5,008 results match your criteria Behaviour Research and Therapy[Journal]


Poly-product drug use disparities in adolescents of lower socioeconomic status: Emerging trends in nicotine products, marijuana products, and prescription drugs.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University of Southern California, Department of Psychology, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, SGM 501, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA; University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Greater diversification of nicotine products, marijuana products, and prescription drugs have contributed to increasing trends in adolescent poly-product use-concurrent use of 2 or more drugs-within these drug classes (e.g., nicotine use via e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.014DOI Listing
November 2018

Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 8;113:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Resilience following traumatic events has been studied using numerous methodologies. One approach involves quantifying lower-than-expected levels of a negative outcome following trauma exposure. Resilience research has examined personality and coping-related factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Single-case experimental designs. Evaluating interventions in research and clinical practice.

Authors:
Alan E Kazdin

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT, 06520-8205, USA. Electronic address:

Single-case designs refer to a methodological approach that can be used to investigate the effectiveness of treatment with the individual client. The designs permit scientifically valid inferences to be drawn about the effects of treatment and hence offer advantages over alternative strategies such as the uncontrolled case study or open study that are used with the individual case. The present article discusses the key features of the methodology, illustrates specific designs and how inferences are drawn, and discusses critical issues (feasibility, generality of results, ethical issues) in the use of the designs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.015DOI Listing
December 2018

Predictors of behavioral avoidance during respiratory symptom provocation.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 22;112:63-67. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Physiological and Clinical Psychology/ Psychotherapy, University of Greifswald, Franz-Mehring-Str. 47, 17487, Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

Excessive anxiety and avoidance during provocation of body symptoms are core features of anxiety-related disorders and might contribute to the development and maintenance of these disorders. Previous studies examined psychological (anxiety sensitivity, fear of suffocation and trait anxiety) and biobehavioral (breath-holding time) predictors of reported anxiety during symptom provocation. However, the role of these predictors on avoidance of feared body symptoms remains unclear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.012DOI Listing
November 2018

The need for standards in the design of differential fear conditioning and extinction experiments in youth: A systematic review and recommendations for research on anxiety.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 20;112:42-62. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Australia. Electronic address:

Fear extinction studies in youth have yielded mixed results due to developmental processes and variations in design, methodology and dependent measures. This systematic review focused on studies with healthy youth between 2 and 17 years of age to identify experimental parameters of studies documenting extinction effects. Thirty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes emerged (a) some studies employed parameters and task demands that are complex and require active participant involvement whereas others involved simple stimulus configurations and passive participant involvement, and (b) variation exists among dependent measures in units of measurement, timing and type of measurement. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Longer duration of smoking abstinence is associated with waning cessation fatigue.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Cancer Control, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Cessation fatigue, a construct theorized to reflect exhaustion of coping resources due to quitting smoking, has been found to predict relapse. This study examines the association between cessation fatigue and duration of abstinence among 1397 adult former smokers who participated in the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey (4CV). We hypothesized lower levels of cessation fatigue will be correlated with longer duration of abstinence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.011DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Examining links between cannabis potency and mental and physical health outcomes.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, USA.

Cannabis use is associated with unwanted health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, poor sleep hygiene, and disrupted cognitive functioning. However, research to date has not been able to disentangle the complexities of these relations, leaving behavioral health service providers lacking clear direction for treatment. A limiting factor may be the common practices for cannabis use assessment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.008DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Statistical learning as a predictor of attention bias modification outcome: A preliminary study among socially anxious patients.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 22;112:36-41. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address:

Attention bias modification (ABM) is a novel therapy designed to modulate attentional biases towards threat typically observed among anxious individuals. Bias modification is allegedly achieved via extraction of a statistical regularity embedded within the treatment task. However, no prior study examined prediction of ABM therapeutic response in relation to patients' capacity to extract statistical properties from the environment, a capacity known as "statistical learning". Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.013DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

A randomized controlled trial of the judicious use of safety behaviors during exposure therapy.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 20;112:28-35. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Davie Hall, Campus Box 3270, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-3270, United States.

Safety behaviors-actions performed to prevent, escape from, or reduce the severity of perceived threat-are typically eliminated during exposure therapy for clinical anxiety. Yet some experts have called for the strategic and "judicious use" of safety behaviors during exposure to improve treatment acceptability/tolerability without diminishing its efficacy. Empirical findings regarding this debate are mixed and existing work is subject to several methodological limitations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.010DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

The effects of exercise on transdiagnostic treatment targets: A meta-analytic review.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology and Institute for Mental Health Research, The University of Texas at Austin, 305 E 23rd Street Stop E9000, Austin, TX, 78712-1043, USA.

Background: The present study meta-analytically reviewed the effects of exercise on four transdiagnostic treatment targets: anxiety sensitivity (AS), distress tolerance (DT), stress reactivity (SR), and general self-efficacy (GSE).

Methods: We conducted systematic searches of peer-reviewed studies in bibliographical databases (Cochrane Library, psychINFO, PubMed) before April 1, 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the effect of exercise on AS, DT, SR, or GSE using at least one validated outcome instrument in a sample of adolescents (≥13 years old) or adults were selected. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183017
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.007DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Heart rate variability biofeedback increases sexual arousal among women with female sexual arousal disorder: Results from a randomized-controlled trial.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Low resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with poor sexual arousal function in women. In a recent study, a single session of autogenic training increased HRV and facilitated improvements in both sexual arousal and perceived genital sensations among women experiencing decreased arousal. The current study expands upon these findings by examining the efficacy of HRV biofeedback, with and without autogenic training, as a treatment for sexual arousal dysfunction in an at-home setting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.016DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Self-critical perfectionism, experiential avoidance, and depressive and anxious symptoms over two years: A three-wave longitudinal study.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 13;112:18-27. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital and McGill University, Canada.

This three-wave longitudinal study examined the relations among perfectionism, experiential avoidance, and depressive and anxious symptoms over two years. Community adults (N = 173) completed self-report questionnaires assessing two higher-order perfectionism dimensions (self-critical [SC], personal standards [PS]), neuroticism, experiential avoidance, and depressive and anxious symptoms at Time 1, Time 2 one year later, and Time 3 two years later. Cross-lagged path analyses demonstrated that SC perfectionism predicted increases in experiential avoidance from Time 1 to Time 2 and again from Time 2 to Time 3. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Repetitive negative thinking predicts eating disorder behaviors: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study in a treatment seeking eating disorder sample.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 13;112:12-17. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive negative thinking is a transdiagnostic process that occurs across several psychological disorders, including eating disorders. Individuals with eating disorders have higher levels of repetitive negative thinking than controls, and repetitive negative thinking is associated with eating disorder behaviors. However, no study has measured how momentary repetitive negative thinking may subsequently impact daily eating disorder behaviors and vice-versa. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Same fear responses, less avoidance: Rewards competing with aversive outcomes do not buffer fear acquisition, but attenuate avoidance to accelerate subsequent fear extinction.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 8;112:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

Rewards for approaching a feared stimulus may compete with fear reduction inherent to avoidance and thereby alter fear and avoidance learning. However, the impact of such competing rewards on fear and avoidance acquisition has rarely been investigated. During acquisition, participants chose between one option (CS+ option) associated with a neutral stimulus followed by an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) and another option (CS- option) associated with another neutral stimulus followed by no US (N = 223 randomized into three groups). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183017
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.003DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for comorbid cannabis use and anxiety disorders: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is the most common illicit substance use disorder and individuals with CUD have high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders. Comorbidity between CUD and anxiety disorders is of public health relevance given that although motivation enhancement therapy (MET) combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious intervention for CUD, outcomes are worse for patients with elevated anxiety. The current study tested the acceptability and efficacy of the integration of a transdiagnostic anxiety CBT (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.014DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

The buffering effect of social support on the relationship between discrimination and psychological distress among church-going African-American adults.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

The University of Houston, HEALTH Research Institute, 4849 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX, 77204, USA; University of Houston, Department of Psychological, Health, and Learning Sciences, 491 Farish Hall, Houston, TX, 77204-5029, USA. Electronic address:

Discrimination is a pervasive stressor among African-American adults. Social support is an important protective factor for psychological distress, especially among minority populations. Although a number of studies have examined social support in relation to discrimination, little research has examined how social support may serve as an important protective factor against both physical and psychological symptoms related to overall psychological distress within this group. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.008DOI Listing
November 2018

An analysis of within-treatment change trajectories in valued activity in relation to treatment outcomes following interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for adults with chronic pain.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

IMPACT Pain Service, Midlands Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, National Health Service, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

A key issue in chronic pain treatment concerns changes necessary for reduced pain-related distress and disability. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a behavior change approach, theorizes several important treatment processes. Increased engagement in valued activities appears highly relevant as previous work has indicated it is related to current and future functioning and to treatment outcomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.012DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms, cognitions, and depression during treatment of traumatized youth.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 27;111:119-126. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies Postbox 181, Nydalen, 0409, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Objective: Although there is compelling evidence that trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an effective treatment for traumatized youth, we know less about the mechanisms contributing to symptom reduction. To improve the understanding of change mechanisms in TF-CBT, this paper investigates the possible bi-directional longitudinal relationship between changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), cognitions and depression in a clinical sample of traumatized youth.

Methods: The study includes 79 youth (M age = 15. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.010DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

The role of modifiable health-related behaviors in the association between PTSD and respiratory illness.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases risk of future respiratory illness. However, mechanisms that underpin the association between these common and debilitating conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable, health-related behaviors they may explain the link between PTSD and respiratory problems. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183017
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.018DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Prevalence of auditory pseudohallucinations in adult survivors of physical and sexual trauma with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 30;111:113-118. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CB2 7EF, UK.

Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs) are commonly associated with psychosis but are also reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hearing voices after the experience of stress has been conceptualised as a dissociative experience. Brewin and Patel's (2010) seminal study reported that hearing voices is relatively common in PTSD, as hearing voices was associated with PTSD in half and two thirds of military veterans and survivors of civilian trauma, respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6259581PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Rise and shine: A treatment experiment testing a morning routine to decrease subjective sleep inertia in insomnia and bipolar disorder.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 27;111:106-112. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA. Electronic address:

Sleep inertia involves decreased performance or disorientation upon waking that lasts several hours and impairs functioning. Though sleep inertia is common in insomnia and may interfere with treatment, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) does not routinely include a component to address sleep inertia. The present study evaluates such a component, the RISE-UP routine, in CBTI for insomnia comorbid with bipolar disorder. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.009DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

The validity of human avoidance paradigms.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 30;111:99-105. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Excessive avoidance towards innocuous cues is a central diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Relevant laboratory paradigms typically include instrumental learning procedures, where the presentation of an aversive cue (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.011DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Rumination in anorexia nervosa: Cognitive-affective and neuroendocrinological aspects.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 2;111:92-98. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Translational Developmental Neuroscience Section, Eating Disorder Research and Treatment Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Rumination about body weight/figure as well as food is common in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and may be a maintenance factor of the disorder. While rumination can generally be considered as a cognitive-affective process, food-related rumination may be driven primarily by a physiological response to undernutrition. In the current longitudinal study, we integrate ecological momentary assessment of rumination and affect and, as a biological marker of undernutrition, plasma leptin levels collected from 33 AN patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.001DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Computer-based personalized feedback intervention for cigarette smoking and prescription analgesic misuse among persons living with HIV (PLWH).

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, USA.

Pain, tobacco cigarette smoking, and prescription opioid misuse are all highly prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Smoking and pain medication misuse can lead to deleterious outcomes, including more severe pain and physical impairment. However, we are not aware of any interventions that have attempted to address these issues in an integrated manner. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.013DOI Listing
October 2018

Individual differences in emotion dysregulation and trajectory of withdrawal symptoms during a quit attempt among treatment-seeking smokers.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and withdrawal symptoms are central to the maintenance of tobacco use. Previous research suggests that individual differences in the propensity to experience negative affect may be related to more severe withdrawal symptoms. However, little research has examined how individual differences in the ability to regulate affect (emotion dysregulation) may impact withdrawal symptoms over time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.007DOI Listing
October 2018

Isolating the effect of opposite action in borderline personality disorder: A laboratory-based alternating treatment design.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Boston University, United states.

Evaluating the unique effects of each component included in treatment protocols for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a necessary step in refining these interventions so that they only include skills that drive therapeutic change. One strategy, included in several prominent treatments for BPD, is acting opposite to emotion-driven behavioral urges; engaging in behaviors that are inconsistent with an experienced emotion is thought to lead to reductions in its intensity, though this has not been empirically-tested. The present study was a single-case experiment, specifically an alternating treatment design, that explored the effects of a laboratory-based adaptation of opposite action (versus acting consistent) on emotional intensity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.006DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

The role of the individual in the coming era of process-based therapy.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Australian Catholic University, Australia.

For decades the development of evidence-based therapy has been based on experimental tests of protocols designed to impact psychiatric syndromes. As this paradigm weakens, a more process-based therapy approach is rising in its place, focused on how to best target and change core biopsychosocial processes in specific situations for given goals with given clients. This is an inherently more idiographic question than has normally been at issue in evidence-based therapy over the last few decades. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.005DOI Listing
October 2018

Negative evaluation of individuals with borderline personality disorder at zero acquaintance.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 29;111:84-91. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim at Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Previous research suggests that individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) tend to evaluate other people as untrustworthy or hostile, which could contribute to the marked interpersonal problems in BPD. In contrast, alterations in first impressions of potential interaction partners of those with BPD remain under-researched and poorly understood. Herein, we focused on how naïve raters evaluate BPD individuals, hypothesizing that raters would tend to evaluate them negatively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.009DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Positive imagery training increases positive self-referent cognition in depression.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 6;111:72-83. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 305 E. 23rd St.; Stop E9000; Austin, TX, 78712, USA; Institute for Mental Health Research, The University of Texas at Austin, USA. Electronic address:

Depressed adults often show a bias towards negative self-referent processing at the expense of positive self-referent processing. The current study assessed whether a mental imagery intervention (Positive Self Reference Training-PSRT) delivered via the Internet could improve self-referent processing and depressive symptomatology among adults with moderate or greater depression symptoms. Participants were recruited via online methods and randomly assigned to one of two computerized interventions: active PSRT (n=44) or control training (NTC; n=43). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250581PMC
December 2018

The role of parental attributions in predicting parenting intervention outcomes in the treatment of child conduct problems.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 6;111:64-71. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

University of Sydney, Australia.

Background: Parent attributions about the causes of their children's behaviour problems are a known predictor of problematic parenting and ongoing child problems. However, their importance in parenting interventions remains unknown as research has not addressed whether parental attributions predict outcomes associated with parenting training. The current study examined whether problematic pre-treatment and change resistant parental attributions during treatment uniquely predict child behaviour outcomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.004DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Contingency Management with pharmacologic treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders: A review.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 4;111:57-63. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), Rua Borges Lagoa, 570, São Paulo, SP, CEP 04038-030, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Stimulant Use Disorders (SUDs) are an emergent public health concern in the United States and worldwide. However, there is still a lack of consensus for best-approaches regarding treatment of SUD. Recent trials have evaluated combinations of medications and psychosocial treatments to enhance efficacy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Is less more? A randomized comparison of home practice time in a mind-body program.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 4;111:52-56. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA; Harvard Medical School, USA.

Home practice is a major component of mind-body programs, yet little is known about how to optimize the amount of prescribed home practice in order to achieve an effective "dose" of practice while minimizing participant burden. This study tested how varying the amount of home practice in a mind-body program impacts compliance and stress reduction, and whether prescribing a flexible home practice schedule increases compliance. Eighty-four stressed participants undergoing a 12-week yoga program were randomized to low, medium, and high home practice conditions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Time of day effects on the relationship between daily sleep and anxiety: An ecological momentary assessment approach.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 29;111:44-51. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Wilson Hall, 111 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN, 37240, USA.

Previous research has linked sleep disturbance to anxiety. However, evidence for this relation has been inconsistent, largely limited to retrospective reports that do not account for daily variability, and silent on when the association is most pronounced. Thus, the present study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the effects of daily deviations in total sleep time (TST) and person-average TST on anxiety and whether these effects varied as a function of time of day in a sample of unselected adults (N = 138). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250589PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Evidence of prefrontal hyperactivation to food-cue reversal learning in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 27;111:36-43. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Food avoidance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been hypothesized to occur as a result of deficits in reversal learning and altered neuronal processing of food-cue relationships. Extant findings suggest that those with AN may rely on heightened recruitment of prefrontal regions during initial formation of food-cue learning and difficulty extinguishing these relationships may result from elevated insula activity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing behavioral and neuronal responses to food-cue acquisition and reversal between adolescents with AN and healthy controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.08.006DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) for people with bipolar disorder: Summary of outcomes from the IAPT demonstration site.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 20;111:27-35. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Spectrum Centre for Mental Health Research, Division of Health Research, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Furness Building, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK.

Access to structured psychological therapy recommended for bipolar disorder (BD) is poor. The UK NHS Improving Access to Psychological Therapies initiative commissioned a demonstration site for BD to explore the outcomes of routine delivery of psychological therapy in clinical practice, which this report summarises. All clinically diagnosed patients with BD who wanted a psychological intervention and were not in acute mood episode were eligible. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183014
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.006DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Model-based learning and individual differences in depression: The moderating role of stress.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 26;111:19-26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, 33146, USA.

Inflexible decision-making has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor for mood disorders. Evidence suggests that inflexible decision-making may emerge only when individuals are experiencing increased negative affect or stress. 151 participants completed symptom measures of depression and anxiety, followed by a two-stage decision-making task that distinguishes between habitual and goal-directed choice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.007DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Coaching mothers of typical and conduct problem children in elaborative parent-child reminiscing: Influences of a randomized controlled trial on reminiscing behaviour and everyday talk preferences.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 18;111:9-18. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

The University of Sydney, Australia.

This study compared the effects of mother-child reminiscing coaching on mothers of typically developing children (community sample) and mothers of children with conduct problems (clinical sample). It also tested whether intervention effects generalize to mothers' preferences for elaborative and mental-state oriented talk with their children in other contexts. Mother-child dyads (n = 88) in each sample were randomly allocated to condition: reminiscing intervention or active control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Maximizing the generalization of fear extinction: Exposures to a peak generalization stimulus.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 18;111:1-8. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Laboratory of Biological Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, Box 3712, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Experimental research has shown that generalization of fear extinction from a generalization stimulus (GS) is minimal compared to generalization of fear extinction from the conditional stimulus itself (CS+). This poses a challenge to extinction-based treatments of anxiety because the exact CS is often not known or unavailable. However, experimental studies failed to disentangle differences in stimulus identity (CS + or GS) from differences in the level of fear (GS typically elicits less fear than CS+). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183014
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.005DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Susceptibility to others' emotions moderates immediate self-reported and biological stress responses to witnessing trauma.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 12;110:55-63. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Behavioral Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: The peri-traumatic stress response is a strong predictor of symptom development after trauma exposure. Regarding witnessing trauma, the stress response might depend on the susceptibility to others' emotions (emotional contagion, EC). This study investigated whether EC moderates the immediate stress response using a trauma film paradigm. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.001DOI Listing
November 2018

A randomized controlled trial of different levels of coach support in an online intervention for relationship distress.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 13;110:47-54. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

University of Miami, USA.

Recently-developed online interventions for relationship distress show promising results; however, the degree to which paraprofessionals need to be involved with web-based interventions for relationship distress remains unclear. The present study sought to determine if varying levels of coach contact moderated gains during the online OurRelationship program, which was previously shown to be effective by Doss and colleagues (2016). Three hundred fifty-six heterosexual couples (712 individuals) enrolled in the OurRelationship program and were randomized to a Low or High coach support condition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.002DOI Listing
November 2018

Does US expectancy mediate the additive effects of CS-US pairings on contingency instructions? Results from subjective, psychophysiological and neural measures.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 8;110:41-46. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Verbal instructions are a powerful pathway to learn new fear relations, and an important question has been what fear experience can still add to the effect of such instructions. Therefore, in previous studies, we investigated the effects of pairings between conditioned stimuli (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) after CS-US contingency instructions. Although these studies found that CS-US pairings do indeed add to the effects of contingency instructions on subjective, psychophysiological and neural measures of conditioned fear, they also produce increases in US expectancy ratings. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.09.003DOI Listing
November 2018

A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of training strategies in cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: Impact on patient outcomes.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 30;110:31-40. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

National Center for PTSD, VA Palo Alto Healthcare System, 795 Willow Road (NC-PTSD), Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. Electronic address:

This randomized controlled hybrid implementation/effectiveness trial aimed to compare the impact of three different models of training and consultation by examining the PTSD treatment outcomes achieved by therapists who were learning a front-line recommended psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; Resick, Monson, & Chard, 2017). Therapists (N = 134) were randomized into one of three conditions after attending a standard CPT training workshop: No Consultation with delayed feedback on CPT fidelity, Standard Consultation involving discussion and conceptualization of cases without session audio review, and Consultation Including Audio Review, which included a review of segments of audiorecorded CPT sessions. Across all training conditions, the patients treated by these therapists (N = 188) evidenced statistically significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, (d = -0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.08.007DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

A randomised controlled trial of memory flexibility training (MemFlex) to enhance memory flexibility and reduce depressive symptomatology in individuals with major depressive disorder.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 29;110:22-30. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom.

Successful navigation within the autobiographical memory store is integral to daily cognition. Impairment in the flexibility of memory retrieval can thereby have a detrimental impact on mental health. This randomised controlled phase II exploratory trial (N = 60) evaluated the potential of a novel intervention drawn from basic science - an autobiographical Memory Flexibility (MemFlex) training programme - which sought to ameliorate memory difficulties and improve symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173798PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Lower self-positivity and its association with self-esteem in women with borderline personality disorder.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 2;109:84-93. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Institute of Psychiatric and Psychosomatic Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, J5, 68159, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Self-esteem, the global attitude towards one's self, is low in persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This may be partially due to the ways these persons protect or enhance the self. A case in point is self-positivity, the association of positive rather than negative events, experiences, and objects with the self. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.07.008DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

The relative effects of abstract versus concrete thinking on decision-making in depression.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 17;110:11-21. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, UNSW Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

In two studies we tested the hypothesis that abstract thinking is linked to decision-making problems in depression. In Study 1, we compared the extent to which high dysphoric (n = 24) and low dysphoric (n = 26) individuals engaged in abstract thinking while completing a decision-making task. As predicted, high dysphoric participants demonstrated more abstract thinking and worse outcomes on decision-making measures indexed before and after they made decisions about both personal and hypothetical scenarios. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.08.004DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Greater sleep disturbance and longer sleep onset latency facilitate SCR-specific fear reinstatement in PTSD.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 18;110:1-10. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Fear reinstatement is one of several paradigms designed to measure fear return following extinction, as a laboratory model for the relapse of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Sleep is a key factor in emotional memory consolidation, and here we examined the relationship between sleep quality and fear reinstatement in PTSD, relative to trauma-exposed and non-exposed controls. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used as a subjective measure of sleep quality, and skin conductance responses (SCR) and unconditioned stimulus (US)-expectancy ratings were used to index threat responses during a differential fear conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement paradigm. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.08.005DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

A randomized controlled trial of three smartphone apps for enhancing public mental health.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Oct 11;109:75-83. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

School of Psychological Sciences and Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash University, Australia; Centre for Positive Psychology, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Many smartphone applications (apps) for mental health (MHapps) are available to the public. However, few have been the subject of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), and the change processes that are hypothesized to mediate claimed effects have not been previously studied. This RCT compared the efficacy of three publicly available MHapps to a waitlist control condition in a community sample, in which no MHapp was provided. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.08.003DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read