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    4903 results match your criteria Behaviour Research and Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 99

    The Attention Training Technique improves Children's ability to delay gratification: A controlled comparison with progressive relaxation.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 15;104:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    University of Manchester, UK; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:
    The ability to delay gratification at a young age is a predictor of psychological, cognitive, health, and academic later-life outcomes. This study aimed to extend earlier research and explore whether a metacognitive intervention, Wells' (1990) Attention Training Technique (ATT), could improve young children's ability to delay gratification compared to an active-control (Progressive Muscle Relaxation: PMR), and no-intervention group. One hundred and one children aged 5-6 years old were recruited from schools. Read More

    The effect of adding Coping Power Program-Sweden to Parent Management Training-effects and moderators in a randomized controlled trial.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 5;103:43-52. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    For children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), Parent Management Training (PMT) is a recommended treatment in addition to child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (child-CBT). There is however a lack of studies investigating the additive effect of group-based child-CBT to PMT for children between 8 and 12 years. The current study investigated the incremental effect of group-based child-CBT, based on the Coping Power Program, when added to the Swedish group-based PMT program KOMET. Read More

    Modifying mental health help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial of a novel cognitive bias modification intervention.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 2;103:33-42. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Florida State University, United States.
    Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment. Read More

    Processes and pathways mediating the experience of social anxiety and negative rumination.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 2;103:24-32. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Clinical Psychology Unit, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Negative rumination in social anxiety disorder (SAD) occurs in anticipation of a social event (pre-event rumination) and in its aftermath (post-event rumination). Both are proposed to be key maintaining factors of the vicious cycle of social anxiety. Despite this, there is a dearth of research investigating the processes that mediate the relationship between social anxiety and pre-event rumination and uncertainty regarding the cognitive and attentional processes that mediate the relationship between social anxiety and post-event rumination. Read More

    Sleep-related attentional bias for tired faces in insomnia: Evidence from a dot-probe paradigm.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 31;103:18-23. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, UK.
    People with insomnia often display an attentional bias for sleep-specific stimuli. However, prior studies have mostly utilized sleep-related words and images, and research is yet to examine whether people with insomnia display an attentional bias for sleep-specific (i.e. Read More

    You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal operant conditioning in fatigue.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 2;103:12-17. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Limburg Brain Injury Center, The Netherlands.
    Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. Read More

    The worrying mind in control: An investigation of adaptive working memory training and cognitive bias modification in worry-prone individuals.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 20;103:1-11. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK.
    Worry refers to the experience of uncontrollable negative thoughts. Cognitive models suggest that the combination of negative information processing biases along with diminished attentional control contribute to worry. In the current study we investigate whether promoting a) adaptive interpretation bias and b) efficient deployment of attentional control would influence the tendency to worry. Read More

    Trauma, attentional dysregulation, and the development of posttraumatic stress: An investigation of risk pathways.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 11;102:60-66. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, 199 Abba Hushi Blvd., Mount Carmel, Haifa 3498838, Israel. Electronic address:
    Background: Fundamental questions regarding the nature and function of attentional bias (AB) to threat in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain unanswered. We tested the temporal interplay between trauma exposure, dysregulated attentional processing of threatening information pre- and post-trauma, and the development of posttraumatic intrusions.

    Methods: Response time to trauma-related threat, trauma-unrelated threat, as well as to trauma-related but typically emotionally-neutral stimuli was assessed using the dot probe task before and one week after watching a violent movie scene that served as a trauma analogue. Read More

    Individual variation in working memory is associated with fear extinction performance.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 5;102:52-59. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Research Service, VA San Diego Healthcare system, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
    PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Read More

    Psychopathology and episodic future thinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis of specificity and episodic detail.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 5;102:42-51. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, Box 3712, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
    Episodic future thinking (EFT) refers to the mental simulation of future events that might be personally-experienced; a crucial mental process in adaptation. Psychiatric disorders are associated with deficits in recalling episodic memory, however, no study has reviewed the empirical literature to assess for similar deficits in EFT. A systematic review comparing psychiatric groups with control groups on the specificity and episodic detail of EFT returned 19 eligible studies. Read More

    Evaluating the role of repetitive negative thinking in the maintenance of social appearance anxiety: An experimental manipulation.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 5;102:36-41. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    University at Albany, State University of New York, 399 Social Sciences, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA.
    Social appearance anxiety (SAA), or fear of having one's appearance negatively evaluated by others, is a risk factor for eating pathology and social anxiety, but maintenance processes for SAA remain unclear. The current study evaluated repetitive negative thinking (RNT) as a process through which SAA is maintained over time. Undergraduates (N = 126) completed self-report measurements, made an impromptu speech task to induce SAA, and were randomized to either engage in RNT or distraction following the speech task. Read More

    Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 20;102:25-35. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Center for Psychological Psychotherapy, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are currently well established in psychotherapy with meta-analyses demonstrating their efficacy. In these multifaceted interventions, the concrete performance of mindfulness exercises is typically integrated in a larger therapeutic framework. Thus, it is unclear whether stand-alone mindfulness exercises (SAMs) without such a framework are beneficial, as well. Read More

    Interpretation bias in middle childhood attachment: Causal effects on attachment memories and scripts.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 21;102:16-24. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Read More

    Development of an in-vivo metric to aid visual inspection of single-case design data: Do we need to run more sessions?
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 16;102:8-15. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41071, Lubbock, TX 79409, United States.
    Comparing visual inspection results of graphed data reveals inconsistencies in the interpretation of the same graph among single-case experimental design (SCED) researchers and practitioners. Although several investigators have disseminated structured criteria and visual inspection aids or strategies, inconsistencies in interpreting graphed data continue to exist even for individuals considered to be experts at interpreting SCED graphs. We propose a fail safe k metric that can be used in conjunction with visual inspection, and it can be used in-vivo after each additional data point is collected within a phase to determine the optimal point in time to shift between phases (e. Read More

    What works better? Food cue exposure aiming at the habituation of eating desires or food cue exposure aiming at the violation of overeating expectancies?
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 18;102:1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Objective: This study tested the role of habituation of eating desires and violation of overeating expectancies during food cue exposure in obese women.

    Method: 52 obese females were randomised into a two-session exposure condition aimed at habituation, a two-session exposure condition aimed at expectancy violation, or a no-treatment control condition. Eating in the absence of hunger of foods included during cue exposure (i. Read More

    Measuring self-efficacy, executive function, and temporal discounting in Kenya.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 17;101:30-45. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, USA; Busara Center for Behavioral Economics, Nairobi, Kenya; Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs & Department of Economics, Princeton University, USA. Electronic address:
    Developing countries have low adherence to medical regimens like water chlorination or antenatal and postnatal care, contributing to high infant and child mortality rates. We hypothesize that high levels of stress affect adherence through temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control. Measurement of these constructs in developing countries requires adaptation of existing measures. Read More

    Combat-related guilt and the mechanisms of exposure therapy.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 27;102:68-77. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    UCF RESTORES and Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, 4111 Pictor Lane, Orlando, FL 32816-1390, United States. Electronic address:
    Exposure therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to Intensive (3-week) and Standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment. Read More

    Learning to feel tired: A learning trajectory towards chronic fatigue.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 22;100:54-66. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Chronic fatigue complaints are frequently reported in the general population and fatigue ranks among the most commonly reported symptoms in chronic disease. In contrast to its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, relatively little is understood about the etiology of chronic fatigue. We present a cognitive-behavioral framework, the 'ALT+F' model, that conceptualizes fatigue from an associative learning perspective, and we will evaluate the current evidence for this position. Read More

    Effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation inductions on emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection among individuals with high borderline personality traits.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 22;100:44-53. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an enduring pattern of instability across affective, behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal domains. Individuals with BPD are known to be particularly vulnerable to experiences of social rejection, but little work has examined strategies that may moderate their reactivity to social rejection. Using a laboratory experimental approach, this study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) inductions on emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. Read More

    Individual differences in fear relapse.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 20;100:37-43. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, USA.
    Vulnerability to anxiety disorders might be due to enhanced acquisition of aversive associations, impaired inhibition of those associations (extinction), and/or vulnerability to the return of fear (relapse). Animal research investigating the processes underpinning fear learning, extinction, and relapse will be critical to further advancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment. Here we examined whether individual differences in the rate of extinction might be related to vulnerability to relapse. Read More

    Subjective sleep disturbances are associated with intrinsic motivation toward sleep-related thinking.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 13;100:30-36. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Read More

    A return to the psychiatric dark ages with a two-system framework for fear.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 10;100:24-29. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
    The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. Read More

    The influence of maternal modeling on body image concerns and eating disturbances in preadolescent girls.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 6;100:17-23. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, 2109, Australia. Electronic address:
    Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Read More

    The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 6;101:3-11. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. Read More

    Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 19;101:82-91. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    The Ohio State University, United States.
    This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. Read More

    Avoidance in posttraumatic stress among refugee survivors of violent conflict and atrocities: Testing trans-cultural risk processes and candidate intervention targets.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 21;99:157-163. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    University of Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:
    Background: A fast-growing population of refugees and survivors of violent conflict and atrocities are at risk for trauma-related mental health problems. Experimental clinical research key to the development of interventions tailored to this population is limited.

    Aims: In an experimental psychopathology laboratory paradigm, we tested the expression and function of avoidance in posttraumatic stress (PTS) among a highly traumatized community sample of forcibly displaced refugees seeking asylum. Read More

    A brighter future: The effect of positive episodic simulation on future predictions in non-depressed, moderately dysphoric & highly dysphoric individuals.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 26;100:7-16. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Psychology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hull, UK. Electronic address:
    Previous research suggests depressed individuals have difficulties with future directed cognitions. For instance, compared with non-depressed individuals, they predict positive events are less likely to occur. Recent work suggests that episodic simulation of positive futures may represent a useful strategy for improving prospective predictions. Read More

    Major depression prevention effects for a cognitive-behavioral adolescent indicated prevention group intervention across four trials.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 31;100:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, USA.
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) in young people is a leading cause of disability but most depressed youth are not treated, emphasizing the need for effective prevention. Our goal is to synthesize MDD onset prevention effects for the Blues Program, a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) indicated prevention group, by merging data from four trials (three of which included CB bibliotherapy) and conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data were available from 766 high school/college students (M age = 16. Read More

    Dismantling Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Creation and validation of 8-week focused attention and open monitoring interventions within a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 28;101:92-107. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Cogut Center for the Humanities, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.
    Background: While mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) employ two distinct practices, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM), the integrated delivery of these practices in MBIs precludes understanding of their practice-specific effects or mechanisms of action. The purpose of this study is to isolate hypothesized active ingredients and practice-specific mechanistic target engagement by creating structurally equivalent interventions that differ only by the active ingredient (meditation practice) offered and to test whether the hypothesized components differentially engage the mechanistic targets that they are purported to engage.

    Methods: Participants were intended to be representative of American meditators and had mild to severe affective disturbances. Read More

    A randomised controlled trial investigating the benefits of adaptive working memory training for working memory capacity and attentional control in high worriers.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jan 3;100:67-77. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, United Kingdom.
    The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. Read More

    A cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention improves behavior problems in at-risk adolescents by improving perceived sleep quality.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 12;99:147-156. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 12th Floor Redmond Barry Building, Parkville Campus, Melbourne, 3010, VIC Australia; Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, 97403, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve behavior problems in at-risk adolescents, and whether these improvements were specifically related to improvements in sleep.

    Method: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48, range 12. Read More

    The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on implicit self-esteem is mediated by rumination after criticism.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 21;99:138-146. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, University Hospital Ghent University, Belgium; Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium; Ghent Experimental Psychiatry (GHEP) Lab, Ghent University, Belgium.
    It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. Read More

    The mediating role of changes in harm beliefs and coping efficacy in youth with specific phobias.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 18;99:131-137. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Individuals with specific phobias (SPs) often experience catastrophic cognitions and compromised efficacy regarding their ability to cope when in the presence of the phobic object/situation. In the current study, 165 children (7-16 years; 62% male) received either One Session Treatment or Educational Support Therapy for their SP. The children identified their feared belief and rated "how bad" it was, "how likely" it was to occur, and their ability to cope if it did occur. Read More

    Brief training in mindfulness meditation reduces symptoms in patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history of depression: A randomized controlled study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 12;99:124-130. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Freie Universität Berlin, Dahlem Center for Neuroimaging of Emotions, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. Read More

    The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 7;101:58-70. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, 1603 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States.
    Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Read More

    Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 5;101:46-57. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. Read More

    Targeting self-regulation to promote health behaviors in children.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 28;101:71-81. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:
    Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Read More

    Direction of stimulus movement alters fear-linked individual differences in attentional vigilance to spider stimuli.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 13;99:117-123. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Centre for the Advancement of Research on Emotion, School of Psychological Science, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    Researchers have proposed that high spider-fearful individuals are characterised by heightened attentional vigilance to spider stimuli, as compared to low spider-fearful individuals. However, these findings have arisen from methodologies that have uniformly employed only static stimuli. Such findings do not inform upon the patterns of fear-linked attentional selectivity that occur in the face of moving feared stimuli. Read More

    A randomized clinical trial examining the effects of an anxiety sensitivity intervention on insomnia symptoms: Replication and extension.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 5;99:108-116. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, USA. Electronic address:
    Insomnia disorder is impairing and prevalent, particularly among individuals with comorbid anxiety disorders. Despite the availability of effective computerized treatments for insomnia, there are few that target both insomnia as well as co-occurring anxiety symptoms. The current study tests the efficacy of a computerized treatment for anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, a transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety, mood, and insomnia symptoms, against a repeated contact control, on reducing insomnia symptoms. Read More

    A systematic review of the inclusion of mechanisms of action in NIH-funded intervention trials to improve medication adherence.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 5;101:12-19. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W. 168th Street, New York, NY, United States.
    Medication nonadherence contributes to morbidity/mortality, but adherence interventions yield small and inconsistent effects. Understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation and maintenance of adherence could improve interventions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) support adherence research, but it is unclear whether existing NIH-funded research incorporates mechanisms. Read More

    Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Feb 28;101:20-29. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    The Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i. Read More

    Moving towards the benign: Automatic interpretation bias modification in dysphoria.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 21;99:98-107. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    University of South Florida, Psychology Department, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, PCD4118G, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Electronic address:
    Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training. Read More

    Improving the efficiency of psychological treatment using outcome feedback technology.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 28;99:89-97. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Aims: This study evaluated the impact of applying computerized outcome feedback (OF) technology in a stepped care psychological service offering low and high intensity therapies for depression and anxiety.

    Methods: A group of therapists were trained to use OF based on routine outcome monitoring using depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures. Therapists regularly reviewed expected treatment response graphs with patients and discussed cases that were "not on track" in clinical supervision. Read More

    Altered appetitive conditioning in overweight and obese women.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 22;99:78-88. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Overweight and obese individuals show increased psychological and physiological reactivity to food cues and many of them have difficulties in achieving long-term weight loss. The current study tests whether abnormalities in the learning and extinction of appetitive responses to food cues might be responsible for this. Overweight/obese and healthy weight women completed a differential appetitive conditioning task using food as rewards, while eating expectancies, eating desires, conditioned stimulus evaluations, salivation, and electrodermal responses were assessed during an acquisition and extinction phase. Read More

    A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional bias: An eye-tracking study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 18;99:67-77. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Westfield State University, United States.
    The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. Read More

    Hostile interpretation training for individuals with alcohol use disorder and elevated trait anger: A controlled trial of a web-based intervention.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 19;99:57-66. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States.
    High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Read More

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