5,045 results match your criteria Behaviour Research and Therapy[Journal]


I feel safe when i know: Contingency instruction promotes threat extinction in high intolerance of uncertainty individuals.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 8;116:111-118. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

Extinction-resistant threat is considered to be a central feature of pathological anxiety. Reduced threat extinction is observed in individuals with high intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Here we sought to determine whether contingency instructions could alter the course of threat extinction for individuals high in IU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.004DOI Listing

A randomised controlled trial of 'MUMentum postnatal': Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in postpartum women.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 8;116:94-103. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD), St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia; School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Improving Access to psychological therapies for people with severe mental illness (IAPT-SMI): Lessons from the South London and Maudsley psychosis demonstration site.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 8;116:104-110. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

King's College London, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Implementation of evidence-based cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) remains low in routine services. The United Kingdom Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) initiative aimed to address this issue. The project evaluated whether existing services could improve access to CBTp and demonstrate effectiveness using a systematic approach to therapy provision and outcome monitoring (in a similar way to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) model for people with anxiety and depression). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.002DOI Listing

Refining our research practices in clinical science: Challenges and steps towards solutions.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 6;116:90-93. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.006DOI Listing

'How does change unfold?' an evaluation of the process of change in four people with chronic low back pain and high pain-related fear managed with Cognitive Functional Therapy: A replicated single-case experimental design study.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Curtin University, School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Body Logic Physiotherapy, 215 Nicholson Rd., Shenton Park, WA 6008, Australia. Electronic address:

Purpose: To understand the process of change at an individual level, this study used a single-case experimental design to evaluate how change in potential mediators related to change in disability over time, during an exposure-based behavioural intervention in four people with chronic low back pain and high pain-related fear. A second aim was to evaluate whether the change (sequential or simultaneous) in mediators and disability occurred at the same timepoint for all individuals.

Results: For all participants, visual and statistical analyses indicated that changes in disability and proposed mediators were clearly related to the commencement of Cognitive Functional Therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.007DOI Listing

Patient constructive learning behavior in cognitive therapy: A pathway for improving patient memory for treatment?

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 1;116:80-89. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, United States. Electronic address:

Patient memory for treatment is poor and associated with worse outcome. The Memory Support Intervention was designed to improve outcome by enhancing patient memory for treatment. Half of the strategies comprising the Memory Support Intervention (termed constructive memory support strategies) involve therapists inviting patients to construct new ideas, inferences, or connections related to treatment material that go beyond information already presented by therapists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.006DOI Listing

Open trial of a personalized modular treatment for mood and anxiety.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 21;116:69-79. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

San Francisco Bay Area Center for Cognitive Therapy, USA.

Psychosocial treatments for mood and anxiety disorders are generally effective, however, a number of treated individuals fail to demonstrate clinically-significant change. Consistent with the decades-old aim to identify 'what works for whom,' personalized and precision treatments have become a recent area of interest in medicine and psychology. The present study followed the recommendations of Fisher (2015) to employ a personalized modular model of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.010DOI Listing
February 2019
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Predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: An exploratory study.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 15;116:61-68. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

College of Education Psychology & Social Work, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Objective: Early decrease in symptoms is a consistent predictor of good treatment outcome across all eating disorders. The current study explored the predictive value of novel early change variables in a transdiagnostic, non-underweight sample receiving 10-session cognitive behavioural therapy.

Method: Participants who reported bingeing and/or purging in the week preceding baseline assessment (N = 62) were included in analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Mental imagery as a "motivational amplifier" to promote activities.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 5;114:51-59. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Facilitating engagement in rewarding activities is a key treatment target in depression. Mental imagery can increase engagement in planned behaviours, potentially due to its special role in representing emotionally salient experiences. The present study tested the hypothesis that mental imagery promotes motivation and engagement when planning pleasant and rewarding activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.002DOI Listing

A preliminary naturalistic clinical case series study of the feasibility and impact of interoceptive exposure for eating disorders.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA.

Recent literature suggests that individuals with eating disorders demonstrate altered interoceptive processing, which may relate to the maintenance of symptoms and thus represent a salient treatment target. Adopting treatment techniques effective for other conditions characterized by disturbed interoceptive processes (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Web-based Approach Bias Modification in smokers: A randomized-controlled study.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 4;116:52-60. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Germany.

Smoking is associated with automatic approach tendencies towards smoking-related stimuli. Therefore, it has been investigated whether training smoking individuals to consistently avoid smoking-related stimuli exerts positive effects on smoking behavior (Approach-Bias Modification [AppBM]). A web-based pilot study provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of AppBM in smokers; however, interpretability was constrained by several limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Autobiographical memory coherence and specificity: Examining their reciprocal relation and their associations with internalizing symptoms and rumination.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 8;116:30-35. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Autobiographical memories consist of different features that have been shown to relate to psychological well-being and psychopathology. Two such characteristics show quite some overlap, namely memory coherence and memory specificity, although their association has never been investigated before. In this study, we examined the association between memory coherence and memory specificity in a sample of first-year psychology students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

A meta-analysis and systematic review of Memory Specificity Training (MeST) in the treatment of emotional disorders.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 2;116:36-51. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Centre for Learning Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The tendency to recall events from one's past in a non-specific and overgeneral way has been found to predict the onset and severity of a range of emotional disorders. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) was devised a decade ago in order to target and modify this tendency so as to reduce the symptoms of emotional disorder or to reduce the risk that such disorders might emerge over time. We present a meta-analytical review of research into the effects of MeST on autobiographical memory specificity in the context of emotional disorders (k = 13). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Direct and indirect effects of perception on generalization gradients.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 18;114:44-50. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, Box 3712, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

For more than a century, researchers have attempted to understand why organisms behave similarly across situations. Despite the robust character of generalization, considerable variation in conditioned responding both between and within humans remains a challenge for contemporary generalization models. The current study aims to investigate the extent to which variation in behavior in a context of generalization can be attributed to differences in perception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.006DOI Listing

Peritraumatic unconditioned and conditioned responding explains sex differences in intrusions after analogue trauma.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 2;116:19-29. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Division of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than men may be explained by sex differences in fear learning processes. Initial evidence points to elevated unconditioned and conditioned fear responding as well as to elevated state anxiety in women as potential peritraumatic mechanisms. Using the "conditioned-intrusion-paradigm", which combines differential fear conditioning with the trauma-film paradigm, neutral sounds were presented as predictors of the occurrence (CS+) or non-occurrence (CS-) of highly aversive films. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.009DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Intraindividual change in anxiety sensitivity and alcohol use severity 12-months following smoking cessation treatment.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 31;116:10-18. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

University of Houston, Department of Psychology, Houston, TX, USA; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Behavioral Science, Houston, TX, USA; Health Institute, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Although past work has documented reduction in alcohol use severity among smokers following smoking cessation treatment, little is known regarding factors associated with this reduction. The current study sought to examine relations between trajectories of change in anxiety sensitivity and non-targeted alcohol use severity from baseline to one year following smoking cessation treatment. Individuals (n = 386) were adult daily smokers engaged in a smoking cessation treatment study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
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Approach-avoidance modification as an add-on in smoking cessation: A randomized-controlled study.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 6;114:35-43. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany.

Biases in information processing are attributed an important role in the maintenance of tobacco dependence. As these biases are not sufficiently taken into account in current treatments, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether clinical outcome can be improved by combining treatment-as-usual (TAU) with Approach-Avoidance Modification Training (AAMT). A two group parallel (1:1) randomized-controlled single-blind study with adult smokers (N = 105) was conducted (DRKS00011406). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.004DOI Listing

Between vulnerability and resilience: A network analysis of fluctuations in cognitive risk and protective factors following remission from depression.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 23;116:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium.

Research exploring how cognitive risk- and protective factors relate following remission from internalizing disorders suggests a central role for resilience. However, it remains unclear what constitutes resilience in this context. Furthermore, previous studies have typically relied on cross-sectional data which do not allow to map the temporal dynamics of such relations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Randomization tests for changing criterion designs.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

KU Leuven, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Belgium.

Randomization tests for alternating treatments designs, multiple baseline designs, and withdrawal/reversal designs are well-established. Recent classifications, however, also mention the "changing criterion design" as a fourth important type of single-case experimental design. In this paper, we examine the potential of randomization tests for changing criterion designs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Predictive value of attentional bias for the recurrence of depression: A 4-year prospective study in remitted depressed individuals.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 11;114:25-34. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Previous research showed that individuals who were remitted from a depressive disorder displayed heightened attention towards negative adjectives (e.g., worthless). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Behavioral medicine and behavioral health research and practice: An introduction to the Special Issue.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 11;115:1-3. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

University of Houston, Department of Psychology, Fred J. Heyne Building, Suite 104, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

The field of behavioral medicine continues to have a major impact on psychological science and public health. Presently, the field of behavioral medicine is undergoing rapid development and continues to evolve as a sub-discipline in allied disciplines. This Special Issue highlights emerging work that contributes to the evolution of behavioral medicine as pertaining to behavioral, psychosocial, and biomedical science integration to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Predictors of recovery from post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war veterans: The contributions of psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and self-compassion.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 7;114:7-14. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major challenge among war veterans. This study assessed the contribution of several interrelated, modifiable psychosocial factors to changes in PTSD symptom severity among combat-deployed post-9/11 Veterans. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of predictors of mental health and functional outcomes among U. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Attentional engagement with and disengagement from food cues in Anorexia Nervosa.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 10;114:15-24. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

This study examined differences in food-related Attentional Bias (AB) between patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and adolescents without an eating disorder. AB was assessed with an Attentional Response to Distal versus Proximal Emotional Information (ARDPEI) task that was specifically designed to differentiate between attentional engagement with and attentional disengagement from food. We tested if patients with AN would show less attentional engagement and less difficulty to disengage their attention from food cues than individuals without an eating disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.01.003DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

A multi-method analysis of incompleteness in behavioral treatment of contamination-based OCD.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 21;114:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, USA. Electronic address:

Contamination fear and washing compulsions are among the most common symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Though these symptoms have traditionally been viewed as being driven by a desire to avoid harm, recent research has highlighted the importance of feelings of incompleteness (INC) or not-just right experiences (NJREs) in this symptom dimension. However, no study to date has examined the extent to which INC/NJREs may be associated with treatment response for contamination symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.008DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Sexual orientation and sex-related substance use: The unexplored role of bisexuality.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 24;115:55-63. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Using alcohol and drugs in sexual contexts is associated with negative health consequences, including increased risk for HIV/STIs, sexual victimization, unplanned pregnancies, and overdose. Evidence suggests millions of adults regularly use alcohol in sexual contexts, thus increasing their risk for these consequences. However, no nationally representative estimates exist for rates of regular alcohol and/or drug use in sexual contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409130PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Partner criticism during acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 21;113:48-56. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA. Electronic address:

Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are married or in marriage-like relationships that could influence treatment process and outcomes. We clarified relations of patient-reported criticism from partners (perceived criticism) and criticism of partners with psychosocial functioning and changes in cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. Partnered outpatients (N = 219) received a 12-week CT protocol and completed measures repeatedly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.010DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Reductions in anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns prospectively mitigate trauma symptom development.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 21;113:39-47. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, 1107, W. Call St, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Identifying a malleable pre-trauma risk marker for posttraumatic stress is crucial to preventing symptom development among at-risk individuals. One such candidate is anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), which represents the fear of psychological incapacitation due to anxious arousal. While the extant literature suggests that applying ASCC interventions prior to trauma exposure should mitigate development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), this has not been formally tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.007DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Emotional processing deficits in Italian children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder: The role of callous unemotional traits.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 20;113:32-38. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Australia.

Research suggests that callous unemotional (CU) traits are associated with poor emotion recognition due to impairments in attention to relevant emotional cues. To further investigate the mechanisms that underlie CU traits, this study focused on the relationship between levels of CU and children's attention to, and recognition of, facial emotions. Participants were 7- to 10-year-old Italian boys, 35 with a diagnosis of Disruptive Behavior Disorder (age: M = 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation does not affect attention to fearful faces in high worriers.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 19;113:25-31. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Leiden University, Clinical Psychology Unit, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2300, RB, Leiden, the Netherlands.

People suffering from chronic worries pay excessive attention to emotional information. In this study we examined whether a reduced ability to inhibit attention from fearful faces (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.009DOI Listing
February 2019
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Personalized normative feedback for heavy drinking: An application of deviance regulation theory.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 13;115:73-82. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

University of North Texas Health Science Center, USA.

Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) proposes that individuals regulate their behavior to be in line with the behaviors of others. Specifically, individuals desire to stand out in positive way and not stand out in a negative way. DRT has been successfully applied to encourage other health behaviors and offers a unique method to utilize both injunctive norms in combination with descriptive norms in brief alcohol interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Pathways to paranoia: Analytic thinking and belief flexibility.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 11;113:18-24. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, 1 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Delusions have been repeatedly linked to reduced engagement in analytic (i.e., conscious and effortful) reasoning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.006DOI Listing
February 2019
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The unique and conditional effects of interoceptive exposure in the treatment of anxiety: A functional analysis.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Boston University, 900 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, United States.

Interoceptive exposure (IE; exposure focused on anxiety about somatic sensations) is a well-established component of treatments for panic disorder (PD), but little is known about the specificity of its effects or individual response patterns resulting from this intervention. This study investigated the utility of IE in the treatment of PD with claustrophobia, examining its mechanisms in isolation and in combination with situational exposure. Ten adults with PD and claustrophobia were treated with a flexible single-case approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Real-time monitoring technology in single-case experimental design research: Opportunities and challenges.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA; Department of Psychology, Harvard University, USA.

Single-case experimental design (SCED) is a rigorous method of studying behavior and behavior change. A key characteristic of SCED is repeated, systematic assessment of outcome variables, which is critical to achieving high internal validity, collecting a sufficient number of observations to conduct adequately powered statistical analyses, capturing dynamic and fine-grained changes in outcomes, and tailoring interventions at the individual level. Recent advances in real-time monitoring technology, such as digital ecological momentary assessment, passive smartphone-based behavioral tracking, and physiological assessment with wearable biosensors, are extremely well-suited to conducting these repeated, systematic measurements. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.017DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Gain through pain: Augmenting in vivo exposure with enhanced attention to internal experience leads to increased resilience to distress.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 6;113:9-17. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, 91905, Israel.

Recent variants of exposure therapy ask clients to directly engage with the distress associated with avoided experiences in order to become more resilient to future anxiety-provoking situations. In this study, we consider how this engagement impacts behavioral willingness. Forty-eight participants with high fear of cockroaches completed in vivo exposures while either mindfully attending externally to the feared object (Ext), or to both the object and their internal distress (Int/Ext). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Poly-product drug use disparities in adolescents of lower socioeconomic status: Emerging trends in nicotine products, marijuana products, and prescription drugs.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 28;115:103-110. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University of Southern California, Department of Psychology, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, SGM 501, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA; University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Greater diversification of nicotine products, marijuana products, and prescription drugs have contributed to increasing trends in adolescent poly-product use-concurrent use of 2 or more drugs-within these drug classes (e.g., nicotine use via e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.014DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Feb 8;113:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Resilience following traumatic events has been studied using numerous methodologies. One approach involves quantifying lower-than-expected levels of a negative outcome following trauma exposure. Resilience research has examined personality and coping-related factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Single-case experimental designs. Evaluating interventions in research and clinical practice.

Authors:
Alan E Kazdin

Behav Res Ther 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT, 06520-8205, USA. Electronic address:

Single-case designs refer to a methodological approach that can be used to investigate the effectiveness of treatment with the individual client. The designs permit scientifically valid inferences to be drawn about the effects of treatment and hence offer advantages over alternative strategies such as the uncontrolled case study or open study that are used with the individual case. The present article discusses the key features of the methodology, illustrates specific designs and how inferences are drawn, and discusses critical issues (feasibility, generality of results, ethical issues) in the use of the designs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.015DOI Listing
December 2018
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Predictors of behavioral avoidance during respiratory symptom provocation.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 22;112:63-67. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Physiological and Clinical Psychology/ Psychotherapy, University of Greifswald, Franz-Mehring-Str. 47, 17487, Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

Excessive anxiety and avoidance during provocation of body symptoms are core features of anxiety-related disorders and might contribute to the development and maintenance of these disorders. Previous studies examined psychological (anxiety sensitivity, fear of suffocation and trait anxiety) and biobehavioral (breath-holding time) predictors of reported anxiety during symptom provocation. However, the role of these predictors on avoidance of feared body symptoms remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.012DOI Listing
January 2019
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The need for standards in the design of differential fear conditioning and extinction experiments in youth: A systematic review and recommendations for research on anxiety.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 20;112:42-62. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Australia. Electronic address:

Fear extinction studies in youth have yielded mixed results due to developmental processes and variations in design, methodology and dependent measures. This systematic review focused on studies with healthy youth between 2 and 17 years of age to identify experimental parameters of studies documenting extinction effects. Thirty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes emerged (a) some studies employed parameters and task demands that are complex and require active participant involvement whereas others involved simple stimulus configurations and passive participant involvement, and (b) variation exists among dependent measures in units of measurement, timing and type of measurement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.009DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Longer duration of smoking abstinence is associated with waning cessation fatigue.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 23;115:12-18. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Cancer Control, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Cessation fatigue, a construct theorized to reflect exhaustion of coping resources due to quitting smoking, has been found to predict relapse. This study examines the association between cessation fatigue and duration of abstinence among 1397 adult former smokers who participated in the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey (4CV). We hypothesized lower levels of cessation fatigue will be correlated with longer duration of abstinence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409126PMC
April 2019
6 Reads

Examining links between cannabis potency and mental and physical health outcomes.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 17;115:111-120. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, USA.

Cannabis use is associated with unwanted health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, poor sleep hygiene, and disrupted cognitive functioning. However, research to date has not been able to disentangle the complexities of these relations, leaving behavioral health service providers lacking clear direction for treatment. A limiting factor may be the common practices for cannabis use assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Statistical learning as a predictor of attention bias modification outcome: A preliminary study among socially anxious patients.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 22;112:36-41. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address:

Attention bias modification (ABM) is a novel therapy designed to modulate attentional biases towards threat typically observed among anxious individuals. Bias modification is allegedly achieved via extraction of a statistical regularity embedded within the treatment task. However, no prior study examined prediction of ABM therapeutic response in relation to patients' capacity to extract statistical properties from the environment, a capacity known as "statistical learning". Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.013DOI Listing
January 2019
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A randomized controlled trial of the judicious use of safety behaviors during exposure therapy.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 20;112:28-35. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Davie Hall, Campus Box 3270, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-3270, United States.

Safety behaviors-actions performed to prevent, escape from, or reduce the severity of perceived threat-are typically eliminated during exposure therapy for clinical anxiety. Yet some experts have called for the strategic and "judicious use" of safety behaviors during exposure to improve treatment acceptability/tolerability without diminishing its efficacy. Empirical findings regarding this debate are mixed and existing work is subject to several methodological limitations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.010DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

The effects of exercise on transdiagnostic treatment targets: A meta-analytic review.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 16;115:19-37. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology and Institute for Mental Health Research, The University of Texas at Austin, 305 E 23rd Street Stop E9000, Austin, TX, 78712-1043, USA.

Background: The present study meta-analytically reviewed the effects of exercise on four transdiagnostic treatment targets: anxiety sensitivity (AS), distress tolerance (DT), stress reactivity (SR), and general self-efficacy (GSE).

Methods: We conducted systematic searches of peer-reviewed studies in bibliographical databases (Cochrane Library, psychINFO, PubMed) before April 1, 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the effect of exercise on AS, DT, SR, or GSE using at least one validated outcome instrument in a sample of adolescents (≥13 years old) or adults were selected. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.007DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Heart rate variability biofeedback increases sexual arousal among women with female sexual arousal disorder: Results from a randomized-controlled trial.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 5;115:90-102. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Low resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with poor sexual arousal function in women. In a recent study, a single session of autogenic training increased HRV and facilitated improvements in both sexual arousal and perceived genital sensations among women experiencing decreased arousal. The current study expands upon these findings by examining the efficacy of HRV biofeedback, with and without autogenic training, as a treatment for sexual arousal dysfunction in an at-home setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.10.016DOI Listing
April 2019
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Self-critical perfectionism, experiential avoidance, and depressive and anxious symptoms over two years: A three-wave longitudinal study.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Jan 13;112:18-27. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital and McGill University, Canada.

This three-wave longitudinal study examined the relations among perfectionism, experiential avoidance, and depressive and anxious symptoms over two years. Community adults (N = 173) completed self-report questionnaires assessing two higher-order perfectionism dimensions (self-critical [SC], personal standards [PS]), neuroticism, experiential avoidance, and depressive and anxious symptoms at Time 1, Time 2 one year later, and Time 3 two years later. Cross-lagged path analyses demonstrated that SC perfectionism predicted increases in experiential avoidance from Time 1 to Time 2 and again from Time 2 to Time 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.11.006DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads