe have sex dependent effects on social behavior in California mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jun 6;351:83-92. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Kappa opioid receptor activation has been linked to stress and anxiety behavior, thus leading to kappa antagonists being popularized in research as potential anxiolytics. However, while these findings may hold true in standard models, the neuromodulatory effects of social defeat may change the behavioral outcome of kappa opioid receptor activation. Previous research has shown that social defeat can lead to hyperactivity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and that inhibition of this increase blocks the social deficits caused by defeat. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Predicted reach consequences drive time course of tactile suppression.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 13;350:54-64. Epub 2018 May 13.

Department of Psychology, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Germany.

Sensitivity to touch is reduced during movement; this tactile suppression is likely the result of a mechanism that suppresses self-generated movement consequences. We sought to determine whether tactile suppression is modulated by naturally evoked changes in movement speed driven by task precision demands (Exp.1), and by changes in predicted movement consequences (Exp. Read More

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September 2018

Neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate, alone, and as augmentation of lurasidone or tandospirone, rescues phencyclidine-induced deficits in cognitive function and social interaction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 24;350:31-43. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABA) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients.

Methods: We tested whether PregS, by itself, and in combination with Lur or Tan could rescue persistent deficits produced by subchronic treatment with the NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP)-in episodic memory, executive functioning, and social behavior, using novel object recognition (NOR), operant reversal learning (ORL), and social interaction (SI) tasks, in male C57BL/6 J mice. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Beneficial effect of etazolate on depression-like behavior and, learning, and memory impairment in a model of Parkinson's disease.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 11;350:109-115. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Isra University, Amman, Jordan.

The aim of this study was to evaluate etazolate against depression-like behavior and, learning and memory impairment induced by 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). This aim was achieved through comparing 6-OHDA lesioned rats in the presence and absence of etazolate. The 6-OHDA was used to induce lesion as a model of PD. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Individual behavioural predictors of amphetamine-induced emission of 50 kHz vocalization in rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep;350:80-86

Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada.

Measurement of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by adult rats represents a highly useful index of emotional arousal. The associations found between 50 kHz USV production and a variety of behavioural and pharmacological protocols increasingly suggests they serve as a marker of positive motivational states. This study used a powerful within-subjects design to investigate the relationships among individual differences in approach to a sweet-food reward, predisposition to emit 50 kHz USVs spontaneously, and 50 kHz USVs emission following acute systemic administration of amphetamine. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Gender-dependent changes in physical development, BDNF content and GSH redox system in a model of acute neonatal hypoxia in rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 16;350:87-98. Epub 2018 May 16.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biology Faculty, Moscow, Russia; Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.

Perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia is one of the leading factors that negatively influence the development of the central nervous system. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sex on the outcomes of acute neonatal hypoxia (ANH) in rat pups. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a hypoxic condition (8% oxygen for 120 min) at postnatal day 2 (P2). Read More

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September 2018

Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the RELN gene and symptom-based and developmental deficits among children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders in the Tianjin, China.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 16;350:1-5. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, No. 22 Qixiangtai Road, Tianjin 300070, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence has revealed that genetic variants in Reelin (RELN) gene, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), correlate with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) risk; however, no consensus have been reached. This study aimed to provide additional evidence for the association between two SNPs of RELN (i.e. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol exposure induce immediate and delayed neurobehavioral changes and hippocampal dysfunction in adolescent female rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 9;350:99-108. Epub 2018 May 9.

Laboratory of Pharmacology of Inflammation and Behavior, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Science, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Binge-like ethanol intake (BEI) is a socioeconomical problem among adolescents and increasingly affects women. BEI can leave a long-term imprint in the brain, but it is unknown if its effect on cognition and anxiety is cumulative on repeated binge-ethanol episodes. We now submitted female Wistar rats to repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol treatment by intragastrically administering ethanol (3. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Optical mapping of prefrontal brain connectivity and activation during emotion anticipation.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 9;350:122-128. Epub 2018 May 9.

Bioimaging Core, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China. Electronic address:

Accumulated neuroimaging evidence shows that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is activated during emotion anticipation. The aim of this work is to examine the brain connectivity and activation differences in dlPFC between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses were first assessed for all subjects during the performance of various emotion anticipation tasks. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Differential behavioral and glial responses induced by dopaminergic mechanisms in the iNOS knockout mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 8;350:44-53. Epub 2018 May 8.

University of São Paulo (USP), Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; USP, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Applied Neurosciences (NAPNA), Brazil. Electronic address:

The interaction between distinctive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the dopamine system provides new avenues to the development of pharmacological tools for the pathophysiological conditions of the dopaminergic system. Our aim was to investigate the influences of dopamine-induced effects in inducible NOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice. In order to characterize iNOS KO mice phenotype, the animals were submitted to the basal analyses of motor, sensorimotor and sensorial abilities. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Differential contributions of cortical thickness and surface area to trait impulsivity in healthy young adults.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 8;350:65-71. Epub 2018 May 8.

Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Department of General Psychiatry, Heidelberg University, Germany.

Background: Impulsivity is an essential human personality trait and highly relevant for the development of several mental disorders. There is evidence that impulsivity is heritable, yet little is known about neural correlates reflecting early brain development. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as reflected by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are distinctly associated with cortical thickness and surface area variations in young healthy individuals. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Alcohol aggravates ketamine-induced behavioral, morphological and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats: The involvement of CREB-related pathways.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 5;349:80-90. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110016, PR China. Electronic address:

Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Standard analgesics reverse burrowing deficits in a rat CCI model of neuropathic pain, but not in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes-induced neuropathic pain.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 5;350:129-138. Epub 2018 May 5.

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Div. Research Germany, Birkendorfer Str. 65, Biberach an der Riss, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Burrowing is a rodent behavior validated as a robust and reproducible outcome measure to infer the global effect of pain in several inflammatory pain models. However, less is known about the effect of analgesics on burrowing in neuropathic pain models and no studies have determined burrowing performance in models of diabetes-associated neuropathic pain.

Objective: To compare the sensitivity of the burrowing assay in different neuropathic pain models: mononeuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and brain networks are modulated in a testosterone-dependent manner in Sprague Dawley rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Sep 4;349:91-97. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, School of Dentistry, Center to Advance Chronic Pain Research, University of Maryland, Baltimore, United States.

Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), which involves endogenous pain modulation, has been investigated as a potential mechanism for the differences in pain modulation observed between men and women, though the literature shows contradictory findings. We used a capsaicin-induced DNIC behavioral assay and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to assess the effect of testosterone on pain modulation and related brain circuitry in rats. We hypothesized that testosterone is required for DNIC that leads to efficient pain inhibition by increasing descending pain modulation. Read More

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September 2018