2,353,962 results match your criteria Behavioral medicine Washington D.C.[Journal]


Convergent neural connectivity in motor impulsivity and high-fat food binge-like eating in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Center for Addiction Research and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Food intake is essential for survival, but maladaptive patterns of intake, possibly encoded by a preexisting vulnerability coupled with the influence of environmental variables, can modify the reward value of food. Impulsivity, a predisposition toward rapid unplanned reactions to stimuli, is one of the multifaceted determinants underlying the etiology of dysregulated eating and its evolving pathogenesis. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a major neural director of reward-driven behavior and impulsivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0394-8DOI Listing

The post-aSAH syndrome: a self-reported cluster of symptoms in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Neurosurg 2019 Apr 19:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

2Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital; and.

OBJECTIVEAlthough many patients recover to a good functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), residual symptoms are very common and may have a large impact on the patient's daily life. The particular cluster of residual symptoms after aSAH has not previously been described in detail and there is no validated questionnaire that covers the typical problems reported after aSAH. Many of the symptoms are similar to post-concussion syndrome, which often is evaluated with the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.1.JNS183168DOI Listing

Sick of retirement?

J Health Econ 2019 Apr 1;65:133-152. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen and Center for Economic Behavior and Inequality (CEBI), Denmark. Electronic address:

This paper examines the causal effect of retirement on health and healthcare utilization using two identification strategies on Danish full population data. First, I use a reform of the statutory retirement age in an IV design. Second, I use a large discontinuity in retirement take-up at the earliest age of retirement (60) in a regression discontinuity design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2019.03.008DOI Listing

Slow and steady wins the race: physical limits on the rate of viral DNA packaging.

Authors:
Paul J Jardine

Curr Opin Virol 2019 Apr 16;36:32-37. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States. Electronic address:

During the assembly of dsDNA viruses such as the tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses, the viral chromosome is compacted to near crystalline density inside a preformed head shell. DNA translocation is driven by powerful ring ATPase motors that couple ATP binding, hydrolysis, and release to force generation and movement. Studies of the motor of the bacteriophage phi29 have revealed a complex mechanochemistry behind this process that slows as the head fills. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18796257183015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2019.03.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Symmetrical cruciate-retaining versus medial pivot prostheses: The effect of intercondylar sagittal conformity on knee kinematics and contact mechanics.

Comput Biol Med 2019 Mar 10;108:101-110. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

Background: A total knee arthroplasty should restore the mechanical function of the knee and enable patients to perform desired daily activities. The joint kinematics and contact mechanics performance are important determinants of the success of total knee arthroplasty devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intercondylar sagittal conformity on kinematics and contact mechanics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Hippocampal BDNF signaling is required for the antidepressant effects of perillaldehyde.

Pharmacol Rep 2019 Jan 16;71(3):430-437. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Research Center of Natural Resources of Chinese Medicinal Materials and Ethnic Medicine, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330004, Jiangxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Perillaldehyde is one of the main components in perilla. Previous studies have shown that perillaldehyde exerted an antidepressant effect in mice, some of which is mediated through regulation of the anti-inflammatory system and the monoamine system. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of perillaldehyde on the neurotrophic system and to elucidate whether its antidepressant effect requires brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Nurse anesthetists' preferences for anesthesiologists' participation in patient care at a large teaching hospital.

J Clin Anesth 2019 Apr 16;57:131-138. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa, United States of America.

Study Objective: Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) can evaluate anesthesiologists with whom they work clinically using a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. Use of such a scale to evaluate performance depends on knowing thresholds for minimum and ideal anesthesiologist performance.

Design: Cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2019.04.018DOI Listing

Short and long-term effects of bisphenol S (BPS) exposure during pregnancy and lactation on plasma lipids, hormones, and behavior in rats.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 9;250:312-322. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Roberto Alcantara Gomes Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Bisphenol S (BPS) has replaced bisphenol A (BPA), a known non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemical, in several products. Considering that little is known regarding BPS effects, especially during critical windows of ontogenetic development, and that BPA, which is quite similar to BPS, is know to be transferred to the offspring via the placenta and milk, in the present study we investigated the behavioral, biochemical and endocrine profiles of Wistar rats born from dams that were BPS-exposed [groups: BPS10 (10 μg/kg/day), BPS50 (50 μg/kg/day)] during pregnancy and lactation. Due to the non-monotonic dose-response effect of bisphenol, the data of both BPS groups were directly compared with those of the controls, not to each other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.100DOI Listing

Cortisol suppression after memory reactivation impairs later memory performance.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 9;106:226-232. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory for Behavioral Neurology and Imaging of Condition, Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability (CIGEV), University of Geneva, Switzerland; Swiss National Center of Competences in Research LIVES - Overcoming vulnerabilities: life course perspective, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Experiencing stressful or traumatic events can result in disabling clinical symptoms of maladaptive emotional memory retrieval, which are only partly addressed by the currently proposed treatments. Cortisol modulation has been shown to affect emotional memory retrieval and potentially reconsolidation, offering an opportunity for developing more efficient treatments for disorders with an emotional memory component. Here, we investigated if cortisol suppression after reactivation of emotional memories weakens later memory thereof. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064530183123
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.03.035DOI Listing
April 2019
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Examining reactivity patterns in burnout and other indicators of chronic stress.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 4;106:195-205. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Psychology, TU Dresden, Germany.

Introduction: Burnout symptomatology is associated with various negative health consequences; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. One potential pathway involves alterations in the acute stress response. The aims of the present study were to examine burnout-associated alterations in stress-reactivity patterns, during a standardized social stressor compared to a control condition, as well as to examine whether effects associated with greater burnout symptomatology were distinct from other, conceptually overlapping indicators of chronic stress (i. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064530183115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Altered predictive contextual processing of emotional faces versus abstract stimuli in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Clin Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 13;130(6):963-975. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, University of A Coruña, Spain.

Objectives: We investigated the proposition that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with predictive contextual processing deficits.

Methods: We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in adults with ASD and controls during the performance of a predictive contextual processing task, using either triangles or emotional faces. Targets were preceded by either randomized sequences (R) or by sequences including a predictive sequence (P). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13882457193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2019.03.031DOI Listing
April 2019
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Abdominal vagal deafferentation alters affective behaviors in rats.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 7;252:404-412. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Zurich, Switzerland; Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: There is growing evidence for a role of abnormal gut-brain signaling in disorders involving altered mood and affect, including depression. Studies using vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) suggest that the disruption of vagal afferent signaling may contribute to these abnormalities. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on affective behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.015DOI Listing

Chemokines CCL2 and CCL7, but not CCL12, play a significant role in the development of pain-related behavior and opioid-induced analgesia.

Cytokine 2019 Apr 16;119:202-213. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Pain Pharmacology, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

The complex neuroimmunological interactions mediated by chemokines are suggested to be responsible for the development of neuropathic pain. The lack of knowledge regarding the detailed pathomechanism of neuropathy is one reason for the lack of optimally efficient therapies. Recently, several lines of evidence indicated that expression of CCR2 is increased in spinal cord neurons and microglial cells after peripheral nerve injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Dopamine receptor D (DRD) polymorphisms with reduced functional potency intensify atrophy in syndrome-specific sites of frontotemporal dementia.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 10;23:101822. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objective: We aimed to understand the impact of dopamine receptor D (DRD) polymorphisms on neurodegeneration in patients with dementia. We hypothesized that DRDdampened-variants with reduced functional potency would be associated with greater atrophy in regions with higher receptor density. Given that DRD is concentrated in anterior regions of the limbic and cortical forebrain we anticipated genotype effects in patients with a more rostral pattern of neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101822DOI Listing

Phenotypic variations alter the ecological impact of invasive alien species: Lessons from Parthenium hysterophorus.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 16;241:187-197. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160 014, India; Central University of Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda, 151 001, India.

Invasive plant species constantly adjust their behavior with ecological shifts by virtue of phenotypic plasticity and/or local adaptations. Changes in the phenotype of an invasive species may also trigger variations in its community level impacts, which is an acceptable, yet unexplored aspect of invasion biology. Our study attempts to fill important knowledge gaps on the basic behavior and ecological interactions of invasive species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.129DOI Listing

Deletion of Brg1 causes stereocilia bundle fusion and cuticular plate loss in vestibular hair cells.

Hear Res 2019 Apr 8;377:247-259. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

School of Life Science and Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Experimental Teratology, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, China. Electronic address:

Brg1 is an ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it is indispensable for the development and homeostasis of various organs. Conditional deletion of Brg1 in cochlea hair cells (HCs) leads to multiple structural defects and profound deafness. However, the premature death of Brg1-deficient cochlea HCs hindered further study of the role of Brg1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Genetic factors and therapy outcomes in persistent developmental stuttering.

J Commun Disord 2019 Apr 5;80:11-17. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, 35A Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: We investigated whether outcomes of therapy for persistent developmental stuttering differ in individuals who carry a mutation in one of the known genes associated with stuttering compared to individuals without such mutations.

Method: We studied outcomes of an intensive fluency shaping-based therapy program in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering. We evaluated a cohort of 51 stuttering individuals with who carried a mutation in either the GNPTAB, GNPTG, NAGPA, or AP4E1 gene. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00219924183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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A systematic review of the word sentence association paradigm (WSAP).

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2019 Apr 11;64:133-148. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, United States; McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: The Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP) was originally designed to assess and modify interpretive biases (IB) in socially anxious individuals. Researchers have since modified the WSAP for use across various populations. Despite its widespread use, no studies have systematically reviewed the WSAP to determine its validity and reliability. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057916183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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New folate receptor targeted nano liposomes for delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cancer cells: Strong implication for enhanced potency and safety.

Life Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

We previously showed that folate liposomes of 5FU made from Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) induced cell death in HT-29 and HeLa cells more potently than bulk 5FU. Also, a primary 5FU liposomal formulation with phosphatidyl choline (PC) exhibited higher cytotoxicity in murine colon cancer cells. In the present study, optimization of 5FU PC liposome, mechanism of cell death induction in human cancer cell lines and its safety along with other assays have been employed for targeted PC liposomes of 5FU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.04.030DOI Listing

Ca-PKCα-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the suppressive effect of propofol on proliferation of neural stem cells from the neonatal rat hippocampus.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Neonatal exposure to propofol induces persistent behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. In addition to triggering the apoptosis of neurons in the developing brain, anesthetics may contribute to the development of cognitive deficits by interfering neurogenesis. Given the importance of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in neurogenesis, the effect of propofol on NSC proliferation and the mechanisms underlying this effect were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Design and evaluation of chitosan/chondroitin sulfate/nano-bioglass based composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

Chitosan, a natural biopolymer with osteoconductive properties is widely investigated to generate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. However, chitosan based scaffolds lacks in mechanical strength and structural stability in hydrated condition and thereby limits its application for bone tissue regeneration. Thus in the present study, to overcome the limitations associated with chitosan based scaffolds, we fabricated polyelectrolyte complexation mediated composite scaffold of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate incorporated with nano-sized bioglass. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01418130183730
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.107DOI Listing
April 2019
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Water extractable pentosans - Quantification of ferulic acid using RP-HPLC, techno-rheological and antioxidant properties.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India.

Water extractable pentosans extracted from three varieties of oats were studied for structural analysis using ATR- FTIR, ferulic acid content using RP-HPLC, antioxidant activity by DPPH, reducing power, and metal chelating assays, and functional properties. The appearance of absorption band at 1720 cm in water extractable pentosans is assigned to the presence of aromatic esters as displayed from ATR-FTIR spectrum. All the samples exhibited non-newtonian behavior with viscosities following the order; SWEP > 20WEP > 90WEP. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01418130193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.112DOI Listing
April 2019
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Use of gelatin and gum arabic for microencapsulation of probiotic cells from Lactobacillus plantarum by a dual process combining double emulsification followed by complex coacervation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Food Technology Department, Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), P.H. Rolfs Avenue, Campus, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

The objectives of this study were i) to microencapsulate probiotic cells of Lactobacillus plantarum through a dual process consisting of emulsification followed by complex coacervation using gelatin and gum arabic, ii) to characterize the lyophilized microcapsules, iii) to evaluate their behavior in simulated in vitro gastrointestinal conditions and iv) to evaluate the survival of microencapsulated probiotic cells during 45 days of storage at 8 °C, 25 °C and -18 °C. The optimized conditions for complex coacervation consisted of a 50:50 biopolymer ratio and pH = 4.0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.110DOI Listing

Rheological properties of Prunus persica exudate: Potential effects of proteins and polyphenols.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Food Microbiology, School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China. Electronic address:

This study was to investigate the rheological properties of graded Prunus persica exudates (peach gums). Graded peach gums were extracted by hot water and precipitated by ethanol to obtain white peach gum polysaccharide (WPGP) and yellow peach gum polysaccharide (YPGP). Chemical analysis showed that YPGP had 0. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01418130193082
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.104DOI Listing
April 2019
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Circadian regulation of depression: a role for serotonin.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Texas at Austin, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Synchronizing circadian (24 h) rhythms in physiology and behavior with the environmental light-dark cycle is critical for maintaining optimal health. Dysregulation of the circadian system increases susceptibility to numerous pathological conditions including major depressive disorder. Stress is a common etiological factor in the development of depression and the circadian system is highly interconnected to stress-sensitive neurotransmitter systems such as the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00913022193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Blood-to-brain communication in the hypothalamus for energy intake regulation.

Neurochem Int 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara ,634-8521, Japan.

The arcuate nucleus (Arc) integrates circulating hormonal and metabolic signals to control energy expenditure and intake. One of the most important routes that enables the Arc to sense circulating molecules is through the median eminence (ME), which lacks a typical blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanism by which circulating molecules reach the Arc neurons remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.04.007DOI Listing

GLP-1: Molecular mechanisms and outcomes of a complex signaling system.

Neurochem Int 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Meal ingestion provokes the release of hormones and transmitters, which in turn regulate energy homeostasis and feeding behavior. One such hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has received significant attention in the treatment of obesity and diabetes due to its potent incretin effect. In addition to the peripheral actions of GLP-1, this hormone is able to alter behavior through the modulation of multiple neural circuits. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01970186193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Single visit PDT for basal cell carcinoma - a new therapeutic protocol.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Skin Department, Foundation Hospital Amaral Carvalho, Jau, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in Brazil and worldwide. Topical Photodynamic Therapy is a technique that offers advantages as: excellent aesthetic result, possibility of application for outpatients in ambulatory, and presenting a minimum functional impact of the treated anatomycal site. Fractionated Photodynamic Therapy is a modification of the usual technique in which the full dose of light is delivered in steps separated by a periods of time ("dark intervals"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Seizure control by low-intensity ultrasound in mice with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2019 Apr 4;154:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China. Electronic address:

Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy. Recent studies have demonstrated that ultrasound stimulation can inhibit spontaneous recurrent seizures and improve behavioral outcomes for rodents with TLE. However, the exact underlying mechanism for inhibition of TLE via ultrasound stimulation remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.04.002DOI Listing

The impact of behavioral interventions on cognitive function in healthy older adults: A systematic review.

Authors:
Briana N Sprague

Ageing Res Rev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The Pennsylvania State University, 119 Health and Human Development Building, University Park 16802, US. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2019.04.002DOI Listing

The association between alcohol metabolism and genetic variants of ADH1A, SRPRB, and PGM1 in Korea.

Alcohol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Disease, Center for Biomedical Sciences, Korea National Institute of Health, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28159, South Korea.

Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem in East Asian countries. Alcohol use leads to a cascade of problems including increased chances of risky behavior and wide range of negative health consequences from alcoholic liver disease to upper gastric and liver cancer. These alcohol effects are known to be influenced by ethnic variability and genetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2019.03.004DOI Listing

CUE-ALCOHOL associative learning in FEMALE RATS.

Alcohol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The University of Texas at Austin; Institute for Neuroscience; Department of Psychology. Electronic address:

The ability of environmental cues to trigger alcohol seeking behaviors is believed to facilitate problematic alcohol use. We previously showed that the development of this cue-evoked alcohol approach reflects cue-alcohol learning and memory in the adult male rat; however, we do not know whether the same is true for similarly aged female rats. Consequently, adult Long-Evans female rats were allowed to drink unsweetened alcohol in the homecage (MWF 24 hr two-bottle choice, 5 weeks) and subsequently split into two experimental groups: paired and unpaired. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07418329193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2019.03.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Influence of two functional polymorphisms in NOS1 on baseline cortisol and working memory in healthy subjects.

Nitric Oxide 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Introduction: The neuronal isoform of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) encoded by NOS1 is the main source of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain. Reduced NO signaling in the prefrontal cortex has been linked to schizophrenia and cognitive processes while reduced striatal NOS1 expression has been associated with impulsive behavior.

Methods: To evaluate the effect of two functional polymorphisms in alternative first exons of NOS1, ex1f-VNTR and ex1c-SNP rs41279104, on the HPA stress axis and neurocognitive abilities, 280 healthy subjects were genotyped, had their salivary cortisol levels measured and were assessed in verbal memory, verbal fluency, working memory and verbal IQ by using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), the Regensburger test of verbal fluency (RWT), a n-back task and subscales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Sweet cognition: The differential effects of glucose consumption on attentional food bias in individuals of lean and obese status.

Physiol Behav 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Health and Community, Department of Psychiatry, UCSF, United States; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, UCSF, United States. Electronic address:

In general, glucose consumption improves cognitive performance; however, it is unknown whether glucose specifically enhances attentional food bias, and how this process may vary by BMI status. We hypothesized that glucose consumption would increase attentional food bias among individuals of obese BMI status more so than among individuals of lean BMI status. Participants (N = 35) completed the n-back, a working memory task modified to assess attentional food bias (ATT-Food), under fasting and glucose challenge conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.014DOI Listing

An electrophysiological investigation of orthographic spatial integration in reading.

Neuropsychologia 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Aix-Marseille University & CNRS, France.

During reading, word recognition speed is influenced by the amount of orthographic overlap with surrounding words. The nature of this phenomenon is not understood: some theories attribute it to low-level visual operations (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Examining persistence of acute environmental enrichment-induced anti-sucrose craving effects in rats.

Appetite 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology and Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, 98225-9172, USA.

A single, overnight (acute) environmental enrichment (EE; a large environment with conspecifics and novel objects) experience robustly decreases sucrose consumption (taking) and responsiveness to sucrose-paired cues (seeking) in rats. Persisting effects of acute EE on sucrose seeking and taking have not yet been identified. In the present study, rats were trained to self-administer a 10% sucrose solution paired with a compound tone + light stimulus for 10 days in 2-h sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.03.037DOI Listing

Positive association between facial and vocal femininity/masculinity in women but not in men.

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Multicomponent stimuli improve information reception. In women, perceived facial and vocal femininity-masculinity (FM) are concordant; however, mixed results are found for men. Some feminine and masculine traits are related to sex hormone action and can indicate reproductive qualities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03766357183015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Reinforcement schedules differentially affect learning in neuronal operant conditioning in rats.

Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Neural Information, Graduate School of Brain Science, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, 610-0394, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Operant conditioning of neuronal activity is a core process for better operation of brain-machine interfaces. However, few studies have investigated the role of reinforcement schedules in neuronal operant conditioning, although they are very effective in behavioral operant conditioning. To test the effect of different reinforcement schedules, the authors trained single-neuron activity in the motor cortex using fixed ratio (FR) and variable ratio (VR) schedules in rats. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01680102193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Molecular identification of GnIH and its potential role in reproductive physiology and male pregnancy of the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

CAS Key Laboratory ofTropical Marine Bio-resourcesand Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Institute of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) plays a negative role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by inhibiting gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. Male pregnancy and ovoviviparous behavior are unique phenomena among vertebrates. To better understand the neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms in ovoviviparous fish with male pregnancy, we identified the orthologous GnIH gene in the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.04.018DOI Listing

The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 reduces motivation, but not inhibitory control, in a rat stop signal task.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

There is considerable clinical interest in the neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin for its ability to regulate motivation and reward as well as arousal and wakefulness. For instance, antagonists for the orexin-1 receptor (OxR1) are thought to hold great promise for treating drug addiction and disorders associated with overeating, as these compounds repeatedly have been found to suppress seeking of various drugs of abuse as well as highly palatable foods in preclinical models. Given the hypothesized role of OxR1 signaling in cue-driven motivation, an outstanding question is whether pharmacologically blocking this receptor affects cognitive functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.017DOI Listing

Morin post-treatment confers neuroprotection in a novel rat model of mild repetitive traumatic brain injury by targeting dementia markers, APOE, autophagy and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Exposure to repetitive brain trauma has gained attention for its similarity to sport-related trauma. The traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly associated with neurodegenerative pathology that affects cognition, memory and behavior. The current study developed a novel mild repetitive traumatic brain injury (mRTBI) model to highlight some of the possible molecular pathological mechanisms compared to those of single trauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Hear Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells ROR.

Cell 2019 Apr;177(3):516-518

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology and Sheikh Ahmed Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

In this issue of Cell, Lytle et al. (2019) integrate functional genomic approaches to identify molecular dependencies of pancreatic cancer stem cells that may be exploited therapeutically. The comprehensive analysis reveals an unexpected role for retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγ), a T-cell-associated transcription factor, in defining the stemness and the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00928674193038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Aggression: Perspectives from social and systems neuroscience.

Horm Behav 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011, USA.

Exhibiting behavioral plasticity in order to mount appropriate responses to dynamic and novel social environments is crucial to the survival of all animals. Thus, how animals regulate flexibility in the timing, duration, and intensity of specific behaviors is of great interest to biologists. In this review, we discuss how animals rapidly respond to social challenges, with a particular focus on aggression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effect of interface surface design on the fracture behavior of bilayered composites.

Eur J Oral Sci 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different interface designs on the load-bearing capacity of bilayered composite structures (BLS). Cylindrical specimens of BLS were prepared from base composite of 3.5 mm thickness and surface composite of 1. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/eos.12617
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eos.12617DOI Listing
April 2019
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Dopamine drives binge-like consumption of a palatable food in experimental Parkinsonism.

Mov Disord 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratorio di Neurofisiologia, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

Background: Prolonged dopaminergic replacement therapy in PD results in pulsatile dopamine receptors stimulation in both dorsal and ventral striatum causing wearing off, motor fluctuations, and nonmotor side effects such as behavioral addictions. Among impulse control disorders, binge eating can be easily modeled in laboratory animals.

Objectives: We hypothesize that manipulation of dopamine levels in a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, as a model of PD characterized by a different extent of dopamine denervation between dorsal and ventral striatum, would influence both synaptic plasticity of the nucleus accumbens and binge-like eating behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27683DOI Listing

Niche-specific metabolic adaptation in biotrophic and necrotrophic oomycetes is manifested in differential use of nutrients, variation in gene content, and enzyme evolution.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 19;15(4):e1007729. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside United States of America.

The use of host nutrients to support pathogen growth is central to disease. We addressed the relationship between metabolism and trophic behavior by comparing metabolic gene expression during potato tuber colonization by two oomycetes, the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans and the necrotroph Pythium ultimum. Genes for several pathways including amino acid, nucleotide, and cofactor biosynthesis were expressed more by Ph. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007729DOI Listing

Event versus activity-based cues and motivation in school-related prospective memory tasks.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215845. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Experimental Psychology-Research Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember an intention in the future, is essential to children's everyday lives. We explored age differences (6- to 7- vs. 10- to 11-year-olds) in PM depending on the nature of the task and the children's motivation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215845PLOS
April 2019
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Medical prescribing and antibiotic resistance: A game-theoretic analysis of a potentially catastrophic social dilemma.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215480. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

The availability of antibiotics presents medical practitioners with a prescribing dilemma. On the one hand, antibiotics provide a safe and effective treatment option for patients with bacterial infections, but at a population level, over-prescription reduces their effectiveness by facilitating the evolution of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotic medication. A game-theoretic investigation, including analysis of equilibrium strategies, evolutionarily stability, and replicator dynamics, reveals that rational doctors, motivated to attain the best outcomes for their own patients, will prescribe antibiotics irrespective of the level of antibiotic resistance in the population and the behavior of other doctors, although they would achieve better long-term outcomes if their prescribing were more restrained. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215480PLOS

Fluid supplementation accelerates epithelial repair during chemical colitis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215387. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami-Leonard Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States of America.

The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis is a common animal model of inflammatory bowel disease that causes pain and distress. In this study, we aimed to determine whether fluid supplementation can be used as a welfare-based intervention to minimize animal suffering. C57Bl/6 females undergoing acute colitis by administration of 3% DSS in drinking water were supplemented with 1 mL intraperitoneal injections of NaCl and compared to non-supplemented control mice. Read More

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April 2019
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The predictive ability of the expected utility-entropy based fund rating approach: A comparison investigation with Morningstar ratings in US.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215320. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

In this paper, we propose an alternative fund rating approach based on the Expected Utility-Entropy (EU-E) decision model, in which the measure of risk for a risky action was axiomatically developed by Luce et al. We examine the ability of this approach as an alternative fund rating approach for its ability to potentially mitigate the drawbacks of the risk measure used in Morningstar ratings, and investigate the ability of the EU-E model based and Morningstar ratings to predict mutual fund performance. Overall, we find that the risk measure used in both models plays a defining role in their ability to predict future fund performance, and that the EU-E model can effectively consider the behavioral decisions of an investor. Read More

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