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    4880 results match your criteria Behaviour Research and Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 98

    Subjective sleep disturbances are associated with intrinsic motivation toward sleep-related thinking.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Nov 13;100:30-36. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Read More

    A return to the psychiatric dark ages with a two-system framework for fear.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Nov 9;100:24-29. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
    The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. Read More

    The influence of maternal modeling on body image concerns and eating disturbances in preadolescent girls.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Nov 6;100:17-23. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, 2109, Australia. Electronic address:
    Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Read More

    The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. Read More

    Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    The Ohio State University, United States.
    This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. Read More

    Avoidance in posttraumatic stress among refugee survivors of violent conflict and atrocities: Testing trans-cultural risk processes and candidate intervention targets.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 21;99:157-163. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    University of Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:
    Background: A fast-growing population of refugees and survivors of violent conflict and atrocities are at risk for trauma-related mental health problems. Experimental clinical research key to the development of interventions tailored to this population is limited.

    Aims: In an experimental psychopathology laboratory paradigm, we tested the expression and function of avoidance in posttraumatic stress (PTS) among a highly traumatized community sample of forcibly displaced refugees seeking asylum. Read More

    A brighter future: The effect of positive episodic simulation on future predictions in non-depressed, moderately dysphoric & highly dysphoric individuals.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 26;100:7-16. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Psychology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hull, UK. Electronic address:
    Previous research suggests depressed individuals have difficulties with future directed cognitions. For instance, compared with non-depressed individuals, they predict positive events are less likely to occur. Recent work suggests that episodic simulation of positive futures may represent a useful strategy for improving prospective predictions. Read More

    Major depression prevention effects for a cognitive-behavioral adolescent indicated prevention group intervention across four trials.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 31;100:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, USA.
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) in young people is a leading cause of disability but most depressed youth are not treated, emphasizing the need for effective prevention. Our goal is to synthesize MDD onset prevention effects for the Blues Program, a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) indicated prevention group, by merging data from four trials (three of which included CB bibliotherapy) and conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data were available from 766 high school/college students (M age = 16. Read More

    Dismantling Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Creation and validation of 8-week focused attention and open monitoring interventions within a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Cogut Center for the Humanities, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.
    Background: While mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) employ two distinct practices, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM), the integrated delivery of these practices in MBIs precludes understanding of their practice-specific effects or mechanisms of action. The purpose of this study is to isolate hypothesized active ingredients and practice-specific mechanistic target engagement by creating structurally equivalent interventions that differ only by the active ingredient (meditation practice) offered and to test whether the hypothesized components differentially engage the mechanistic targets that they are purported to engage.

    Methods: Participants were intended to be representative of American meditators and had mild to severe affective disturbances. Read More

    A randomised controlled trial investigating the benefits of adaptive working memory training for working memory capacity and attentional control in high worriers.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, United Kingdom.
    The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. Read More

    A cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention improves behavior problems in at-risk adolescents by improving perceived sleep quality.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 12;99:147-156. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 12th Floor Redmond Barry Building, Parkville Campus, Melbourne, 3010, VIC Australia; Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, 97403, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve behavior problems in at-risk adolescents, and whether these improvements were specifically related to improvements in sleep.

    Method: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48, range 12. Read More

    The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on implicit self-esteem is mediated by rumination after criticism.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 21;99:138-146. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, University Hospital Ghent University, Belgium; Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium; Ghent Experimental Psychiatry (GHEP) Lab, Ghent University, Belgium.
    It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. Read More

    The mediating role of changes in harm beliefs and coping efficacy in youth with specific phobias.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 18;99:131-137. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Individuals with specific phobias (SPs) often experience catastrophic cognitions and compromised efficacy regarding their ability to cope when in the presence of the phobic object/situation. In the current study, 165 children (7-16 years; 62% male) received either One Session Treatment or Educational Support Therapy for their SP. The children identified their feared belief and rated "how bad" it was, "how likely" it was to occur, and their ability to cope if it did occur. Read More

    Brief training in mindfulness meditation reduces symptoms in patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history of depression: A randomized controlled study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 12;99:124-130. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Freie Universität Berlin, Dahlem Center for Neuroimaging of Emotions, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. Read More

    The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, 1603 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States.
    Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Read More

    Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. Read More

    Targeting self-regulation to promote health behaviors in children.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:
    Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Read More

    Direction of stimulus movement alters fear-linked individual differences in attentional vigilance to spider stimuli.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 13;99:117-123. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Centre for the Advancement of Research on Emotion, School of Psychological Science, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    Researchers have proposed that high spider-fearful individuals are characterised by heightened attentional vigilance to spider stimuli, as compared to low spider-fearful individuals. However, these findings have arisen from methodologies that have uniformly employed only static stimuli. Such findings do not inform upon the patterns of fear-linked attentional selectivity that occur in the face of moving feared stimuli. Read More

    A randomized clinical trial examining the effects of an anxiety sensitivity intervention on insomnia symptoms: Replication and extension.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 5;99:108-116. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, USA. Electronic address:
    Insomnia disorder is impairing and prevalent, particularly among individuals with comorbid anxiety disorders. Despite the availability of effective computerized treatments for insomnia, there are few that target both insomnia as well as co-occurring anxiety symptoms. The current study tests the efficacy of a computerized treatment for anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, a transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety, mood, and insomnia symptoms, against a repeated contact control, on reducing insomnia symptoms. Read More

    A systematic review of the inclusion of mechanisms of action in NIH-funded intervention trials to improve medication adherence.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W. 168th Street, New York, NY, United States.
    Medication nonadherence contributes to morbidity/mortality, but adherence interventions yield small and inconsistent effects. Understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation and maintenance of adherence could improve interventions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) support adherence research, but it is unclear whether existing NIH-funded research incorporates mechanisms. Read More

    Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    The Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i. Read More

    Moving towards the benign: Automatic interpretation bias modification in dysphoria.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 21;99:98-107. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    University of South Florida, Psychology Department, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, PCD4118G, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Electronic address:
    Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training. Read More

    Improving the efficiency of psychological treatment using outcome feedback technology.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 28;99:89-97. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Aims: This study evaluated the impact of applying computerized outcome feedback (OF) technology in a stepped care psychological service offering low and high intensity therapies for depression and anxiety.

    Methods: A group of therapists were trained to use OF based on routine outcome monitoring using depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures. Therapists regularly reviewed expected treatment response graphs with patients and discussed cases that were "not on track" in clinical supervision. Read More

    Altered appetitive conditioning in overweight and obese women.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 22;99:78-88. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Overweight and obese individuals show increased psychological and physiological reactivity to food cues and many of them have difficulties in achieving long-term weight loss. The current study tests whether abnormalities in the learning and extinction of appetitive responses to food cues might be responsible for this. Overweight/obese and healthy weight women completed a differential appetitive conditioning task using food as rewards, while eating expectancies, eating desires, conditioned stimulus evaluations, salivation, and electrodermal responses were assessed during an acquisition and extinction phase. Read More

    A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional bias: An eye-tracking study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 18;99:67-77. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Westfield State University, United States.
    The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. Read More

    Hostile interpretation training for individuals with alcohol use disorder and elevated trait anger: A controlled trial of a web-based intervention.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 19;99:57-66. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States.
    High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Read More

    Attentional control predicts change in bias in response to attentional bias modification.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 11;99:47-56. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Centre for the Advancement of Research on Emotion, School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Australia; School Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Procedures that effectively modify attentional bias to negative information have been examined for their potential to be a source of therapeutic change in emotional vulnerability. However, the degree to which these procedures modify attentional bias is subject to individual differences. This generates the need to understand the mechanisms that influence attentional bias change across individuals. Read More

    Rebuttal of Atkins et al. (2017) critique of the Öst (2014) meta-analysis of ACT.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct;97:273-281
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Atkins et al. strongly criticize my (Öst, 2014) systematic review and meta-analysis of ACT. The bulk of their re-examination of my article is divided into four parts: a) Selection of studies, b) Ratings of methodological quality, c) Meta-analysis, and d) Judgments of quality of evidence. Read More

    A randomized controlled evaluation of a secondary school mindfulness program for early adolescents: Do we have the recipe right yet?
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 6;99:37-46. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    School of Psychology, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.
    Objective: Mindfulness is being promoted in schools as a prevention program despite a current small evidence base. The aim of this research was to conduct a rigorous evaluation of the .b ("Dot be") mindfulness curriculum, with or without parental involvement, compared to a control condition. Read More

    Social anxiety in pre-adolescent children: What do we know about maintenance?
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 1;99:19-36. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, UK.
    The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited. Read More

    Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 26;99:11-18. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Aarhus University Hospital, Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Skovagervej 2, Indgang 81, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant. Executive functions (EF) have been suggested to constitute such predictors, but studies with pediatric samples are scarce. Read More

    The relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational characteristics and use of evidence-based and non-evidence-based therapy strategies in a public mental health system.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Dec 25;99:1-10. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Pennsylvania, 3701 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    We investigated the relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational factors and clinician use of therapy strategies within a system-wide effort to increase the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Data from 247 clinicians in 28 child-serving organizations were collected. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice training initiatives were more likely to report using cognitive-behavioral therapy when they endorsed more clinical experience, being salaried clinicians, and more openness to evidence-based practice. Read More

    Accounting for the impact of parent internalizing symptoms on Parent Training benefits: The role of positive parenting.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 23;97:252-258. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Child Youth and Family Service, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, 80 Workman Way, M6J 1H4 Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
    Parent Training (PT) is not as effective for parents with histories of internalizing symptoms as it is for other parents. This study aimed to determine which dimensions of parenting, notably parenting efficacy, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline, and poor supervision, mediate the association between parent lifetime internalizing symptoms and post-PT child emotional and behavioral difficulties. One hundred fourteen parents (82% biological mothers) of children aged 9-12 years received PT at an urban children's mental health clinic. Read More

    Parent-child interactions in children with asthma and anxiety.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 31;97:242-251. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children with asthma yet very little is known about the parenting factors that may underlie this relationship. The aim of the current study was to examine observed parenting behaviours - involvement and negativity - associated with asthma and anxiety in children using the tangram task and the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS). Eighty-nine parent-child dyads were included across four groups of children (8-13 years old): asthma and anxiety, anxiety only, asthma only and healthy controls. Read More

    Insomnia identity.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 10;97:230-241. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    University of Alabama, United States. Electronic address:
    Insomnia identity refers to the conviction that one has insomnia, and this sleep complaint can be measured independently of sleep. Conventional wisdom predicts that sleep complaints are synchronous with poor sleep, but crossing the presence or absence of poor sleep with the presence or absence of insomnia identity reveals incongruity with expected patterns. This review of existing research on insomnia identity processes and influence finds that about one-fourth of the population are uncoupled sleepers, meaning there is an uncoupling of sleep and sleep appraisal, and daytime impairment accrues more strongly to those who endorse an insomnia identity. Read More

    Optimizing trauma-informed intervention for intimate partner violence in veterans: The role of alexithymia.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 14;97:222-229. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    National Center for PTSD, Boston, MA, USA.
    Recent research supports the efficacy of Strength at Home-Men's Program (SAH-M), a trauma-informed group intervention designed to reduce use of intimate partner violence (IPV) in veterans (Taft, Macdonald, Creech, Monson, & Murphy, 2016). However, change-processes facilitating the effectiveness of SAH-M have yet to be specified. Alexithymia, a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotional experience characterized by difficulty identifying and distinguishing between feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and use of an externally oriented thinking style, has been shown to predict PTSD severity and impulsive aggression; however, no studies have investigated the relationship between alexithymia and IPV. Read More

    A network analysis investigation of the cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 7;97:213-221. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Eating Disorders Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, United States.
    Network analysis has recently been introduced as a clinically relevant methodology for understanding the structure of mental disorders and for evaluating cognitive behavioral models of psychopathology. The current study uses network analysis to validate the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders by examining the association between overvaluation of shape and weight and eating disorder symptoms. Eating disorder symptoms were measured among a sample of 194 treatment-seeking children, adolescents, and adults presenting to an outpatient eating disorder clinic. Read More

    Acceptance-based interoceptive exposure for young children with functional abdominal pain.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 29;97:200-212. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, United States.
    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Read More

    Patient recall of specific cognitive therapy contents predicts adherence and outcome in adults with major depressive disorder.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 10;97:189-199. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, United States. Electronic address:
    The current study examined whether and which specific contents of patients' memory for cognitive therapy (CT) were associated with treatment adherence and outcome. Data were drawn from a pilot RCT of forty-eight depressed adults, who received either CT plus Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Patients' memory for treatment was measured using the Patient Recall Task and responses were coded into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) codes, such as CBT Model and Cognitive Restructuring, and non-CBT codes, such as individual coping strategies and no code. Read More

    Avoidance and depression vulnerability: An examination of avoidance in remitted and currently depressed individuals.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 27;97:183-188. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Behavioral theories posit that depression is characterized by heightened levels of avoidance, and recent research has supported this notion. Whether avoidance persists after remission from depression is unknown, however. In this study, we investigated levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance in remitted, currently, and never depressed individuals. Read More

    Dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions as a mediator of symptom reduction in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with children and adolescents: Results of a randomized controlled trial.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 4;97:178-182. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Ulm University, Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy, Steinhövelstr. 1, 89075 Ulm, Germany. Electronic address:
    Objective: To investigate whether the change in dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) during Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a mediator of posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) reduction in a sample of children and adolescents.

    Method: A bootstrap mediation analysis was performed to investigate the indirect effect of dysfunctional PTC on treatment outcome in a recently completed RCT study with children and adolescents (n = 123; 7-17 years old) that investigated the effectiveness of TF-CBT.

    Results: The mediation model revealed that changes in dysfunctional PTC mediated the relationship between the group (TF-CBT vs. Read More

    Altered interaction with environmental reinforcers in major depressive disorder: Relationship to anhedonia.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 3;97:170-177. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. Electronic address:
    Anhedonia-defined as loss of interest or pleasure-is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers-activities with the potential to be positive experiences-is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Read More

    Do parental ADHD symptoms reduce the efficacy of parent training for preschool ADHD? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 4;97:163-169. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    New York University School of Medicine, United States.
    Previous studies have suggested that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may benefit less from behavioral parent training (BPT) if their parents have high levels of ADHD symptoms. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that parental ADHD symptoms reduce the efficacy of two BPT programs in a sample of preschoolers with ADHD. One intervention was specifically designed for children with ADHD (NFPP: New Forest Parenting Programme) and one was designed for children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) (HNC: Helping the Noncompliant Child). Read More

    Time to remission from mild to moderate depressive symptoms: One year results from the EVIDENT-study, an RCT of an internet intervention for depression.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 21;97:154-162. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Background: Internet interventions are effective in treating depressive symptoms but few studies conducted a long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an internet intervention in increasing the remission rate over a twelve months period.

    Methods: A total of 1013 participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were randomized to either care as usual alone or a 12-week internet intervention (Deprexis) plus usual care. Read More

    Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom severity among individuals with PTSD: An ecological momentary assessment study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 27;97:146-153. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, 1107 W. Call St., Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4301, USA. Electronic address:
    Recent research has highlighted the etiological role of sleep disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however it is currently unknown how daily changes in sleep are associated with next-day PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, sleep is critical for maintaining appropriate affect, leading some to hypothesize that affective dysfunction may account for the link between sleep disturbances and PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested the relationship between sleep disturbances, affective valence, and PTSD symptoms utilizing an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design among individuals with PTSD (n=30) who participated in 4 EMA-based assessments daily over 8 days. Read More

    Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 17;97:134-145. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Child Study Center, Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Anxiety disorders are among the most common disorders affecting youths in the general population, with up to 10% of children and 20% of adolescents meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at any one point in time. Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT), varying between 9 and 18 weeks of treatment, are considered evidence-based for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. During the last two decades treatments that are brief, intensive, or concentrated (BIC) have been developed and this meta-analysis includes 23 RCTs of these new approaches across the anxiety disorders. Read More

    Perseverate or decenter? Differential effects of metacognition on the relationship between parasympathetic inflexibility and symptoms of depression in a multi-wave study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 17;97:123-133. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Temple University, United States.
    Depression often is characterized by inflexible autonomic and metacognitive processes that interfere with effective self-regulation. However, few studies have integrated these factors to improve the prediction of which individuals are at greatest risk for depression. Among 134 undergraduates, we evaluated whether parasympathetic inflexibility (a lack of reduction in respiratory sinus arrhythmia) in response to a sadness induction involving loss would prospectively predict symptoms of depression across four waves of follow-up over twelve weeks. Read More

    Reality monitoring performance and the role of visual imagery in visual hallucinations.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 20;97:115-122. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    School of Psychology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: Auditory Hallucinations may arise from people confusing their own inner speech with external spoken speech. People with visual hallucinations (VH) may similarly confuse vivid mental imagery with external events. This paper reports two experiments exploring confusion between internal and external visual material. Read More

    Attentional avoidance of threats in obsessive compulsive disorder: An event related potential study.
    Behav Res Ther 2017 Oct 20;97:96-104. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Bioimaging Core, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China. Electronic address:
    The neural mechanism underlying attentional bias in OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine and compare the time course and the event related potential (ERP) components in OCD patients and healthy controls (HC) to reveal the complex brain activation pattern associated with attentional bias in OCD. The behavioural and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded while the participants performed an emotional Stroop task. Read More

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