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    4937 results match your criteria Behaviour Research and Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 99

    Pavlovian extinction of fear with the original conditional stimulus, a generalization stimulus, or multiple generalization stimuli.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 24;107:64-75. Epub 2018 May 24.
    University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90025, United States.
    Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders is derived from Pavlovian extinction learning. With the aim of optimizing exposure therapy, the present study evaluated the effects of multiple extinction stimuli on inhibitory learning. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, participants were randomized to one of three extinction conditions: Extinction_CS+ received nine presentations of the original conditional stimulus (CS+); Extinction_Singular received nine presentations of a generalization stimulus (GS; stimulus similar to the CS+); and Extinction_Variety received one presentation each of nine GSs. Read More

    Excessive generalisation of conditioned fear in trait anxious individuals under ambiguity.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 30;107:53-63. Epub 2018 May 30.
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Trait anxiety has been widely accepted as a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders. However, few studies have examined how trait anxiety may affect fear generalisation, which is believed to be a core feature of anxiety disorders. Using a single-cue conditioning paradigm, the current study found a range of discrete generalisation gradients in both expectancy ratings and skin conductance, which were highly consistent with participants' reported abstract rules. Read More

    Momentary experiential avoidance: Within-person correlates, antecedents, and consequences and between-person moderators.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 29;107:42-52. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Holy Family University, 9801 Frankford Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19114, USA.
    We used ecological momentary assessment to investigate momentary correlates, antecedents, and consequences of experiential avoidance (EA), and to explore whether depression and anxiety moderate these within-person relationships. Participants recorded their mood, thoughts, stress, and EA four times daily for one week. Baseline depression and anxiety were associated with EA. Read More

    Change in anxiety sensitivity and substance use coping motives as putative mediators of treatment efficacy among substance users.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 24;107:34-41. Epub 2018 May 24.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity and coping motives for substance use are processes implicated in anxiety and substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity, and are malleable treatment targets. Little is known about whether changes in anxiety sensitivity or coping motives during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders (with or without CBT for SUD) mediate substance use outcomes among patients with comorbid anxiety disorders and SUD. We examined whether changes in anxiety sensitivity and coping motives during treatment for comorbid SUD and anxiety disorders (either CBT for SUD only or CBT for SUD and anxiety disorders) were associated with substance use outcomes. Read More

    Turning gold into lead: Dampening appraisals reduce happiness and pleasantness and increase sadness during anticipation and recall of pleasant activities in the laboratory.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 25;107:19-33. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia.
    Two studies examined whether use of dampening appraisals (e.g., thinking "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e. Read More

    Treatment processes and demographic variables as predictors of dropout from trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for youth.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 22;107:10-18. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Rowan University, School of Osteopathic Medicine, United States.
    Objective: Premature dropout is a significant concern in trauma-focused psychotherapy for youth. Previous studies have primarily examined pre-treatment demographic and symptom-related predictors of dropout, but few consistent findings have been reported. The current study examined demographic, symptom, and in-session process variables as predictors of dropout from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth. Read More

    Who needs more than standard care? Treatment moderators in a randomized clinical trial comparing addiction treatment alone to addiction treatment plus anxiety disorder treatment for comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 17;107:1-9. Epub 2018 May 17.
    University of California-Los Angeles, United States.
    Introduction: Understanding for whom treatments exert their greatest effects is crucial for prescriptive recommendations that can improve overall treatment efficacy. Anxiety and substance use disorder comorbidity is prevalent and a significant public health concern. Little is known about who should receive specialized, integrated treatments to address both problems. Read More

    Transportability of imagery-enhanced CBT for social anxiety disorder.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 14;106:86-94. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Mental Health Research, University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Pilot and open trials suggest that imagery-enhanced group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is highly effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, before being considered reliable and generalisable, the effects of the intervention need to be replicated by clinicians in a setting that is independent of the protocol developers. The current study compared outcomes from clients with a principal diagnosis of SAD at the Australian clinic where the protocol was developed (n = 123) to those from an independent Canadian clinic (n = 46) to investigate whether the large effects would generalise. Read More

    Does interparental conflict decrease following changes in observed parenting from a preventive intervention program?
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 7;106:64-70. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Vanderbilt University, United States.
    Interparental conflict, which is common among families where a parent has a history of Major Depressive Disorder, is associated with deficits in parenting. Models of family functioning propose that interparental conflict and parenting behaviors are transactional in nature. Given the interdependent nature of family systems, increases in positive parenting practices may lead to subsequent decreases in interparental conflict. Read More

    To deliver or not to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders: Replication and extension of our understanding of why therapists fail to do what they should do.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 4;106:57-63. Epub 2018 May 4.
    The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Objective: This study investigated the extent to which therapists fail to apply empirically supported treatments in a sample of clinicians in The Netherlands, delivering cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED). It aimed to replicate previous findings, and to extend them by examining other potential intra-individual factors associated with the level of (non-)use of core CBT-ED techniques.

    Method: Participants were 139 clinicians (127 women; mean age 41. Read More

    Effects of mindfulness and psychoeducation on working memory in adult ADHD: A randomised, controlled fMRI study.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 7;106:47-56. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Medical Campus University of Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Karl-Jaspers-Klinik, Bad Zwischenahn, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine University of Freiburg, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). Read More

    The impact bias in self and others: Affective and empathic forecasting in individuals with social anxiety.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 7;106:37-46. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Psychology, University of Miami, USA.
    People tend to overestimate the intensity and duration of affect (i.e., impact bias) when making predictions about their own and others' responding, termed affective and empathic forecasting, respectively. Read More

    The presence of your absence: A conditioning theory of grief.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 24;106:18-27. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Centre for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    I present a conditioning theory of grief. From conditioning research on appetitive disorders (e.g. Read More

    Mediators of two selective prevention interventions targeting both obesity and eating disorders.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 24;106:8-17. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Oregon Research Institute, USA.
    The present study tested hypothesized mechanisms underlying the effects of two selective prevention interventions targeting both obesity and eating disorders (Healthy Weight and the newly developed Project Health), relative to video control. Tests examined mediation for the significant weight gain prevention and eating disorder symptom prevention effects previously reported. College students (N = 364; 72% women) with weight concerns were randomized to condition and assessed for 2-years post-intervention. Read More

    When gushing leads to blushing: Inflated praise leads socially anxious children to blush.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 19;106:1-7. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Blushing is an involuntary reddening of the face that typically occurs when people are concerned about making negative impressions on others. Although people typically blush for their mishaps or misdeeds, Darwin observed that some people, and especially children, also blush when they are lavished with praise. We theorize that socially anxious children blush when praised in inflated ways because they believe they do not match the inflated image others hold of them. Read More

    The effects of cognitive-behavior therapy for depression on repetitive negative thinking: A meta-analysis.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jul 17;106:71-85. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Academic Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    It is not clear if treatments for depression targeting repetitive negative thinking (RNT: rumination, worry and content-independent perseverative thinking) have a specific effect on RNT resulting in better outcomes than treatments that do not specifically target rumination. We conducted a systematic search of PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for randomized trials in adolescents, adults and older adults comparing CBT treatments for (previous) depression with control groups or with other treatments and reporting outcomes on RNT. Inclusion criteria were met by 36 studies with a total of 3307 participants. Read More

    Preoccupation with shape or weight, fear of weight gain, feeling fat and treatment outcomes in patients with anorexia nervosa: A longitudinal study.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 13;105:63-68. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Via Montebaldo, 89, 37016 Garda, VR, Italy.
    Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the trajectories of change over time in body-image concern components in patients with anorexia nervosa treated by means of intensive enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy. Moreover, it aimed to study the role of body-image concern components in changes in eating and general psychopathology as well as work and social functioning.

    Method: Sixty-six adult patients with anorexia nervosa were recruited. Read More

    Interactions between risk factors in the prediction of onset of eating disorders: Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 17;105:52-62. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Oregon Research Institute, USA.
    Objective: Because no study has tested for interactions between risk factors in the prediction of future onset of each eating disorder, this exploratory study addressed this lacuna to generate hypotheses to be tested in future confirmatory studies.

    Method: Data from three prevention trials that targeted young women at high risk for eating disorders due to body dissatisfaction (N = 1271; M age 18.5, SD 4. Read More

    What matters more? Common or specific factors in cognitive behavioral therapy for OCD: Therapeutic alliance and expectations as predictors of treatment outcome.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 27;105:43-51. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a strong challenge to the contention that common factors explain most of the variance in outcomes in all therapies and all disorders, given that the treatment is focused and placebo response is low. In this study, the relative contributions of expectancy and therapeutic alliance as predictors of outcome in the treatment of OCD are examined and compared to the contribution of specific treatment effects. One hundred and eight patients with OCD were randomly assigned to two forms of CBT: exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) or stress management training (SMT). Read More

    Meal and snack-time eating disorder cognitions predict eating disorder behaviors and vice versa in a treatment seeking sample: A mobile technology based ecological momentary assessment study.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 27;105:36-42. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Psychiatry, USA.
    Individuals with eating disorders experience high anxiety when eating, which may contribute to the high relapse rates seen in the eating disorders. However, it is unknown if specific cognitions associated with such anxiety (e.g. Read More

    The role of avoidance behavior in the treatment of adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome: A mediation analysis.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 28;105:27-35. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Norra Stationsgatan 69, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common in adolescents with a pronounced negative impact on quality of life. A pattern of avoidance behavior is commonly seen in the IBS population, which is associated with more gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) targets the avoidance behavior to reduce symptoms, but it is unknown whether reduced avoidance is a mediator of symptom improvement in adolescent IBS. Read More

    Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 27;105:17-26. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    University of California, Berkeley, Department of Psychology, 3210 Tolman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:
    Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and response inhibition. Read More

    The relationship between executive functioning and weight loss and maintenance in children and parents participating in family-based treatment for childhood obesity.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 28;105:10-16. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive #0874, La Jolla, CA, 92093, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA, 92093, United States; Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive #0725, 92093, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    We examined the relationship between executive function and weight loss among children (8-12 years) and parents enrolled in a behavioral weight-loss program. 150 overweight/obese children and their parents participated in a 6-month family-based weight-loss intervention and completed baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 6) and 18-month follow-up assessments (month 24), which included Digit Span (DS), Stop Signal Task (SST), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Anthropometrics were additionally measured at mid-treatment (month 3) and 6-month follow-up (month 12). Read More

    We cannot change the past, but we can change its meaning. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of self-help imagery rescripting on depression.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 26;104:74-83. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: Imagery rescripting is a psychotherapeutic technique that aims to ameliorate negative emotions by altering (i.e., rescripting) inner representations of negative memories and images. Read More

    A cluster randomized controlled platform trial comparing group MEmory specificity training (MEST) to group psychoeducation and supportive counselling (PSC) in the treatment of recurrent depression.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Jun 15;105:1-9. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, UK; Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:
    Impaired ability to recall specific autobiographical memories is characteristic of depression, which when reversed, may have therapeutic benefits. This cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and aspects of acceptability, and feasibility of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) relative to Psychoeducation and Supportive Counselling (PSC) for Major Depressive Disorder (N = 62). A key aim of this study was to determine a range of effect size estimates to inform a later phase trial. Read More

    Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 14;104:69-73. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, BergischeLandstrasse 2, 40629 Düsseldorf, Germany.
    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Read More

    Avoidance and escape: Defensive reactivity and trait anxiety.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 8;104:62-68. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    University of Florida Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, 3063 Longleaf Road, Gainesville, FL, 32608, United States.
    Although avoidance and escape behaviors each contribute to maintaining anxiety disorders, only avoidance completely eliminates exposure to the aversive context. Current research compared anticipatory defensive engagement when aversion could either be completely avoided or escaped after initial exposure; in addition, this research examined the impact of trait anxiety on coping-related defensive engagement. Cues signaled that upcoming rapid action would avoid (block), escape (terminate), or not affect subsequent aversive exposure; the acoustic startle reflex was measured during each anticipatory interval to index defensive engagement, and blink magnitudes were compared across low-, moderate-, and high-anxious individuals. Read More

    Attention avoidance of the threat conditioned stimulus during extinction increases physiological arousal generalisation and retention.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 6;104:51-61. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt Campus, Australia. Electronic address:
    Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Read More

    Intolerance of uncertainty as a vulnerability factor for excessive and inflexible avoidance behavior.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 1;104:34-43. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Universidad de Málaga, Spain.
    Recent studies have shown that avoidance behavior may become excessive and inflexible (i.e., detached from its incentive value and resistant to extinction). Read More

    A meta-analysis of dropout rates in acceptance and commitment therapy.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 16;104:14-33. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Psychology, Utah State University, 2810 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322, USA.
    Many psychotherapies, including cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have been found to be effective interventions for a range of psychological and behavioral health concerns. Another aspect of treatment utility to consider is dropout, as interventions only work if clients are engaged in them. To date, no research has used meta-analytic methods to examine dropout in ACT. Read More

    Impaired detection and differentiation of briefly presented facial emotions in adults with high-functioning autism and asperger syndrome.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 19;104:7-13. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Psychiatry, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Although deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions are considered a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterization of abnormalities in the differentiation of emotional expressions (e.g., sad vs. Read More

    The Attention Training Technique improves Children's ability to delay gratification: A controlled comparison with progressive relaxation.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 May 15;104:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    University of Manchester, UK; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:
    The ability to delay gratification at a young age is a predictor of psychological, cognitive, health, and academic later-life outcomes. This study aimed to extend earlier research and explore whether a metacognitive intervention, Wells' (1990) Attention Training Technique (ATT), could improve young children's ability to delay gratification compared to an active-control (Progressive Muscle Relaxation: PMR), and no-intervention group. One hundred and one children aged 5-6 years old were recruited from schools. Read More

    The effect of adding Coping Power Program-Sweden to Parent Management Training-effects and moderators in a randomized controlled trial.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Apr 5;103:43-52. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    For children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), Parent Management Training (PMT) is a recommended treatment in addition to child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (child-CBT). There is however a lack of studies investigating the additive effect of group-based child-CBT to PMT for children between 8 and 12 years. The current study investigated the incremental effect of group-based child-CBT, based on the Coping Power Program, when added to the Swedish group-based PMT program KOMET. Read More

    Modifying mental health help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial of a novel cognitive bias modification intervention.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Apr 2;103:33-42. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Florida State University, United States.
    Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment. Read More

    Processes and pathways mediating the experience of social anxiety and negative rumination.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Apr 2;103:24-32. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Clinical Psychology Unit, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Negative rumination in social anxiety disorder (SAD) occurs in anticipation of a social event (pre-event rumination) and in its aftermath (post-event rumination). Both are proposed to be key maintaining factors of the vicious cycle of social anxiety. Despite this, there is a dearth of research investigating the processes that mediate the relationship between social anxiety and pre-event rumination and uncertainty regarding the cognitive and attentional processes that mediate the relationship between social anxiety and post-event rumination. Read More

    Sleep-related attentional bias for tired faces in insomnia: Evidence from a dot-probe paradigm.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Apr 3;103:18-23. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, UK.
    People with insomnia often display an attentional bias for sleep-specific stimuli. However, prior studies have mostly utilized sleep-related words and images, and research is yet to examine whether people with insomnia display an attentional bias for sleep-specific (i.e. Read More

    You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal operant conditioning in fatigue.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Apr 3;103:12-17. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Limburg Brain Injury Center, The Netherlands.
    Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. Read More

    The worrying mind in control: An investigation of adaptive working memory training and cognitive bias modification in worry-prone individuals.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Apr 31;103:1-11. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK.
    Worry refers to the experience of uncontrollable negative thoughts. Cognitive models suggest that the combination of negative information processing biases along with diminished attentional control contribute to worry. In the current study we investigate whether promoting a) adaptive interpretation bias and b) efficient deployment of attentional control would influence the tendency to worry. Read More

    Trauma, attentional dysregulation, and the development of posttraumatic stress: An investigation of risk pathways.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 11;102:60-66. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, 199 Abba Hushi Blvd., Mount Carmel, Haifa 3498838, Israel. Electronic address:
    Background: Fundamental questions regarding the nature and function of attentional bias (AB) to threat in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain unanswered. We tested the temporal interplay between trauma exposure, dysregulated attentional processing of threatening information pre- and post-trauma, and the development of posttraumatic intrusions.

    Methods: Response time to trauma-related threat, trauma-unrelated threat, as well as to trauma-related but typically emotionally-neutral stimuli was assessed using the dot probe task before and one week after watching a violent movie scene that served as a trauma analogue. Read More

    Individual variation in working memory is associated with fear extinction performance.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 5;102:52-59. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Research Service, VA San Diego Healthcare system, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
    PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Read More

    Psychopathology and episodic future thinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis of specificity and episodic detail.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 5;102:42-51. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, Box 3712, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
    Episodic future thinking (EFT) refers to the mental simulation of future events that might be personally-experienced; a crucial mental process in adaptation. Psychiatric disorders are associated with deficits in recalling episodic memory, however, no study has reviewed the empirical literature to assess for similar deficits in EFT. A systematic review comparing psychiatric groups with control groups on the specificity and episodic detail of EFT returned 19 eligible studies. Read More

    Evaluating the role of repetitive negative thinking in the maintenance of social appearance anxiety: An experimental manipulation.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 5;102:36-41. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    University at Albany, State University of New York, 399 Social Sciences, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA.
    Social appearance anxiety (SAA), or fear of having one's appearance negatively evaluated by others, is a risk factor for eating pathology and social anxiety, but maintenance processes for SAA remain unclear. The current study evaluated repetitive negative thinking (RNT) as a process through which SAA is maintained over time. Undergraduates (N = 126) completed self-report measurements, made an impromptu speech task to induce SAA, and were randomized to either engage in RNT or distraction following the speech task. Read More

    Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 20;102:25-35. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Center for Psychological Psychotherapy, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are currently well established in psychotherapy with meta-analyses demonstrating their efficacy. In these multifaceted interventions, the concrete performance of mindfulness exercises is typically integrated in a larger therapeutic framework. Thus, it is unclear whether stand-alone mindfulness exercises (SAMs) without such a framework are beneficial, as well. Read More

    Interpretation bias in middle childhood attachment: Causal effects on attachment memories and scripts.
    Behav Res Ther 2018 Mar 21;102:16-24. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Read More

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