5,217 results match your criteria Behaviour Research and Therapy[Journal]


Cognitive control over emotional information in current and remitted depression.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 19;132:103658. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Cognitive theories of depression propose that difficulty exerting cognitive control over emotional information may be involved in the development, maintenance, and/or recurrence of depression. This study evaluated depression-related biases in three cognitive control functions, namely inhibition, working memory updating, and set shifting. Currently depressed (n = 53), remitted depressed (n = 55), and non-clinical control (n = 51) participants completed computer-based paradigms designed to measure inhibition, working memory updating, and set shifting, respectively, involving emotional stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103658DOI Listing

Visual attention to food cues and the course of anorexia nervosa.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 30;132:103649. Epub 2020 May 30.

University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, the Netherlands.

Previously, adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) showed reduced attentional engagement with food cues compared to adolescents without eating disorder (Jonker, Glashouwer, Hoekzema, Ostafin, & De Jong, 2019). This study tested whether (i) improvement in eating disorder symptoms and BMI are related to an increase in attentional engagement with food, and whether (ii) relatively low attentional engagement is related to persistent AN symptomatology, in the same sample of adolescents with AN (N = 69) from the study of Jonker et al. (2019). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103649DOI Listing

Perceived social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and youth in therapy: A parallel process latent growth curve model.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 1;132:103655. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Norway; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.

Many studies show that perceived social support protects against the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in the aftermath of trauma, but less is known about support in relation to PTSS in trauma therapy. This study examined associations between perceived social support and PTSS in children and adolescents during trauma therapy. Parallel process latent growth curve modeling was used to examine trajectories of perceived social support and PTSS over five measurement waves in a sample of 156 patients, aged between 10 and 18 years (M age = 15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103655DOI Listing

Induction of conditioned avoidance via mental imagery.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 1;132:103652. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

There is a growing interest on how mental imagery may be involved in the onset and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders. Here, we used an experimental design to investigate whether a key symptom across anxiety-related disorders, namely avoidance, can be induced via mental imagery. Healthy participants first learned that one neutral stimulus (A) was associated with a mild electric shock and two other neutral stimuli (B and C) were not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103652DOI Listing

Are avoidance biases in social anxiety due to biases in stimulus coding or in post-coding behavioral tendencies?

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 1;132:103656. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centre for the Advancement of Research on Emotion, School of Psychological Science, University of Western Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

On the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) high socially anxious (HSA) individuals exhibit increased behavioral avoidance of faces displaying emotional expressions. Two accounts could explain these findings: 1) HSA individuals have a heightened readiness to code faces in terms of emotionality, and all individuals behaviorally avoid faces coded as emotional (pre-behavior coding bias hypothesis), or 2) everyone is equally ready to code faces in terms of emotionality, but when faces are coded as emotional HSA have a heightened tendency to behaviorally avoid such stimuli (post coding behavioral bias hypothesis). To test these hypotheses, we created the Stimulus-Coding AAT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103656DOI Listing

The buffering effect of attentional control on the relationship between cognitive fusion and anxiety.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 29;132:103653. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Psychology, Auburn University, United States. Electronic address:

Cognitive fusion has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety. Evidence suggests that those with better attentional control may be able to flexibly shift attention from an internal to external focus, thus reducing contact with negative self-referent thoughts. As such, attentional control was examined as a moderator of the relation between cognitive fusion and anxiety in this two-part study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103653DOI Listing

Mnemonic discrimination in treatment-seeking adults with and without PTSD.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 22;131:103650. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, United States. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by overgeneralized emotional reactivity following a trauma. Similarities between current, safe contexts and past, threatening events trigger recurrent, distressing responses and can contribute to a host of symptoms, including reexperiencing and hypervigilance. Mnemonic discrimination, a component process of episodic memory, could promote overgeneralization when impaired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103650DOI Listing

The effects of positive interpretation bias on cognitive reappraisal and social performance: Implications for social anxiety disorder.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 22;131:103651. Epub 2020 May 22.

Dept. of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) lack non-socially anxious individuals' tendency to interpret ambiguous social information in a positively biased manner. To gain a better understanding of the specific in-vivo social consequences of positive interpretation bias, we recruited 38 individuals with SAD and 31 healthy controls (HC) to participate in an in-vivo social task. We tested whether a positive interpretation bias, measured using a sentence completion task, might confer benefits for the adaptive emotion regulation strategy of cognitive reappraisal, and whether such benefits depended on participants' emotional states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103651DOI Listing

Reciprocal effects between cognitive and affective states in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 8;131:103613. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Research Group Longitudinal and Intervention Research, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany. Electronic address:

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is characterized by cyclical mood changes resulting in clinically significant distress and functional impairment. Studies on momentary cognitive and affective states and their interplay during daily life over the menstrual cycle in affected women are still lacking. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment with electronic diaries, 61 women with current PMDD and 61 healthy control women reported their current mood, rumination, and self-acceptance eight times a day over two consecutive days per cycle phase (menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, and late luteal phase). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103613DOI Listing

The search for mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy for alcohol or other drug use disorders: A systematic review.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 16;131:103648. Epub 2020 May 16.

Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

The emphasis in addictions research has shifted toward a greater interest in identifying the mechanisms involved in patient behavior change. This systematic review investigated nearly 30 years of mediation research on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol or other drug use disorders (AUD/SUD).

Method: Study inclusion criteria targeted analyses occurring in the context of a randomized clinical trial where both intervention/intervention ingredient to mediator (a path) and mediator to outcome (b path) paths were reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329023PMC

Measures of adherence as predictors of early and total weight loss with intensive behavioral therapy for obesity combined with liraglutide 3.0 mg.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 13;131:103639. Epub 2020 May 13.

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, Philadelphia, PA, USA; University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Individual weight loss outcomes with intensive behavioral therapy (IBT) for obesity are variable. The present study assessed whether visit attendance, dietary self-monitoring, medication, and meal-replacement adherence were associated with 52-week weight loss with IBT and tested whether these relationships were independent of associations with early weight loss. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in which 150 participants (76. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103639DOI Listing

Fear in the context of pain: Lessons learned from 100 years of fear conditioning research.

Authors:
Ann Meulders

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 30;131:103635. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Research Group Health Psychology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Experimental Health Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Human fear conditioning research since Watson's case study on "Little Albert" has vastly evolved and its impact today is reaching far beyond phobic anxiety. This review focuses on how fear conditioning research, mainly using exteroceptive conditioned stimuli (CSs) and aversive, non-noxious stimuli as unconditioned stimuli (USs), has been extended and translated to chronic pain research. We describe the different pain-related fear conditioning paradigms using proprioceptive and interoceptive CSs and painful stimuli as USs that have been developed to study specific forms of pain-related fear (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103635DOI Listing

Changing the future: An initial test of Future Specificity Training (FeST).

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 7;131:103638. Epub 2020 May 7.

Psychology and Neuroscience of Cognition Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Liège, Belgium and Fonds de La Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium.

A range of psychiatric disorders are characterised by impairments in episodic future thinking (EFT), and particularly simulating specific, spatiotemporally-located future events. No study has examined whether training can lead to sustained improvement in specific EFT. In this study, participants (N = 60; M age = 31, SD = 13. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103638DOI Listing

Double trouble: Do symptom severity and duration interact to predicting treatment outcomes in adolescent depression?

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 29;131:103637. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Studies suggest that depression severity and duration interact to predict outcomes in depression treatment. To our knowledge, no study has explored this question in a sample with a placebo control, two therapies, and their combination nor with adolescents. We used data from the Treatment of Adolescent Depression Study (N = 439), in which adolescent were randomized to placebo (PBO), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressants medications (MEDs), or their combination (COMB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103637DOI Listing

Executive control under stress: Relation to reappraisal ability and depressive symptoms.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 28;131:103634. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Depression is characterized by difficulties regulating emotions, which may result from executive control impairment. For some individuals, stress exposure leads to executive control impairment. The current study examined whether executive control measured under conditions of acute stress is associated with reappraisal ability and prospectively predicts symptoms of depression during a stressful time of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103634DOI Listing

Threat rapidly disrupts reward reversal learning.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 29;131:103636. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany. Electronic address:

Threat changes cognition and facilitates adaptive coping. However, when threat becomes overwhelming, it may be deleterious to mental health, especially for vulnerable individuals. Flexible decision-making was probed with a reward reversal task to investigate how well healthy participants (N = 34) can adapt to changes in reward contingency when they expect adverse events (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103636DOI Listing

Attention and affect in dysphoria: Insights from startle reflex modulation and cardiac deceleration.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 28;131:103626. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Via Venezia 8, 35131, Padua, Italy; Padova Neuroscience Center (PNC), University of Padua, Via Orus 2/B, 35131, Padua, Italy.

The present study investigated the interplay between attention and affective disposition during emotional processing in dysphoria. Attentional and affective startle modulation and cardiac deceleration were assessed during the viewing of emotional pictures in 38 individuals with dysphoria and in 52 controls. Startle probes during picture viewing were presented at 300, 1500, 3500, 4500 ms after picture onset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103626DOI Listing

Feasibility of decision rule-based treatment of comorbid youth: A pilot randomized control trial.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 19;131:103625. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a decision rule driven treatment for youth with comorbid conduct problems and depression. A randomized, controlled, repeated measures design was used to compare two treatment approaches: Decision-Rule Based Treatment (DR) and Sequential Treatment (SEQ). Participants included 30 children (ages 8-14; 66% female; 80% Caucasian) who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder and/or dysthymia) and a conduct problem disorder (oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103625DOI Listing

A review on how stress modulates fear conditioning: Let's not forget the role of sex and sex hormones.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 10;129:103615. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Research Center, Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 Hochelaga Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H1N 3J4; Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, Université de Montréal, 2900 Édouard-Montpetit Boulevard, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3T 1J4; Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, 100 Sherbrooke Street W, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H2X 2P3. Electronic address:

Stress and fear are two fields of research that have evolved simultaneously. It was not until the eighties that these domains converged in order to better characterize the impact of stress on fear memory formation. Here, we reviewed the effects of stress occurring before fear acquisition on the main phases of fear conditioning protocols (acquisition training, extinction training, extinction retention test), with a specific focus on sex and sex hormones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103615DOI Listing

No robust differences in fear conditioning between patients with fear-related disorders and healthy controls.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 29;129:103610. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Fear conditioning and extinction serve as a dominant model for the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety, particularly for phasic fear to specific stimuli or situations. The validity of this model would be supported by differences in the physiological or subjective fear response between patients with fear-related disorders and healthy controls, whereas the model's validity would be questioned by a lack of such differences. We derived pupillometry, skin conductance response and startle electromyography as well as unconditioned stimulus expectancy in a two-day fear acquisition, immediate extinction and recall task and compared an unmedicated group of patients (n = 73) with phobias or panic disorder and a group of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 21) to a group of carefully screened healthy controls (n = 35). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103610DOI Listing

The importance of implementation science in scaling up psychological treatments.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jul 5;130:103614. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Sinai Health and University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103614DOI Listing

Repetitive negative thinking following exposure to a natural stressor prospectively predicts altered stress responding and decision-making in the laboratory.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 27;129:103609. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, 5665 Ponce de Leon Blvd, Coral Gables, FL, 33146, USA. Electronic address:

Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) represents a transdiagnostic risk factor for affective disorders, and stress is theorized to exacerbate this vulnerability. One mechanism by which stress may influence individual differences in psychiatric symptoms is through altered decision-making, and loss aversion in particular. The present study uses multiple methods to investigate the relationships between RNT, stress, and decision-making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103609DOI Listing

Cognitive-behavioural therapy and personalized treatment: An introduction to the special issue.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 24;129:103595. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103595DOI Listing

Outcomes, skill acquisition, and the alliance: Similarities and differences between clinical trial and student therapists.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 24;129:103608. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

The Ohio State University, Department of Psychology, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Considerable evidence from clinical trials supports the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) of depression. Less is known about outcomes when provided in other contexts, such as when provided by student therapists. We conducted a non-randomized comparison of student therapists vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329568PMC

Changes in functional connectivity with cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder predict outcomes at follow-up.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 29;129:103612. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, University of California, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1563, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Electronic address:

Approximately half of individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) treated with psychological intervention do not achieve clinically significant improvement or retain long-term gains. Neurobiological models of SAD propose that disruptions in functioning of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry is implicated in short-term treatment response. However, whether treatment-related changes in functional connectivity predict long-term well-being after psychotherapy is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329578PMC

How and for whom does supportive adjustment to multiple sclerosis cognitive-behavioural therapy work? A mediated moderation analysis.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 22;128:103594. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

King's College London, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. Electronic address:

The supportive adjustment for multiple sclerosis (saMS) randomised controlled trial showed cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced distress at 12-months compared to supportive listening (SL). Larger changes in distress and functional impairment following CBT occurred in participants with clinical distress at baseline. This secondary analysis investigates whether CBT treatment effects occur through pre-defined CBT mechanisms of change in the total cohort and clinically distressed subgroup. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103594DOI Listing

The effects of age and trait anxiety on avoidance learning and its generalization.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 27;129:103611. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

School of Psychological Sciences and the Integrated Brain and Behavior Research Center, University of Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:

Avoidance is an important self-protective behavior, but excessive avoidance is maladaptive and a core feature of anxiety disorders. Given that several of these disorders emerge in adolescence, maladaptive avoidance learning might be a risk factor in subsequent psychopathology. The current study investigated the effects of age and trait anxiety on avoidance learning and related processes. Read More

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Initial evidence for pharmacological modulation of observational threat learning by the GABAergic, but not the noradrenergic system in humans.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 18;129:103605. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Threat responses are often shaped by social information, such as observation of aversive outcomes for others. Yet, the neurochemistry regulating observational learning of threats is largely unknown. Here, we examined the impact of the GABAergic and noradrenergic system, which are central in regulating threat learning from first-hand experiences, on observational threat learning in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103605DOI Listing

Mind-body treatments of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: An updated meta-analysis.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 12;128:103462. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, USA. Electronic address:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a widespread chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder having bidirectional comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on psychological treatment of IBS, focusing on symptom severity rather than IBS diagnostic criteria. We chose this dimensional approach in order to assess mind-body effects as an alternative or complement to conventional medical treatment, which focuses on symptom relief. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.103462DOI Listing

Neurocognitive processes in d-cycloserine augmented single-session exposure therapy for anxiety: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 19;129:103607. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Drugs targeting N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the ability to learn new associations have been proposed as adjunct treatments to boost the success of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. However, the effects of the NMDA partial agonist d-cycloserine on psychological treatment have been mixed. We investigated potential neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of d-cycloserine-augmented exposure, to inform the optimal combination of this and similar agents with psychological treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103607DOI Listing

Costly avoidance triggered by categorical fear generalization.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 18;129:103606. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology (Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Center of Mental Health, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Fear generalization refers to the spread of acquired fear to novel stimuli that resemble the original fear-related stimulus. Preliminary evidence suggests that excessive fear generalization is a pathogenic feature of anxiety disorders, however, it remains unclear how fear generalization affects pathological avoidance. The current study thus aimed to examine the link between categorical fear generalization and costly avoidance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103606DOI Listing

Guided internet interventions for depression: impact of sociodemographic factors on treatment outcome in Indonesia.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jul 4;130:103589. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Meibergdreef 5, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, but an alarming treatment gap exists, especially in lower- and middle income countries (LMIC), where people are exposed to many societal and sociodemographic risk factors. As internet access increases in LMIC, online interventions could decrease this gap, especially when shown suitable for all demographics, including vulnerable groups with low socioeconomic status (SES). We used mixed-model analysis to explore moderating effects of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education level, SES and urbanicity) on treatment effect in a recent trial in Indonesia, comparing guided online behavioral activation versus online psychoeducation only for depression, in 313 participants from (sub)urban areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103589DOI Listing

Worry alters speed-accuracy tradeoffs but does not impair sustained attention.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 29;128:103597. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, USA; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, USA.

Worry has been experimentally linked to a range of cognitive consequences, including impairments in working memory, inhibition, and cognitive control. However, findings are mixed, and the effects of worry on other phenomenologically-relevant constructs, such as sustained attention, have received less attention. Potential confounds such as speed-accuracy tradeoffs have also received little attention, as have psychometric and related design considerations, and potential moderators beyond trait worry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103597DOI Listing

Posttraumatic stress, stressor controllability, and avoidance.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 19;128:103591. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that overgeneralized beliefs involving lack of control are important to development and maintenance of the disorder. In the absence of a strong evidence base regarding controllability in PTSD, we examined whether PTSD was associated with increased sensitivity to alterations in controllability over stressful stimuli. Participants with (PTSD+, n = 113) and without (PTSD-, n = 115) symptoms were recruited from a crowdsourcing platform and randomized to receive either Controllable aversive noise, Uncontrollable aversive noise, or No noise before completing a subsequent aversive noise task in which all participants lost control over aversive noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103591DOI Listing

Blended care in the treatment of subthreshold symptoms of depression and psychosis in emerging adults: A randomised controlled trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Daily-Life (ACT-DL).

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 22;128:103592. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Neurosciences, Center for Contextual Psychiatry (CCP), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

In this study, the feasibility and efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Daily Life (ACT-DL), ACT augmented with a daily life application, was investigated in 55 emerging adults (age 16 to 25) with subthreshold depressive and/or psychotic complaints. Participants were randomized to ACT-DL (n = 27) or to active control (n = 28), with assessments completed at pre- and post-measurement and 6- and 12-months follow-up. It took up to five (ACT-DL) and 11 (control) months to start group-based interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103592DOI Listing

Empathy does not amplify vicarious threat learning.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 10;127:103577. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Bronx, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Clinically significant fears and phobias can be acquired vicariously. Witnessing another person's defensive reactions to potentially dangerous objects and situations can instill conditioned threat responses in the observer. The present study investigated individual differences in this social learning process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103577DOI Listing

Identifying the presence and timing of discrete mood states prior to therapy.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 27;128:103596. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

University of California, Berkeley, USA.

The present study tested a novel, person-specific method for identifying discrete mood profiles from time-series data, and examined the degree to which these profiles could be predicted by lagged mood and anxiety variables and time-based variables, including trends (linear, quadratic, cubic), cycles (12-hr, 24-hr, and 7-day), day of the week, and time of day. We analyzed ambulatory data from 45 individuals with mood and anxiety disorders prior to therapy. Data were collected four-times-daily for at least 30 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103596DOI Listing

Special issue on childhood factors influencing the development of psychopathology.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 21;127:103593. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Macquarie University, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103593DOI Listing

BRAT special issue editorial.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 18;127:103590. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

University of Houston, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103590DOI Listing

Revisiting classical conditioning as a model for anxiety disorders: A conceptual analysis and brief review.

Authors:
Jan De Houwer

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 20;127:103558. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

For almost a century now, conditioning research has provided important insights in the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, doubts were raised about whether anxiety disorders are related to conditioning. In this paper, I focus on distinguishing different claims about the relation between anxiety disorders and conditioning as well as ways of evaluating the merits of these claims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103558DOI Listing

Reflecting on rumination: Consequences, causes, mechanisms and treatment of rumination.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 31;127:103573. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

School of Psychology, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.

We review research showing that rumination has multiple negative consequences: (a) exacerbating psychopathology by magnifying and prolonging negative mood states, interfering with problem-solving and instrumental behaviour and reducing sensitivity to changing contingencies; (b) acting as a transdiagnostic mental health vulnerability impacting anxiety, depression, psychosis, insomnia, and impulsive behaviours; (c) interfering with therapy and limiting the efficacy of psychological interventions; (d) exacerbating and maintaining physiological stress responses. The mechanisms underlying rumination are examined, and a model (H-EX-A-GO-N - Habit development, EXecutive control, Abstract processing, GOal discrepancies, Negative bias) is proposed to account for the onset and maintenance of rumination. H-EX-A-GO-N outlines how rumination results from dwelling on problematic goals developing into a learnt habit that involves the tendency to process negative information in an abstract way, particularly in the context of poor executive control and negative information-processing biases. Read More

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Mental imagery in generalized anxiety disorder: A comparison with healthy control participants.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 28;127:103571. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Département de Psychoéducation et de Psychologie, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada.

Mental imagery plays a prominent role across psychopathology. However, its quality and role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have not been examined as extensively as in other disorders. The goal of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of general imagery processes and individual differences in people with GAD. Read More

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Psychophysiological modelling and the measurement of fear conditioning.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 10;127:103576. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Computational Psychiatry Research, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University of Zurich, Lenggstrasse 31, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Quantification of fear conditioning is paramount to many clinical and translational studies on aversive learning. Various measures of fear conditioning co-exist, including different observables and different methods of pre-processing. Here, we first argue that low measurement error is a rational desideratum for any measurement technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078750PMC

Linking inhibition and anxiety symptoms following sleep restriction: The moderating role of prior sleep efficiency.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Apr 4;127:103575. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Vanderbilt University, USA.

Although sleep loss increases state anxiety, the effects of partial sleep restriction on specific anxiety symptoms and mechanisms that may influence this relation remain unknown. It is also unknown whether prior sleep buffers the impact of sleep restriction on anxiety symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the relations between inhibition and repetitive negative thinking (RNT), obsessions, and other OCD symptoms following sleep restriction and the moderating role of prior night's sleep efficiency. Read More

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Measuring the implementation strength of a perinatal mental health intervention delivered by peer volunteers in rural Pakistan.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jul 31;130:103559. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Human Development Research Foundation, Pakistan; Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The South Asian region, including Pakistan, reports one of the highest rates of perinatal depression. Effective task-shifting perinatal mental health interventions exist and are gaining attention of policy makers, as a potential solution to bridge the existing treatment gap. However, no specific indicators are available to gauge the level of implementation for such interventions in the South Asian region. Read More

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Beliefs about losing control, obsessions, and caution: An experimental investigation.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Mar 30;126:103574. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Psychology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H4B 1R6, Canada. Electronic address:

Fear of acting on unwanted impulses (e.g., stabbing a loved one) and avoidance of threatening stimuli (e. Read More

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How well do hoarding research samples represent cases that rise to community attention?

Behav Res Ther 2020 Mar 17;126:103555. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Institute of Living, Hartford, Connecticut and Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, CT, USA.

This study used archival data from three different research groups and case file data from three independent community organizations to explore how well research samples reflect cases of hoarding that come to community attention. Using data from 824 individuals with hoarding, we found that research volunteers differ from community clients in several ways: community clients are older, more likely to be male and less likely to be partnered; they have lower socio-economic status and are less likely to demonstrate good or fair insight regarding hoarding severity and consequences. The homes of community clients had greater clutter volume and were more likely to have problematic conditions in the home, including squalor and fire hazards or fire safety concerns. Read More

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Evidence for trial-by-trial dynamic adjustment of task control in unmedicated adults with OCD.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Mar 25;126:103572. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

According to the conflict monitoring theory, executive control requires two separable processes: conflict-monitoring and conflict-resolution. Deficits in executive control have been observed in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is not yet clear whether these deficits can be attributed to deficits in conflict-monitoring, in conflict-resolution, or in both. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097911PMC

The role of attentional deployment during distancing in adolescents with major depression.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Mar 20;126:103554. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Individuals with major depression (MD) show deficits in cognitive reappraisal. It is yet unexplored how the act of directing visual attention away from/towards emotional aspects impacts on cognitive reappraisal in MD. Thus, we examined the role of attentional deployment during cognitive reappraisal (specifially during distancing) in adolescent MD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103554DOI Listing

Schema modes as a common mechanism of change in personality pathology and functioning: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Mar 16;126:103553. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to empirically test whether schema modes are central to the change process in schema therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy, and treatment as usual, i.e., predictive of personality pathology, and global and social-occupational functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103553DOI Listing