4,050 results match your criteria Behavioral neuroscience[Journal]


Understanding cerebellum in vertebrate neuroethology: From sensing in sharks and electric fish to motor sequences in movement and birdsong.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Neuroscience and Zuckerman Institute, Columbia University.

The elaborate structure of the cerebellum has been long known, although its contribution to a remarkable diversity of behavior is only recently appreciated. Taking an evolutionary perspective, we consider the wider function of the cerebellum based on insight from the function of so-called cerebellum-like structures. Cerebellum-like structures cancel the effects of self-stimulation, a function that has been well characterized in both elasmobranch and weakly electric fish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000317DOI Listing

Limited capabilities for condition-dependent modulation of vocal turn-taking behavior in marmoset monkeys.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Neurobiology of Vocal Communication.

Taking turns plays an important role in primate communication and involves individuals producing species-specific calls in response to conspecific vocalizations. Recent studies have revealed that marmoset monkeys are an ideal primate model system to investigate vocal turn-taking behavior and the corresponding sensory-motor interactions. However, it is largely unknown how external factors such as conspecific call latency influence this vocal behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000314DOI Listing

Upregulation of hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-2 induces antidepressant-like behavior in the rat forced swim test.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr;133(2):225-231

Department of Physiology, Michigan State University.

The hippocampus mediates responses to affect-related behavior in preclinical models of pharmacological antidepressant efficacy, such as the forced swim test. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate escape-directed behavior in this preclinical model of despair are not well understood. Here, using viral-mediated gene transfer, we assessed how overexpression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-2 within the dorsal hippocampus influenced behavioral reactivity to inescapable swimming stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000303DOI Listing

Amygdala and prefrontal cortex activity varies with individual differences in the emotional response to psychosocial stress.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr;133(2):203-211

Department of Psychology.

Stress elicits a variety of psychophysiological responses that show large interindividual variability. Determining the neural mechanisms that mediate individual differences in the emotional response to stress would provide new insight that would have important implications for understanding stress-related disorders. Therefore, the present study examined individual differences in the relationship between brain activity and the emotional response to stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435298PMC

Involvement of lactate transport in two object recognition tasks that require either the hippocampus or striatum.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr;133(2):176-187

Department of Biology.

Growing evidence indicates that hippocampal lactate, released from astrocytes, is an important regulator of learning and memory processing. This study evaluated the selective involvement of hippocampal and striatal lactate in two object recognition tasks. The tasks tested recognition memory after a change in location of two target objects (double object location; dOL) or after replacement of familiar targets with two new objects set in the original locations (double object replacement; dOR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000304DOI Listing

Occasion setting.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr;133(2):145-175

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

Occasion setting refers to the ability of 1 stimulus, an occasion setter, to modulate the efficacy of the association between another, conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) or reinforcer. Occasion setters and simple CSs are readily distinguished. For example, occasion setters are relatively immune to extinction and counterconditioning, and their combination and transfer functions differ substantially from those of simple CSs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447318PMC

Immediate and long-lasting cognitive consequences of adolescent chronic sleep restriction.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, Seton Hall University.

The present study investigated immediate and long-lasting cognitive effects of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) in adolescent rats. After 10 days of CSR produced by gentle handling, both hippocampal-dependent and non-hippocampal-dependent long-term memory abilities were tested using the object location task and the object recognition task, respectively. Testing occurred in adolescence and after a 4-week delay during which rats slept freely and matured to adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000312DOI Listing

Repetitive mild concussion in subjects with a vulnerable cholinergic system: Lasting cholinergic-attentional impairments in CHT+/- mice.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program.

Previous research emphasized the impact of traumatic brain injury on cholinergic systems and associated cognitive functions. Here we addressed the converse question: Because of the available evidence indicating cognitive and neuronal vulnerabilities in humans expressing low-capacity cholinergic systems or with declining cholinergic systems, do injuries cause more severe cognitive decline in such subjects, and what cholinergic mechanisms contribute to such vulnerability? Using mice heterozygous for the choline transporter (CHT+/- mice) as a model for a limited cholinergic capacity, we investigated the cognitive and neuronal consequences of repeated, mild concussion injuries (rmCc). After five rmCc, and compared with wild type (WT) mice, CHT+/- mice exhibited severe and lasting impairments in sustained attention performance, consistent with effects of cholinergic losses on attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000310DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Inactivation of the interpositus nucleus during unpaired extinction does not prevent extinction of conditioned eyeblink responses or conditioning-specific reflex modification.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neuroscience.

For almost 75 years, classical eyeblink conditioning has been an invaluable tool for assessing associative learning processes across many species, thanks to its high translatability and well-defined neural circuitry. Our laboratory has adapted the paradigm to extensively detail associative changes in the rabbit reflexive eyeblink response (unconditioned response, UR), characterized by postconditioning increases in the frequency, size, and latency of the UR when the periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented alone, termed conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). Because the shape and timing of CRM closely resembles the conditioned eyeblink response (CR) to the tone conditioned stimulus (CS), we previously tested whether CRs and CRM share a common neural substrate, the interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum (IP), and found that IP inactivation during conditioning blocked the development of both CRs and the timing aspect of CRM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000309DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Dissociable implicit sequence learning mechanisms revealed by continuous theta-burst stimulation.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Cognitive Neuroscience Unit.

The primary motor area (M1) has been implicated in visuomotor sequence learning. However, it has been suggested there are multiple neural networks that undertake visuomotor sequence learning. The role of M1 in sequence learning may be specific to learning simple sequences comprising predictable associations between adjacent movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000299DOI Listing

Effects of nicotine exposure and anxiety on motivation for reward and gambling-like cues under reward uncertainty.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychology.

Reward uncertainty is a common characteristic of gambling and may powerfully enhance attraction to gambling-related cues, thus promoting maladaptive gambling behaviors in susceptible individuals. The co-occurrence of gambling disorder with tobacco use disorder (60.4%) suggests a common mechanism for their pathology, and comorbid anxiety (41. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000311DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Sex experience increases delta FosB in male and female hamsters, but facilitates sex behavior only in females.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychology.

Motivated behaviors share the common feature of activating the mesolimbic dopamine system. Repeated experience with motivated behaviors can cause long-lasting structural changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The molecular mechanisms underlying this experience-dependent plasticity in the NAc have been well described following experience with drugs of abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000313DOI Listing

Brief isolation during infancy enhances the formation of long-term memories in infant rodents.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Psychology.

Behavioral tagging, which is well-established in adults, has recently been shown to also occur in infants. Interestingly, while familiarizing the novel experience abolishes behavioral tagging in adults, it appears to be without effect in infants. Familiarization, at least in infants, may act as an experience-dependent switch, closing the hippocampal critical period and thus accelerating the maturation of the hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000307DOI Listing

Photoperiod regulates hypothalamic miR-155 gene expression in female, but not male, Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 11;133(2):240-246. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, SUNY.

In many species, seasonal changes in photoperiod regulate several behaviors and physiological systems, including reproduction, energy balance, and immune function. MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate numerous physiological processes and developmental transitions through translational repression and mRNA degradation. Their role in seasonal transitions has been vastly understudied, with only a few reports in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000296DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Naloxone disrupts the development of a conditioned ejaculatory preference based on a somatosensory cue in male rats.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;133(2):198-202. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University.

Male rats develop a conditioned ejaculatory preference (CEP) toward females bearing an odor or somatosensory cue (rodent jacket) when those stimuli are paired with the postejaculatory reward state. As with a copulatory conditioned place preference, CEP for an odor depends on endogenous opioid transmission after ejaculation. The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NAL) disrupts CEP for an odor cue on female rats when injected systemically to males prior to each conditioning trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000302DOI Listing

Conditioned partner preference in male and female rats for a somatosensory cue.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;133(2):188-197. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University.

Male and female rats form a conditioned preference to copulate and/or mate with conspecifics bearing an odor that was paired with either the postejaculatory reward state in males, or paced sexual contact in females, making the odor act as a discrete partner-related cue. Here, we asked whether a somatosensory cue, a rodent jacket, could act as a discrete cue to establish a conditioned partner choice (CPC). In the first study, sexually naïve Long-Evans males and females underwent 14 copulatory conditioning trials for 30 min with their opposite sex partner in unilevel pacing chambers. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000300
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000300DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

The effects of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin on cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;133(2):247-254. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Florida.

Research using the cocaine self-administration and reinstatement animal model of relapse finds that the beta-lactam antibiotic, ceftriaxone, attenuates cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking and upregulates two proteins that regulate glutamate release and reuptake (xCT and GLT-1, respectively) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). We tested three compounds with beta-lactam rings for their ability to attenuate cue-primed reinstatement and increase GLT-1 and xCT expression in the NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats self-administered intravenous cocaine for 1 hr/day for 7 days then 6 hrs/day for 10 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000297DOI Listing

Reduction of BDNF results in GABAergic neuroplasticity dysfunction and contributes to late-life anxiety disorder.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;133(2):212-224. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The GABAergic neuroplasticity dysfunction (GND) has been proposed as a distinct pathology for late-life anxiety disorder (LLAD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical signaling molecule that regulates the GABAergic neuroplasticity. This research was designed to explore our hypothesis that the reduction of BDNF along with aging could induce GND, which might contribute to LLAD, and application of exogenous BDNF might reverse LLAD by restoring the GABAergic neuroplasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000301DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Motor learning deficits and striatal GSK-3 hyperactivity in Akt3 knockout mice.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb;133(1):135-143

Département de biologie médicale, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières.

Akt protein family (Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3) of serine/threonine kinases, also known as protein kinase B, are enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system. A striking feature of these enzymes is their ability to interact with several molecular targets such as the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Among Akt isoforms, the Akt3 is significantly more expressed in the brain and the present investigation was designed to determine whether the Akt3/GSK-3 pathway plays a role in the learning of a complex motor skill. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000292DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Basal forebrain chemogenetic inhibition disrupts the superior complex movement control of goal-tracking rats.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb;133(1):121-134

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program.

Sign- and goal-tracking behavior signifies the influence of opposed cognitive-motivational styles, with the former being characterized by a tendency for approaching and contacting reward cues, including a readiness for attending, bottom-up, to salient cues, and a relatively greater vulnerability for developing and maintaining addiction-like behaviors. We previously demonstrated that these styles also impact the cognitive-motor interactions that are taxed during traversal of dynamic surfaces, with goal-trackers (GTs) making less movement errors and falling less frequently than sign-trackers (STs). The present experiment tested the hypothesis that complex movement control in GTs, but not STs, depends on activation of the basal forebrain projection system to telencephalic regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000290DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Single injection of rapamycin blocks post-food restriction hyperphagia and body-weight regain in rats.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb;133(1):98-109

Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Given the increasing prevalence of and severity of complications associated with obesity, there is great need for treatments resulting in prolonged weight loss. Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained changes in food-intake and energy-expenditure strategies, which are unfortunately often taxing, resulting in a return to predieting weight. Therefore, drug therapies may facilitate greater adherence to a restricted diet and prolong weight loss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000287DOI Listing
February 2019

Inborn vs. acquired anxiety in cross-breeding and cross-fostering HAB/LAB mice bred for extremes in anxiety-related behavior.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb;133(1):68-76

Department of Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry.

This study focused on genetically determined versus acquired factors in shaping anxiety-related behavior by combining cross-breeding and cross-fostering approaches. Via cross-breeding of HAB (high anxiety-related behavior) female and LAB (low anxiety-related behavior) male mice, we obtained F1 hybrids with intermediate anxiety levels carrying genetic characteristics of both parental lines. Pups were raised either by their biological HAB (noncross-fostered control) or foster LAB (cross-fostered) mothers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000294DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Beyond romance: Neural and genetic correlates of altruism in pair-bonds.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb;133(1):18-31

Department of Neurology, Einstein College of Medicine.

Altruism is an evolutionarily conserved neurobehavioral mechanism for responding to others' needs, even at a cost to the self. It is thought to be rooted in offspring care and is most prominent in kin and close relationships, but also extends to others. We investigated the neural and genetic (OXTR rs53576 and AVPR1a rs3) correlates of altruism (with the Agape scale) in newlywed pair-bonds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000293DOI Listing
February 2019

Early amygdala damage alters the way rhesus macaques process species-specific audio-visual vocalizations.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb;133(1):1-17

Department of Psychology, Emory University.

Perceiving, integrating, and interpreting multimodal signals are essential for social success, but the neural substrates mediating these functions are not fully understood. This study examined the role of the amygdala in processing bimodal species-specific vocalizations using eye tracking in rhesus macaques. Looking behavior of 6 adult rhesus monkeys with neonatal amygdala lesions (Neo-Aibo; 3M, 3F) was compared with that of 6 sham-operated controls (Neo-C; 3M, 3F). Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000285
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000285DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Local geometric properties do not support reorientation in hippocampus-engaged homing pigeons.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 21;133(2):255-264. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology and J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind and Behavior, Bowling Green State University.

It is generally accepted that the geometry of an environment is a reliable source of information for spatial navigation used by most vertebrate species. However, there is a continuing debate on which geometrical properties of space are the ones that matter for reorientation. In this study, pigeons were trained to find a food reward hidden in 2 opposite corners in a rectangular arena. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000298DOI Listing

Pair-housing rats does not protect from behavioral consequences of an acute traumatic experience.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 10;133(2):232-239. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an extremely debilitating disease with a broad array of associated symptoms, making the disorder difficult to diagnose and treat. In humans, patients seem to benefit from group therapy or other means of promoting social behavior. To test these effects on our rodent model of PTSD, adult, male rats were housed in either single or pair conditions prior to and during an acute stressor to induce PTSD-like behaviors in these rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433510PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Conditioned hedonic responses elicited by contextual cues paired with nausea or with internal pain.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 27;133(1):86-97. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

School of Psychology.

Pairing a taste with either internal pain or nausea, despite equivalent effects on voluntary consumption, has dissociable effects on hedonic responses: Only pairing with nausea results in the production of disgust reactions, while pairing with internal pain results in conditioned fear as indicated by immobility. Here, we use orofacial reactions to examine the hedonic responses elicited by contextual, nonflavor, cues paired with nausea produced by injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) or internal pain caused by injection of hypertonic saline. In Experiment 1, aversive orofacial responses were the specific context-elicited behaviors in the rats injected with LiCl, whereas immobility was seen in the animals injected with hypertonic saline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000291DOI Listing
February 2019

Decision making in response to physiological and combined physiological and psychosocial stress.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 17;133(1):59-67. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin.

Individuals tend to make riskier decisions in response to stress. The magnitude of the stress effect on decision-making under risk seems to depend on the stressor type and the decision situation. We examined the effects of physiological and combined physiological and psychosocial stress on decision-making under risk and whether risk taking differs between women and men. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000288
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000288DOI Listing
February 2019
18 Reads

Effects of early-life stress and HDAC inhibition on maternal behavior in mice.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 29;133(1):39-49. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Systemogenesis of Behavior, P.K. Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology.

Despite the well-established fact that maternal care plays a pivotal role in the offspring development, little is known about the effects of disruption of maternal care early in life on the development of this behavior in the offspring. Using brief repeated maternal separation (45 min/day on postnatal Days 3-6), which represents a model of early life stress, we found behavioral changes in adult female mice offspring. The decrease in home cage exploratory behavior (both pup-directed and nonpup-directed) was revealed later in adulthood without changes in maternal care level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000284DOI Listing
February 2019

The effects of early life stress on context fear generalization in adult rats.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 29;133(1):50-58. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Psychology.

Research shows that memory for a context generalizes (i.e., becomes less precise) over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000289DOI Listing
February 2019

Sexual motivation in male rats is modulated by tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB).

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 29;133(1):32-38. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychology.

The expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are regulated by gonadal hormone signaling and are expressed in brain areas that are important for sexual behaviors. Accordingly, BDNF and TrkB signaling have been shown to be important for the expression of consummatory sexual behaviors. However, the role of TrkB in sexually motivated behaviors remains to be fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000286DOI Listing
February 2019

Differential involvement of D2 and D3 receptors during reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in the Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 29;133(1):77-85. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychiatry.

Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats have been used as a model for drug-addiction, showing, respectively, high- and low-responding to psychostimulants, and low versus high dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) striatal density. Previous studies indicated a major involvement of D2/3R on reinstatement of cocaine seeking, although the respective role of the two receptor subtypes is not clear. Here, we investigated sensitivity to cocaine self-administration (SA) through a dose-response protocol in RHAs and RLAs, and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior at 15 days and 5 weeks following withdrawal. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000281
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000281DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Psychosocial stress reactivity is associated with decreased whole-brain network efficiency and increased amygdala centrality.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 25;132(6):561-572. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Cognitive and emotional functions are supported by the coordinated activity of a distributed network of brain regions. This coordinated activity may be disrupted by psychosocial stress, resulting in the dysfunction of cognitive and emotional processes. Graph theory is a mathematical approach to assess coordinated brain activity that can estimate the efficiency of information flow and determine the centrality of brain regions within a larger distributed neural network. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000276
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242743PMC
December 2018
36 Reads

Neonatal hippocampal lesions facilitate biconditional contextual discrimination learning in monkeys.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 25;132(6):480-496. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Psychology, Emory University.

This study examined whether selective neonatal hippocampal lesions in monkeys (), which left the surrounding cortical areas (parahippocampal cortex) intact, affect contextual learning and memory compared with controls. Monkeys were tested with an automated touch-screen apparatus so that stimuli and contextual cues could be manipulated independently of one another. The data suggest that animals with neonatal hippocampal lesions have sparing of function with regard to contextual learning and memory when (a) contextual information is irrelevant or (b) relevant for good discrimination performance, and (c) when transferring a contextual rule to new discriminations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6263937PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

Female rats express habitual behavior earlier in operant training than males.

Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 25;133(1):110-120. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychological Science, University of Vermont.

Habitual behavior can be advantageous by increasing the availability of cognitive resources for use in other tasks. However, habitual behaviors are problematic when they are coopted to prolong the maladaptive responding present in several psychopathologies such as substance abuse, dysregulated fear responding in posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although sex differences exist in the occurrence or progression of these psychopathologies, there are no studies that compare the development of habitual behavior systematically in male and female animals. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000282
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000282DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

Analysis of learning deficits in aged rats on the W-track continuous spatial alternation task.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 22;132(6):512-519. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, Division of Neural System, Memory and Aging, University of Arizona.

Young and aged animals were tested on a spatial alternation task that consisted of two interleaved components: (1) an "outbound" or alternation component (working memory) and (2) an "inbound" component, requiring the animal to remember to return to a central location in space (spatial memory). In the present study, aged rats made more outbound errors throughout testing, resulting in significantly more days to reach learning criterion, as compared to young rats. Furthermore, while all animals were able to learn the hippocampus-dependent inbound component of the task, most aged animals remained just above chance on the outbound component, even after extended testing days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242720PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Impairment of the context preexposure facilitation effect in juvenile rats by neonatal alcohol exposure is associated with decreased Egr-1 mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 22;132(6):497-511. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which learning about the context (preexposure) and associating the context with a shock (training) occur on separate occasions. The CPFE is sensitive to a range of neonatal alcohol doses (Murawski & Stanton, 2011). The current study examined the impact of neonatal alcohol on Egr-1 mRNA expression in the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) subregions of the mPFC, the CA1 of dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), and the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), following the preexposure and training phases of the CPFE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242752PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Experience, memory, and the places they meet.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Oct;132(5):409-415

Department of Psychiatry.

Studies of learning and memory have made significant advances in characterizing the mechanisms of single memories, formed when surprising and unpredictable events trigger synaptic modifications in response to tightly timed coincidental cues. Yet outside the laboratory setting, few natural experiences are wholly unique, and much of our behavior is shaped progressively through the interactions of perceived experiences, recently formed memories and distant acquired knowledge. Despite the necessity of these memory dynamics, relatively little is known about how previously established associations are accessed, updated, and applied to inform new learning at the appropriate moments in time. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000280
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000280DOI Listing
October 2018
32 Reads
2.730 Impact Factor

Anterior thalamic nuclei, but not retrosplenial cortex, lesions abolish latent inhibition in rats.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Oct;132(5):378-387

School of Psychology, Cardiff University.

The present study examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions in 2 closely related structures, the anterior thalamic nuclei and the retrosplenial cortex, on latent inhibition. Latent inhibition occurs when nonreinforced preexposure to a stimulus retards the subsequent acquisition of conditioned responding to that stimulus. Latent inhibition was assessed in a within-subject procedure with auditory stimuli and food reinforcement. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000265
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188468PMC
October 2018
19 Reads

When is the rat retrosplenial cortex required for stimulus integration?

Behav Neurosci 2018 Oct;132(5):366-377

School of Psychology.

The rodent retrosplenial cortex is known to be vital for spatial cognition, but evidence has also pointed to a role in processing nonspatial information. It has been suggested that the retrosplenial cortex may serve as a site of integration of incoming sensory information. To examine this proposal, the current set of experiments assessed the impact of excitotoxic lesions in the retrosplenial cortex on two behavioral tasks that tax animals' ability to process multiple and overlapping environmental stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188469PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Converging meta-analytic and connectomic evidence for functional subregions within the human retrosplenial region.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Oct;132(5):339-355

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Center for Memory and Brain, Kilachand Center for Integrated Life Sciences and Engineering, and Graduate Program for Neuroscience, Boston University.

Interest in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has surged in recent years, as this region has been implicated in a range of cognitive processes. Previously reported anatomical and functional definitions of the human RSC encompass a larger area than expected from underlying cytoarchitectonic profiles. Here, we used a large-scale, unbiased, and data-driven approach combining functional MRI meta-analysis and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) methods to test the nature of this heterogeneity. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000278
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000278DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Introduction to the special issue on the cognitive functions of the retrosplenial cortex.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Oct;132(5):315-316

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University.

This special issue on the cognitive functions of the retrosplenial cortex highlights progress that has been made in recent years in understanding the anatomy and function of the retrosplenial cortex in both animals and humans. The articles in this issue of Behavioral Neuroscience use a number of different approaches that together provide an up-to-date account of recent progress in understanding how the retrosplenial cortex contributes to cognition, with an emphasis on its functional role in spatial navigation and learning and memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000279DOI Listing
October 2018

Sensorimotor representation and functional motor changes following short-term arm immobilization.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 8;132(6):595-603. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Neuroscience.

Limb immobilization paradigms are increasingly used to investigate changes in brain plasticity and support potential rehabilitation techniques that might help counteract motor impairments. Yet, it remains unclear how unilateral arm immobilization may influence the sensorimotor representation and functional output for both arms. Using a randomized crossover design, 14 participants underwent a baseline test, followed by two experimental conditions separated by 1 week: a right (dominant) arm immobilization phase over a period of 8 hr and a no-immobilization (or control) phase also lasting 8 hr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000274DOI Listing
December 2018

Reversal learning impairments in the maternal immune activation rat model of schizophrenia.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 8;132(6):520-525. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

One of the cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia is decreased flexibility in several tasks, including reversal learning. Reversal learning has previously been tested in rats following maternal immune activation (MIA), a risk factor for schizophrenia, with varying results. Whereas some previous studies have shown that MIA rats are slower to learn a reversal, others have reported more rapid learning compared with controls. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000275
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000275DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Blockade of dopamine D₁ receptors, but not D₂ receptors, decreases motivation in a novel effort-discounting paradigm in common marmosets.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 8;132(6):526-535. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co. Ltd.

Effort-based decision-making paradigms have recently been used to measure motivation in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we developed a novel effort-discounting paradigm using a touch-panel system in common marmosets. Marmosets were trained to choose between a low-reward (a piece of cake) requiring low-effort (one touch response) versus high-reward (three pieces of cake) requiring one of three different effort levels (one, two, or four touch responses). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000273DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Context-dependent reinstatement of an extinguished operant response in preweanling rats.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 8;132(6):469-479. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Laboratorio de Psicologia Experimental.

It is frequently assumed that infants are impaired in contextual memory and consequently, in recovery from extinction, a phenomenon considered to be context dependent. However, the evidence in the field is far from consistent with this interpretation, since several studies have shown context-dependent extinction in infant rats using a variety of procedures and behavioral measures. This discussion has primarily been based on studies using Pavlovian conditioning tasks. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000264
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000264DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

"Fast" versus "slow" word integration of visual and olfactory objects: EEG biomarkers of decision speed variability.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 8;132(6):587-594. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Gosta Ekman Laboratory.

In psychological experiments, behavioral speed varies across trials, and this variation is often associated with corresponding fluctuations in cortical activity. Little is known about such cortical variations in semantic priming tasks where target words are matched with preceding sensory object cues. Here, two visually presented target words ("pear" and "lilac") were repeatedly cued by corresponding odors or pictures, and the participants were to indicate matching or nonmatching combinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000266DOI Listing
December 2018

Rapid effects of sex steroids on zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pair maintenance.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 4;132(6):536-546. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Institute of ecology and environmental sciences, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Sorbonne Université.

Although steroids are widely known to affect behavior through activation of nuclear/cytosolic receptors ("genomic" effects), steroids can also rapidly affect behavior via modulation of signal transduction pathways ("nongenomic," fast actions, or rapid effects). In zebra finches, there is evidence that sex steroids have context-specific effects on pair-maintenance behavior, on both acute and chronic timescales. Here, we quantified the effects of orally administered testosterone and 17β-estradiol (E2) on pair-maintenance behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000263DOI Listing
December 2018

Emotion-modulated startle reflex during reappraisal: Probe timing and behavioral correlates.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 4;132(6):573-579. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health/Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University.

Down-regulation of negative emotions has been shown to reliably inhibit the emotion-modulated startle reflex, but it remains unclear whether the timing of the startle probe influences the quantification of emotion regulation with this measure. Moreover, it is not known whether the degree of startle inhibition corresponds to the subjective attenuation of negative emotions. Therefore, the two main goals of the study were, first, to systematically analyze the effect of probe time on startle inhibition and, second, to explore the association between subjectively perceived down-regulation of arousal and valence and the degree of startle inhibition. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/bne0000271
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000271DOI Listing
December 2018
37 Reads

Pain chronification and chronic pain impair a defensive behavior, but not the ability of acute pain to facilitate it, through the activation of an endogenous analgesia circuit.

Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 4;132(6):614-623. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas.

The endogenous ability to decrease pain perception during life-threatening situations is crucial to the prevention of recuperative behaviors and to leave the subject free to engage in appropriated defensive responses. We have previously shown that acute pain activates the ascending nociceptive control-an endogenous analgesia circuit dependent on opioid mechanisms within nucleus accumbens-to facilitate the tonic immobility response, an innate defensive behavior. Now we asked whether chronic pain and pain chronification impairs either the tonic immobility response or the ability of acute pain to facilitate it by activating the ascending nociceptive control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000255DOI Listing
December 2018