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    621 results match your criteria Behavioral and Brain Functions [Journal]

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    Assessing ADHD symptoms in children and adults: evaluating the role of objective measures.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 May 18;14(1):11. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Department of Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35037, Marburg, Germany.
    Background: Diagnostic guidelines recommend using a variety of methods to assess and diagnose ADHD. Applying subjective measures always incorporates risks such as informant biases or large differences between ratings obtained from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that ratings and tests seem to assess somewhat different constructs. Read More

    Sex differences in associations between maternal deprivation and alterations in hippocampal calcium-binding proteins and cognitive functions in rats.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 May 15;14(1):10. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.
    Background And Objective: Adverse early-life experiences have been suggested as one of the key contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, such that these experiences influence brain development, cognitive ability and mental health. Previous studies indicated that hippocampal levels of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CALR) and calbindin-D28k (CALB) changed in response to maternal deprivation (MD), a model for adverse early-life experiences. We investigated the effects of MD on hippocampal CALR and CALB protein levels and cognitive behaviors, and explored whether these effects were sex-related. Read More

    Magnitude processing of symbolic and non-symbolic proportions: an fMRI study.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 May 10;14(1). Epub 2018 May 10.
    Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Schleichstraße 6, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Background: Recent research indicates that processing proportion magnitude is associated with activation in the intraparietal sulcus. Thus, brain areas associated with the processing of numbers (i.e. Read More

    Neural correlates of interference resolution in the multi-source interference task: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Apr 10;14(1). Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Sport Psychology, School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, 399 Chang Hai Road, Shanghai, 200438, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Interference resolution refers to cognitive control processes enabling one to focus on task-related information while filtering out unrelated information. But the exact neural areas, which underlie a specific cognitive task on interference resolution, are still equivocal. The multi-source interference task (MSIT), as a particular cognitive task, is a well-established experimental paradigm used to evaluate interference resolution. Read More

    Interaction of basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex regulates the consolidation and extinction of social fear.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Mar 19;14(1). Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Institute of Anatomy and Histology & Embryology, Neuroscience, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, No. 199 of Donggang West Road, Lanzhou, 730000, Gansu, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process. Read More

    Left centro-parieto-temporal response to tool-gesture incongruity: an ERP study.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Mar 13;14(1). Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Occupational Therapy & Graduate Institute of Behavioral Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: Action semantics have been investigated in relation to context violation but remain less examined in relation to the meaning of gestures. In the present study, we examined tool-gesture incongruity by event-related potentials (ERPs) and hypothesized that the component N400, a neural index which has been widely used in both linguistic and action semantic congruence, is significant for conditions of incongruence.

    Methods: Twenty participants performed a tool-gesture judgment task, in which they were asked to judge whether the tool-gesture pairs were correct or incorrect, for the purpose of conveying functional expression of the tools. Read More

    The neural correlates of mental arithmetic in adolescents: a longitudinal fNIRS study.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Mar 10;14(1). Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    LEAD Graduate School & Research Network, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Background: Arithmetic processing in adults is known to rely on a frontal-parietal network. However, neurocognitive research focusing on the neural and behavioral correlates of arithmetic development has been scarce, even though the acquisition of arithmetic skills is accompanied by changes within the fronto-parietal network of the developing brain. Furthermore, experimental procedures are typically adjusted to constraints of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which may not reflect natural settings in which children and adolescents actually perform arithmetic. Read More

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and autism: comprehensive genetic analyses of children with autism and mtDNA deletion.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Feb 20;14(1). Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Institute of Genomic Medicine and Rare Disorders, Semmelweis University, Tömő Str. 25-29, Budapest, 1083, Hungary.
    Background: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is very heterogeneous. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in ASD; however, primary mitochondrial disease has been genetically proven in a small subset of patients. The main goal of the present study was to investigate correlations between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) changes and alterations of genes associated with mtDNA maintenance or ASD. Read More

    Correction to: Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Feb 7;14(1). Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Shepherd University, Shepherdstown, WV, USA.
    The original version of this article [1] unfortunately contained an error which has since been acknowledged in this Correction article. The URL link in the Reference 19 was broken and it needs to be replaced with the active link given below. Read More

    Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Jan 20;14(1). Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Read More

    Association between cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) 2 polymorphisms and schizophrenia susceptibility and symptoms in the Han Chinese population.
    Behav Brain Funct 2018 Jan 3;14(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Psychiatry, Henan Mental Hospital, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.
    Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex polygenic psychiatric disorder caused in part by abnormal dopamine levels. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) 2 is known to protect and repair the dopaminergic system. Dopamine dysfunction is one of the pathogenesis of SZ. Read More

    EARLY gestational exposure to isoflurane causes persistent cell loss in the dentate gyrus of adult male rats.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Dec 26;13(1):14. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring.

    Findings: Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions. Read More

    Behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reinforcer availability: an experimental study using signal detection methodology.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Sep 25;13(1):13. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Human Developmental Neurobiology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan.
    Background: Most research on motivational processes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been undertaken in Western Europe and North America. The extent to which these findings apply to other cultural groups is unclear. The current study evaluated the behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reward availability. Read More

    Cognitive behavioural therapy attenuates the enhanced early facial stimuli processing in social anxiety disorders: an ERP investigation.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Jul 28;13(1):12. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 Lincui Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China.
    Background: Previous studies of patients with social anxiety have demonstrated abnormal early processing of facial stimuli in social contexts. In other words, patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) tend to exhibit enhanced early facial processing when compared to healthy controls. Few studies have examined the temporal electrophysiological event-related potential (ERP)-indexed profiles when an individual with SAD compares faces to objects in SAD. Read More

    Selective impairments of alerting and executive control in HIV-infected patients: evidence from attention network test.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Jun 27;13(1):11. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Collaborative Innovation Center for Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Mental Health, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    Background: Attention ability can be subdivided into three functionally independent networks, i.e., alerting network, orienting network, and executive network. Read More

    Neurobehavioral changes in mice offspring exposed to green tea during fetal and early postnatal development.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Jun 1;13(1):10. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Green tea extract (GTE) has various health promoting effects on animals and humans. However, the effects of perinatal exposure to GTE on the behavioral aspects of offspring have not been elucidated thus far. GTE was provided for pregnant female mice at concentrations of either 20 or 50 g/L, beginning the day of conception until the third week after delivery, postnatal day 22 (PD 22). Read More

    Sex differences in avoidance behavior after perceiving potential risk in mice.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 May 5;13(1). Epub 2017 May 5.
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Keihanna Science City, Nara, 630-0192, Japan.
    Background: Sex has been considered as a potential factor regulating individual behaviors in different contexts. Recently, findings on sex differences in the neuroendocrine circuit have expanded due to exact measurements and control of neuronal activity, while findings on sex differences in behavioral phenotypes are limited. One efficient way to determine the miscellaneous aspects of a sexually different behavior is to segment it into a set of simpler responses induced by discrete scenes. Read More

    Interaction between cytochrome P450 2A6 and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase genes and their association with smoking risk in young men.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 May 4;13(1). Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666 Buzih Road, Beitun District, Taichung City, 40601, Taiwan.
    Background: Although some effects of gene-gene interactions on nicotine-dopamine metabolism for smoking behavior have been reported, polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have not been studied together to determine their effects on smokers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the interaction between the CYP 2A6 and COMT genes on smoking behavior in young Taiwanese men.

    Results: A self-report questionnaire regarding smoking status was administered to 500 young men. Read More

    Effects of GABA receptors in the insula on recognition memory observed with intellicage.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Apr 17;13(1). Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Disease, Incubation Base of National Key Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.
    Background: Insular function has gradually become a topic of intense study in cognitive research. Recognition memory is a commonly studied type of memory in memory research. GABAR has been shown to be closely related to memory formation. Read More

    Brain structural investigation and hippocampal tractography in medication overuse headache: a native space analysis.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Apr 8;13(1). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    UMR 5287-CNRS, INCIA-Bordeaux University, 33076, Bordeaux, France.
    Background: Spatial normalization of brain images, a prerequisite for voxel based morphometry analysis, may account for the large variability of the volumetric data in medication overuse headache (MOH); possibly because this disease concerns patients differing on both sex and age, and hence with different brain size and shape.

    Methods: The present study aimed at providing a subject-based analysis of macrostructure using a native space volumes segmentation (Freesurfer), and microstructure using a region of interest (ROI: i.e. Read More

    Cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. stem bark in a rat model of scopolamine.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Mar 28;13(1). Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Department of Biology, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, No. 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania.
    Background: Plants of the genus Markhamia have been traditionally used by different tribes in various parts of West African countries, including Cameroun. Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Read More

    The social brain network in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Feb 16;13(1). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 E. Adams St., Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA.
    Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Read More

    Logical fallacies in animal model research.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Feb 15;13(1). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Behavioral Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, St. Olavs Plass, P.O. Box 4, 0130, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness.

    Conclusions: Researchers using animal models are susceptible to a fallacy known as false analogy, where inferences based on assumptions of similarities between animals and humans can potentially lead to an incorrect conclusion. Read More

    Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Feb 6;13(1). Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Tampere Center for Child Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Lääkärinkatu 1, 33520, Tampere, Finland.
    Background: Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions.

    Methods: Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. Read More

    Drug-induced Parkinson's disease modulates protein kinase A and Olfactory Marker Protein in the mouse olfactory bulb.
    Behav Brain Funct 2017 Jan 26;13(1). Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    INBB, National Insitute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice.

    Findings: Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and exploratory behavior. Read More

    Venlafaxine ameliorates the depression-like behaviors and hippocampal S100B expression in a rat depression model.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Dec 8;12(1):34. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Child and Adolescent, Public Health College, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Road, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, China.
    Background: Accumulating evidence has indicated that S100B may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. No published study has examined the effect of the antidepressant drug venlafaxine on S100B in animal models of depression. This study investigated S100B expression in the hippocampus and assessed the effect of venlafaxine on S100B mRNA level and protein expression in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Read More

    Scutellaria barbata flavonoids alleviate memory deficits and neuronal injuries induced by composited Aβ in rats.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Dec 8;12(1):33. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Hebei Province Key Research Office of Traditional Chinese Medicine Against Dementia/Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengde Medical College/Hebei Province Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research and Development, Chengde, Hebei, 067000, China.
    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Scutellaria barbata flavonoids (SBF) on memory impairment and neuronal injury induced by amyloid beta protein 25-35 in combination with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 (RHTGF-β1) (composited Aβ) in rats.

    Methods: The composited Aβ-treated model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like memory impairment and neuronal injury was established in male rats by right intracerebroventricular injection of composited Aβ, and the effects of SBF were assessed using this rat model. Spatial learning and memory of rats were assessed in the Morris water maze, and neuronal injury was assessed by light and electron microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin or uranyl acetate and lead nitrate-sodium citrate staining, respectively. Read More

    Patterns of motor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Dec 1;12(1):32. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Stensberggata 26, 0170, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats.

    Methods: A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. Read More

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of visual hallucinations in the human striate cortex.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Nov 29;12(1):31. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Lahore University of Managment Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Purpose: Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins.

    Methods: An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual cortical areas including the striate, parastriate and peristriate cortex in the occipital lobe of the human brain. Read More

    Association of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 polymorphisms with oppositional defiant disorder in a Chinese Han population.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Nov 21;12(1):30. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Department of Child and Adolescent, Public Health College, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Road, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, China.
    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder of school-age population. It is well known that 5-HT dysfunction is correlated with impulsivity, which is one of the common characteristics of ODD. The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2) synthesizes 5-HT in serotonergic neurons of the midbrain raphe. Read More

    The role of C957T, TaqI and Ser311Cys polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Nov 9;12(1):29. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico.
    Background: The association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and schizophrenia has been studied though no conclusive outcomes have been attained. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relation between three polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene (C957T, TaqI and Ser311Cys) and schizophrenia.

    Methods: The search was made in PubMed and EBSCO databases (up to February 2016). Read More

    Age, environment, object recognition and morphological diversity of GFAP-immunolabeled astrocytes.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Oct 10;12(1):28. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    Laboratório de Investigações Em Neurodegeneração e Infecção, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Rua dos Mundurucus 4487, Guamá, Belém, Pará, CEP 66073-000, Brazil.
    Background: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway.

    Results: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories. Read More

    A non-targeted metabolite profiling pilot study suggests that tryptophan and lipid metabolisms are linked with ADHD-like behaviours in dogs.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Sep 29;12(1):27. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, University of Helsinki and Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, P.O.Box 63, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. Read More

    Visual food stimulus changes resting oscillatory brain activities related to appetitive motive.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Sep 26;12(1):26. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.
    Background: Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes.

    Methods: Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25. Read More

    Clinical application of DEX/CRH test and multi-channel NIRS in patients with depression.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Aug 31;12(1):25. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Osaka Medical College, 2-7, Daigaku-Cho, Takatsuk, Osaka, 569-8686, Japan.
    Background: To reduce the number of patients with depression, biomarkers for clarifying psychiatric disorders are warranted. Numerous candidates have been proposed; however, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with multi-channel probes and a dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) test are still surviving for practical demand. Thirty-one outpatients with depressed moods were analyzed using both biological tests. Read More

    Transgenerational effects of paternal heroin addiction on anxiety and aggression behavior in male offspring.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Aug 31;12(1):23. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Level 7, FF3, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300, Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Background: Heroin addiction is a growing concern, affecting the socioeconomic development of many countries. Little is known about transgenerational effects on phenotype changes due to heroin addiction. This study aims to investigate changes in level of anxiety and aggression up to four different generations of adult male rats due to paternal exposure to heroin. Read More

    Relationship among methadone dose, polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire in heroin-addicted patients.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Aug 31;12(1):24. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Administration Center of Research and Education Innovation, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan.
    Background: We investigated whether variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) scores could be used to aid adjustment of daily methadone requirements of heroin addicts. DRD2 TaqI B polymorphisms and TPQ scores were determined in 138 male Taiwanese heroin addicts who were receiving methadone treatment. Borderline index (harm avoidance + novelty seeking-reward dependence) was calculated for each subject, and three groups were defined: high (mean from all subjects plus 1 standard deviation, or greater), low (half of the calculated high score, or lower) and medium (all values between the high and low scores). Read More

    Association between C3435T polymorphism of MDR1 gene and the incidence of drug-resistant epilepsy in the population of Polish children.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Jul 8;12(1):21. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338, Lodz, Poland.
    Purpose: Epilepsy is a disease of neurological character. Approximately one third of epileptic patients demonstrate a drug-resistant phenotype, which is associated with the development of drug-resistant epilepsy. The multidrug resistance protein 1 and glycoprotein P, encoded by MDR1, play a significant role in the transmembrane transport of anti-epileptic agents. Read More

    The effect of epilepsy on autistic symptom severity assessed by the social responsiveness scale in children with autism spectrum disorder.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Jun 27;12(1):20. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in people with epilepsy ranges from 15 to 47 % (Clarke et al. in Epilepsia 46:1970-1977, 2005), it is speculated that there is a special relationship between the two disorders, yet there has been a lack of systematic studies comparing the behavioral phenotype between autistic individuals and autistic individuals with epilepsy. This study aims to investigate how the co-occurrence of epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects autistic characteristics assessed by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), which has been used as a measure of autism symptoms in previous studies. Read More

    Brain activation differences in schizophrenia during context-dependent processing of saccade tasks.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Jun 24;12(1):19. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Psychology Building 125 Baldwin Street, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.
    Background: Brain function in schizophrenia has been probed using saccade paradigms and functional magnetic resonance imaging, but little information exists about how changing task context impacts saccade related brain activation and behavioral performance. We recruited schizophrenia and comparison subjects to perform saccade tasks in differing contexts: (1) two single task runs (anti- or pro-saccades alternating with fixation) and (2) one dual task run (antisaccades alternating with prosaccades).

    Results: Context-dependent differences in saccade circuitry were evaluated using ROI analyses. Read More

    Developmental stress elicits preference for methamphetamine in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Jun 17;12(1):18. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
    Background: Developmental stress has been hypothesised to interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing substance use disorders. Here we have investigated the effects of maternal separation-induced developmental stress using a behavioural proxy of methamphetamine preference in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat, versus Wistar Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley comparator strains.

    Results: Analysis of results obtained using a conditioned place preference paradigm revealed a significant strain × stress interaction with maternal separation inducing preference for the methamphetamine-associated compartment in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Read More

    BDNF DNA methylation changes as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders: literature review and open access database analysis.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Jun 6;12(1):17. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, BMC, 75124, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system development and function and it is well established that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Recently, numerous studies have associated the DNA methylation level of BDNF promoters with certain psychiatric phenotypes. In this review, we summarize data from current literature as well as from our own analysis with respect to the correlation of BDNF methylation changes with psychiatric disorders and address questions about whether DNA methylation related to the BDNF can be useful as biomarker for specific neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

    Chronic cigarette smoking is linked with structural alterations in brain regions showing acute nicotinic drug-induced functional modulations.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Jun 2;12(1):16. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
    Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    Background: Whereas acute nicotine administration alters brain function which may, in turn, contribute to enhanced attention and performance, chronic cigarette smoking is linked with regional brain atrophy and poorer cognition. However, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies comparing smokers versus nonsmokers have been inconsistent and measures of gray matter possess limited ability to inform functional relations or behavioral implications. The purpose of this study was to address these interpretational challenges through meta-analytic techniques in the service of clarifying the impact of chronic smoking on gray matter integrity and more fully contextualizing such structural alterations. Read More

    Safety out of control: dopamine and defence.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 May 23;12(1):15. Epub 2016 May 23.
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, 25 Howland Street, London, UK.
    We enjoy a sophisticated understanding of how animals learn to predict appetitive outcomes and direct their behaviour accordingly. This encompasses well-defined learning algorithms and details of how these might be implemented in the brain. Dopamine has played an important part in this unfolding story, appearing to embody a learning signal for predicting rewards and stamping in useful actions, while also being a modulator of behavioural vigour. Read More

    Oral administration of potassium bromate induces neurobehavioral changes, alters cerebral neurotransmitters level and impairs brain tissue of swiss mice.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 May 12;12(1):14. Epub 2016 May 12.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Background: Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. The present study reports the side effects of KBrO3 administration on the brain functions and behaviour of albino mice.

    Methods: Animals were divided into three groups: control, low dose KBrO3 (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose KBrO3 (200 mg/kg/day) groups. Read More

    Involvement of hippocampal acetylcholinergic receptors in electroacupuncture analgesia in neuropathic pain rats.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Apr 12;12(1):13. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie Street, Dongzhimennei, Beijing, 100700, China.
    Background: Cumulating evidence has shown a close correlation between electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) frequency-specific analgesic effect and central opioid peptides. However, the actions of hippocampal acetylcholinergic receptors have not been determined. This study aims to observe the effect of different frequencies of EAS on the expression of hippocampal muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (mAChRs, nAChRs) in neuropathic pain rats for revealing their relationship. Read More

    A decade of contributions to understanding and ameliorating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Apr 6;12(1):12. Epub 2016 Apr 6.
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Background: It has been 10 years since Terje Sagvolden founded Behavioral and Brain Functions. BODY: After setting the context, this paper reviews some of the contributions of articles in the journal to the literature on ADHD over that decade. Those articles provide a cross section of some of the most important ongoing themes in ADHD research. Read More

    Neuropsychological and neurophysiological benefits from white noise in children with and without ADHD.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Mar 15;12(1):11. Epub 2016 Mar 15.
    Department of Neurology, Queen Fabiola Children's University Hospital (HUDERF), Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue Jean-Joseph Crocq, 15, 1020, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: Optimal stimulation theory and moderate brain arousal (MBA) model hypothesize that extra-task stimulation (e.g. white noise) could improve cognitive functions of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

    Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) improves brain ischemia-induced pulmonary injury in rats associated to TNF-α expression.
    Behav Brain Funct 2016 Mar 1;12(1). Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine Translational Neuroscience Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.
    Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs)-based therapy seems to be a promising treatment for acute lung injury, but the therapeutic effects of BMSCs transplantation on acute lung injury induced by brain ischemia and the mechanisms have not been totally elucidated. This study explores the effects of transplantation of BMSCs on acute lung injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia and investigates the underlying mechanism.

    Methods: Acute lung injury model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Read More

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