2,456,151 results match your criteria Behaviour & Information Technology[Journal]


Curve Sprinting in Soccer: Kinematic and Neuromuscular Analysis.

Int J Sports Med 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

NAR - Nucleus of High Performance in Sport, Sport Science, São Paulo, Brazil.

Sprinting in curvilinear trajectories is an important soccer ability, corresponding to ~85% of the actions performed at maximum velocity in a soccer league. We compared the neuromuscular behavior and foot contact-time between outside leg and inside leg during curve sprinting to both sides in soccer players. Nine soccer players (age=23±4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1144-3175DOI Listing

Social subordination induced by early life adversity rewires inhibitory control of the prefrontal cortex via enhanced Npy1r signaling.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Social hierarchies are present in most mammalian species. In nature, hierarchies offer a tradeoff between reduction of in-group fighting between males, at the expense of an asymmetric sharing of resources. Early life experiences and stress are known to influence the rank an individual attains in adulthood, but the associated cellular and synaptic alterations are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0727-7DOI Listing

Early life stress exposure associated with reduced polyunsaturated-containing lipids in low-income children.

Pediatr Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Psychosocial stress in early childhood is associated with adult obesity and cardiometabolic disease. The association of psychosocial stress with the metabolome in childhood is unknown.

Method: Low-income children (n = 28, mean age 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0989-0DOI Listing

Oral Processing Behavior of Diana Monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

Folia Primatol (Basel) 2020 Jun 3:1-17. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Primates are hypothesized to "fall back" on challenging-to-process foods when preferred foods are less available. Such dietary shifts may be accompanied by changes in oral processing behavior argued to be selectively important. Here, we examine the oral processing behavior of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in the Taï Forest across their dietary breadth, testing relationships among food intake, fruit availability, preference, and oral processing behaviors including those involved in food ingestion and breakdown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508072DOI Listing

Spin current nano-oscillator (SCNO) as a potential frequency-based, ultra-sensitive magnetic biosensor: a simulation study.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, UNITED STATES.

This work is a micromagnetic simulation-based study on the GHz-frequency ferromagnetic resonances (FMR) for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using spin current nano-oscillator (SCNO) operating in precession mode. Capture antibody-antigen-detection antibody-MNP complex on the SCNO surface generates magnetic fields that modify the FMR peaks and generate measurable resonance peak shifts. Moreover, our results strongly indicate the position-sensitive behavior of the SCNO biosensor and demonstrate ways to eradicate this effect to facilitate improved bio-sensing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab9921DOI Listing

Hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowire array as an oxygen vacancies reservoir for improved resistive switching.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, C so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Torino, ITALY.

Resistive switching (RS) devices based on self-assembled nanowires (NWs) and nanorods (NRs) represent a fascinating alternative to conventional devices with thin film structure. The high surface-to-volume ratio may indeed provide the possibility of modulating their functionalities through surface effects. However, devices based on NWs usually suffer from low resistive switching performances in terms of operating voltages, endurance and retention capabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab9920DOI Listing

Structure and superconducting properties of multiple phases of (NH3)yAExFeSe (AE: Ca, Sr and Ba).

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama 700-8530, JAPAN.

We synthesized the alkalie-earth metal-doped FeSe compounds (NH)AEFeSe (AE: Ca, Sr and Ba), using the liquid NHtechnique, to determine their superconducting properties and crystal structures. Multiple superconducting phases were obtained in each sample of (NH)CaFeSe and (NH)BaFeSe, which showed two superconducting transition temperatures ('s) as high as 37 - 39 K and 47 - 48 K at ambient pressure, hereinafter referred to as the 'low-phase' and 'high-phase', respectively. The high-phases in (NH)CaFeSe and (NH)BaFeSe were metastable, and rapidly converted to their low-phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ab9911DOI Listing

Associations Between Physical Activity and Perceived School Performance of Young Adolescents in Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Countries.

J Phys Act Health 2020 Jun 3:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Background: Regular physical activity and doing well in school are important for growing adolescents. In this study, the associations between physical activity and perceived school performance (PSP) are examined together.

Methods: Young adolescents from 42 countries (n = 193,949) in Europe and Canada were examined for associations between self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and PSP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0522DOI Listing

Adaptive Engagement and Support Model for People with Chronic Health Conditions: Using Combined Content Analysis to Assess Online Health Communities.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Health Union, LLC, 1217 Sansom Street2nd Floor, Philadelphia, US.

Background: With the pervasiveness of social media, online health communities (OHC) are an important tool for facilitating information sharing and support among people with chronic health conditions. Importantly, OHCs offer insight into conversations about the lived experiences of people with particular health conditions. What is less known is what aspects of OHCs are important to maintain safe and productive conversations that support health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17338DOI Listing

Childbirth experiences of Sudanese women living with obstetric fistula - A qualitative study.

Sex Reprod Healthc 2020 May 25;25:100532. Epub 2020 May 25.

University of Oslo, Institute of Health and Society, Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, P.O. Box 1130 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Obstetric Fistula results from failure to manage obstructed labor in a timely manner; the failure can be attributed to many factors. Therefore, the study seeks to provide a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the occurrence of Obstetric Fistula using the Three-Delays model.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 women living with OF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.srhc.2020.100532DOI Listing

Substance use improvement depends on Race/Ethnicity: Outpatient treatment disparities observed in a large US national sample.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 May 24;213:108087. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Racial/ethnic disparities exist at many levels of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and recovery, reflecting biological and socioeconomic factors. However, racial/ethnic disparities in SUD treatment effectiveness have not been sufficiently investigated.

Methods: Data for US outpatient SUD treatment facilities receiving public funding from 2015 to 2017 were analyzed using the Treatment Episode Datasets-Discharge (TEDS-D). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108087DOI Listing

Medication Use in Youth with Autism and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder.

Acad Pediatr 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, 3020 Market St., Suite 560, Philadelphia, PA 19130, USA.

Objective: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may benefit from medication to treat a diverse array of behaviors and health conditions common in this population including co-occurring conditions associated with ASD, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety. However, prescribing guidelines are lacking and research providing national estimates of medication use in youth with ASD is scant. We examined a nationally representative sample of children and youth ages 6-17 with a current diagnosis of ASD to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic medication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2020.05.015DOI Listing

Associations Between Food Insecurity and Parental Feeding Behaviors of Toddlers.

Acad Pediatr 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics and Duke Center for Childhood Obesity Research, Duke University School of Medicine; 2213 Elba Street, Durham, NC 27705. Electronic address:

Objectives: We examined associations between household food insecurity status and parental feeding behavior, weight perception, and child weight status in a diverse sample of young children.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 2-year old children in Greenlight, a cluster randomized trial to prevent childhood obesity. The exposure was food insecurity, defined as a positive response to a validated screen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2020.05.020DOI Listing

Pareidolias and cognition in isolated REM sleep behavior disorder.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 May 22;75:76-79. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Neurology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; Centre d'Études Avancées en Médecine du Sommeil, CIUSSS-NÎM-Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Neurology, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Though visual illusions and hallucinations are common in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease (PD), they are not typically observed clinically in prodromal stages, including isolated REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). False-noise errors on the pareidolia test (seeing faces when none are present) may be an effective measure of susceptibility to future hallucinations in iRBD.

Methods: One hundred patients with iRBD underwent the 20-image pareidolia test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.05.017DOI Listing

Does COVID-19 infection impact on the trend of seasonal influenza infection? 11 countries and regions, from 2014 to 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Infection due to the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is widespread dramatically around the world. This COVID-19 pandemic could increase public concern to prevent infectious disease. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the COVID-19 epidemic and decreasing another infectious disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.088DOI Listing

Time to full enteral feeding after necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm-born children is related to neurodevelopment at 2-3 years of age.

Early Hum Dev 2020 May 26;147:105091. Epub 2020 May 26.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with poorer neurodevelopment. It is, however, unclear which factors besides surgery affect neurodevelopment in preterm-born children surviving NEC.

Aims: We determined whether time to full enteral feeding (FEFt) and post-NEC complications after NEC were associated with neurodevelopment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105091DOI Listing

Functional connectivity of EEG is subject-specific, associated with phenotype, and different from fMRI.

Neuroimage 2020 May 31:117001. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

A variety of psychiatric, behavioral and cognitive phenotypes have been linked to brain ''functional connectivity'' -- the pattern of correlation observed between different brain regions. Most commonly assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), here, we investigate the connectivity-phenotype associations with functional connectivity measured with electroencephalography (EEG), using phase-coupling. We analyzed data from the publicly available Healthy Brain Network Biobank. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117001DOI Listing

Perinatal exposure to omega-3 fatty acid imbalance leads to early behavioral alterations in rat pups.

Behav Brain Res 2020 May 31:112723. Epub 2020 May 31.

Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy; Neurobiology of Behavior Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, 00143 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Polyunsaturated long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) are crucially involved in brain development and function. Inadequate n3-PUFA intake in rats during the perinatal period leads to behavioral deficits in adulthood, but early behavioral changes have not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate potential behavioral alterations in neonatal rats exposed to a perinatal n3-PUFA imbalance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112723DOI Listing

"Us vs. Them" Pair Housing: Effects on Body Weight, Open Field Behavior, and Gut Microbiota in Rats Selectively Bred on a Taste Phenotype.

Physiol Behav 2020 May 31:112975. Epub 2020 May 31.

Farnaz Fouladi and Anthony A. Fodor, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Mark Lyte, Iowa State University.

Taste is increasingly recognized as being related to reward, risk, and social processes beyond the ingestive domain. Occidental High (HiS) and Low (LoS) Saccharin Consuming rats have been selectively bred for more than 25 years to study those relationships. The present study examined LoS and HiS rats' sensitivity to a social partner's lineage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112975DOI Listing

Effect of bee venom on reproductive performance and immune response of male rabbits.

Physiol Behav 2020 May 31:112987. Epub 2020 May 31.

Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt.

The current study aimed to investigate the effects of injecting bucks with different doses of bee venom (BV) on reproductive performance and immune response during the summer season. Forty-eight male V-line rabbits were randomly distributed among four homogeneous groups (12 bucks each). Three groups were injected BV under the neck skin with 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112987DOI Listing

Oroxylin A suppresses ACTN1 expression to inactivate cancer-associated fibroblasts and restrain breast cancer metastasis.

Pharmacol Res 2020 May 31:104981. Epub 2020 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Tumor initiation and progression are not only ascribed to the behavior of cancer cells, but also profoundly influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Inside, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have become key factors to accelerate growth and metastasis for the abundance in most solid tumors. Our group previously reported that Oroxylin A (OA), a flavone from Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi, possess the ability to suppress growth and invasion of several tumor cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104981DOI Listing

Dopamine receptor cooperativity synergistically drives dyskinesia, motor behavior, and striatal GABA neurotransmission in hemiparkinsonian rats.

Neuropharmacology 2020 May 31:108138. Epub 2020 May 31.

Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA. Electronic address:

The striatum undergoes significant neuroplasticity both in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and following dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with l-DOPA. Unfortunately, these changes also contribute to the emergence of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). While convergent strategies have demonstrated independent roles for DA D1 -receptors (D1R) and D2-receptors (D2R) in LID, DA receptor cooperativity, either by cellular or circuit mechanisms, has also been implicated in the dyskinetic brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108138DOI Listing

TMEM163 Regulates ATP-Gated P2X Receptor and Behavior.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107704

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Department of Neuroscience, Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration and Repair, The Yale Kavli Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Fast purinergic signaling is mediated by ATP and ATP-gated ionotropic P2X receptors (P2XRs), and it is implicated in pain-related behaviors. The properties exhibited by P2XRs vary between those expressed in heterologous cells and in vivo. Several modulators of ligand-gated ion channels have recently been identified, suggesting that there are P2XR functional modulators in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107704DOI Listing
June 2020
7.207 Impact Factor

A Dynamic Splicing Program Ensures Proper Synaptic Connections in the Developing Cerebellum.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107703

Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Department of Neuroscience, Section of Human Anatomy, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Tight coordination of gene expression in the developing cerebellum is crucial for establishment of neuronal circuits governing motor and cognitive function. However, transcriptional changes alone do not explain all of the switches underlying neuronal differentiation. Here we unveiled a widespread and highly dynamic splicing program that affects synaptic genes in cerebellar neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107703DOI Listing

Regional Variation in Epidermal Susceptibility to UV-Induced Carcinogenesis Reflects Proliferative Activity of Epidermal Progenitors.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107702

The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia; UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. Electronic address:

To better understand the influence of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the initial steps of skin carcinogenesis, we examine patches of labeled keratinocytes as a proxy for clones in the interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and measure their size variation upon UVB irradiation. Multicolor lineage tracing reveals that in chronically irradiated skin, patches near hair follicles (HFs) increase in size, whereas those far from follicles do not change. This is explained by proliferation of basal epidermal cells within 60 μm of HF openings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107702DOI Listing

CTTNBP2 Controls Synaptic Expression of Zinc-Related Autism-Associated Proteins and Regulates Synapse Formation and Autism-like Behaviors.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107700

Molecular and Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica and Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address:

Synaptic dysregulation is a critical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among various autism-associated genes, cortactin binding protein 2 (CTTNBP2) is a cytoskeleton regulator predominantly expressed in neurons and highly enriched at dendritic spines. Here, using Cttnbp2 knockout and ASD-linked mutant mice, we demonstrate that Cttnbp2 deficiency reduces zinc levels in the brain, alters synaptic protein targeting, impairs dendritic spine formation and ultrastructure of postsynaptic density, and influences neuronal activation and autism-like behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107700DOI Listing

Comment on "On the Functional Annotation of Open-Channel Structures in the Glycine Receptor".

Structure 2020 Jun;28(6):601-603

Structural Bioinformatics and Computational Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Recently, we reported the simulation of a stable open state of the glycine receptor. Central to the stability of the simulations was the behavior of the highly conserved leucine residues at the 9' gate, which were found to rotate into adjacent pockets, thus providing a structural rationale for decades of biochemical observations. In contrast, a previously reported model from Cerdan et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.04.021DOI Listing

Impact of Anion Asymmetry on Local Structure and Supercooling Behavior of Water-in-Salt Electrolytes.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Jun 3:4720-4725. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Salts with asymmetric (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (FTFSI) anions have recently been shown to suppress crystallization of water-in-salt electrolytes, enabling low-temperature operation of high-voltage aqueous rechargeable batteries. To clarify the underlying mechanism for the kinetic suppression of crystallization, we investigate the local solution structures and dynamic behaviors of water-in-salt electrolytes based on the asymmetric FTFSI anion and its symmetric anion analogues by Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. We find that monodentate coordination of FTFSI to cations leads to high rotational mobility of the uncoordinated SOCF group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c00806DOI Listing

Edge Enrichment of Ultrathin 2D PdPtCu Trimetallic Nanostructures Effectuates Top-Ranked Ethanol Electrooxidation.

Nano Lett 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Atomic edge sites on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials display striking catalytic behavior, whereas edge engineering for 2D metal nanocatalysts remains an insurmountable challenge. Here we advance a one-pot synthesis of ultrathin 2D PdPtCu trimetallic nanosheets and nanorings with escalating low-coordinated edge proportions from 11.74%, 23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01908DOI Listing

Finite Temperature TD-DMRG for the Carrier Mobility of Organic Semiconductors.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

A large number of non-adiabatic dynamical studies have been applied to reveal the nature of carrier transport in organic semiconductors with different approximations. We present here a "nearly exact" graphical process unit (GPU) based finite temperature TD-DMRG method to evaluate the carrier mobility in organic semiconductors as described by electron-phonon model, in particular to rubrene crystal, one of the prototypical organic semiconductors, with parameters derived from first-principles. We find that (i) TD-DMRG is a general and robust method that can bridge the gap between hopping and band picture covering a wide range of electronic coupling strength; and (ii) with realistic parameters, TD-DMRG is able to account for the experimentally observed "band-like" transport behavior (∂μ/∂T<0) in rubrene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01072DOI Listing

Host distribution and pathogen infection of fleas (Siphonaptera) recovered from small mammals in Pennsylvania.

J Vector Ecol 2020 Jun;45(1):32-44

Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, U.S.A.

The number of recognized flea-borne pathogens has increased over the past decade. However, the true number of infections related to all flea-borne pathogens remains unknown. To better understand the enzootic cycle of flea-borne pathogens, fleas were sampled from small mammals trapped in central Pennsylvania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12371DOI Listing

Cationic organophosphorus chromophores: a diamond in the rough among ionic dyes.

Chemistry 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

National Taiwan University, Chemistry, TAIWAN.

Tunable electron-accepting properties of the cationic phosphorus center, its geometry and unique preparative chemistry that allows combining this unit with diversity of π-conjugated motifs, define the appealing photophysical and electrochemical characteristics of organophosphorus ionic chromophores. This minireview summarizes the achievements in the synthesis of the π-extended molecules functionalized with P-cationic fragments, modulation of their properties by means of structural modification, and emphasizes the important effect of cation-anion interactions, which can drastically change physical behavior of these two-component systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202001853DOI Listing

Sexual Aggression Analogues Used in Alcohol Administration Research: Critical Review of their Correspondence to Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assaults.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Wayne State University, Detroit, United States.

Background: Alcohol administration studies are crucial because causal questions about alcohol's role in human behavior can only be answered through experimental research that randomly assigns participants to drink conditions. The primary goal of this review is to catalogue the characteristics of experimental analogues used in alcohol administration research to assess men's sexual aggression proclivity and evaluate the extent to which they represent the scope of alcohol-involved sexual aggression. Although this review focuses on sexual aggression analogues, the identified methodological issues are relevant to a wide range of alcohol administration studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14388DOI Listing

Psychosocial Interventions and Immune System Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology and Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Recent estimates suggest that more than 50% of all deaths worldwide are currently attributable to inflammation-related diseases. Psychosocial interventions may represent a potentially useful strategy for addressing this global public health problem, but which types of interventions reliably improve immune system function, under what conditions, and for whom are unknown.

Objective: To address this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which we estimated associations between 8 different psychosocial interventions and 7 markers of immune system function, and examined 9 potential moderating factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0431DOI Listing

Truncated mutants of beta-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) are localized in the mitochondrial matrix and cause mitochondrial fragmentation.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233856. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

The Atlantic Research Centre, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The enzyme β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) is clinically relevant because it is targeted by the drug miglustat (Zavesca®) and because it is involved in inherited diseases. Mutations in the GBA2 gene are associated with two neurological diseases on the ataxia-spasticity spectrum, hereditary spastic paraplegia 46 (SPG46) and Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndrome (MSS). To establish how GBA2 mutations give rise to neurological pathology, we have begun to investigate mutant forms of GBA2 encoded by disease-associated GBA2 alleles. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233856PLOS

The effect of early burn injury on sensitivity to future painful stimuli in dairy heifers.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233711. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Center for Animal Welfare, Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

Animals that experience painful procedures as neonates are more sensitive to pain later in life. We evaluated whether disbudding with a heated iron at 3 (n = 12), 35 (n = 9), or 56 (n = 20) d of age affected heifers' pain responses to vaccine injections at 11 mo of age. Heifers responded to the injection procedure with struggling and changes in eye temperature and heart rate variability compared to a sham procedure the day before, and still had a heightened response 6 d later, regardless of disbudding age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233711PLOS

Three-dimensional niche stiffness synergizes with Wnt7a to modulate the extent of satellite cell symmetric self-renewal divisions.

Mol Biol Cell 2020 Jun 3:mbcE20010078. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Toronto, ON, M5S3G9, Canada.

Satellite cells (SCs), the resident adult stem cells of skeletal muscle, are required for tissue repair throughout life. While many signaling pathways are known to control SC self-renewal, less is known about the mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal control of self-renewal during skeletal muscle repair. Here, we measured biomechanical changes that accompany skeletal muscle regeneration and determined the implications on SC fate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E20-01-0078DOI Listing

Front propagation steered by a high-wavenumber modulation: Theory and experiments.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):053138

Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso, Chile.

Homogeneously driven dynamical systems exhibit multistability. Depending on the initial conditions, fronts present a rich dynamical behavior between equilibria. Qualitatively, this phenomenology is persistent under spatially modulated forcing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0003519DOI Listing

Synchronization and spatial patterns in forced swarmalators.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):053112

Instituto de Física 'Gleb Wataghin', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp 13083-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Swarmalators are particles that exhibit coordinated motion and, at the same time, synchronize their intrinsic behavior, represented by internal phases. Here, we study the effects produced by an external periodic stimulus over a system of swarmalators that move in two dimensions. The system represents, for example, a swarm of fireflies in the presence of an external light source that flashes at a fixed frequency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5141343DOI Listing

Dynamical model for the neural activity of singing Serinus canaria.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):053134

Department of Physics, FCEyN, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Intendente Güiraldes 2160 (C1428EGA), Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Vocal production in songbirds is a key topic regarding the motor control of a complex, learned behavior. Birdsong is the result of the interaction between the activity of an intricate set of neural nuclei specifically dedicated to song production and learning (known as the "song system"), the respiratory system and the vocal organ. These systems interact and give rise to precise biomechanical motor gestures which result in song production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5145093DOI Listing

Torus bifurcations of large-scale swarms having range dependent communication delay.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):051106

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6792, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375, USA.

Dynamical emergent patterns of swarms are now fairly well established in nature and include flocking and rotational states. Recently, there has been great interest in engineering and physics to create artificial self-propelled agents that communicate over a network and operate with simple rules, with the goal of creating emergent self-organizing swarm patterns. In this paper, we show that when communicating networks have range dependent delays, rotational states, which are typically periodic, undergo a bifurcation and create swarm dynamics on a torus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0006540DOI Listing

Hysteresis and criticality in hybrid percolation transitions.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):051102

CCSS, CTP, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea.

Phase transitions (PTs) are generally classified into second-order and first-order transitions, each exhibiting different intrinsic properties. For instance, a first-order transition exhibits latent heat and hysteresis when a control parameter is increased and then decreased across a transition point, whereas a second-order transition does not. Recently, hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) are issued in diverse complex systems, in which the features of first-order and second-order PTs occur at the same transition point. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0008189DOI Listing

By force of habit: Self-trapping in a dynamical utility landscape.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):053123

Chair of Econophysics and Complex Systems, Ecole polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France.

Historically, rational choice theory has focused on the utility maximization principle to describe how individuals make choices. In reality, there is a computational cost related to exploring the universe of available choices and it is often not clear whether we are truly maximizing an underlying utility function. In particular, memory effects and habit formation may dominate over utility maximization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0009518DOI Listing

Derivation of a continuous time dynamic planar system with two unstable foci from a three-dimensional chaotic piecewise linear system.

Authors:
Eric Campos

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):053114

División de Matemáticas Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A. C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055, col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, SLP, Mexico.

In this paper, we introduce a class of continuous time dynamical planar systems that is capable of generating attractors in the plane by means of the use of hysteresis and at least two unstable foci. This class of systems shows stretching and folding behavior due to unstable equilibria and hysteresis. Hysteresis is used to overwhelm the constraints on the behavior of planar systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5144709DOI Listing

The role of timescale separation in oscillatory ensembles with competitive coupling.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):051101

Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia.

We study a heterogeneous population consisting of two groups of oscillatory elements, one with attractive and one with repulsive coupling. Moreover, we set different internal timescales for the oscillators of the two groups and concentrate on the role of this timescale separation in the collective behavior. Our results demonstrate that it may significantly modify synchronization properties of the system, and the implications are fundamentally different depending on the ratio between the group timescales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0009074DOI Listing
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