2,307,414 results match your criteria Behavioral Medicine[Journal]


Adherence to Therapeutic Footwear in Type 2 Diabetes in Malta.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta.

Background: The literature reports that people living with diabetes do not adhere to their prescribed therapeutic footwear as instructed. The reason for this is still uncertian although certain footwear characteristics seem to reasons reported leading to reduced level of adherence.

Objectives: To explore the reasons for current adherence or otherwise to prescribed stock footwear amongst patients living with type-2 diabetes. Read More

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December 2018

In situ soft x-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline Fe/MgO interfaces.

J Phys Condens Matter 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida, INDIA.

Interfacial interactions between a layer of iron and MgO hold the key to various phenomena like, tunnel magnetoresistance, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, interlayer exchange coupling, observed in the system. Interface structure has been studied<i> in situ </i>during deposition of iron on MgO surface, using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS). Sub-monolayer sensitivity of SXAS, combined with <i>in situ</i> measurements as a function of iron layer thickness, allowed one to study the evolution of interface with film thickness. Read More

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December 2018

Brain activity in struggling readers before intervention relates to future reading gains.

Cortex 2018 Nov 16;111:286-302. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; Biomedical Imaging Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Neural markers for reading-related changes in response to intervention could inform intervention plans by serving as a potential index of the malleability of the reading network in struggling readers. Of particular interest is the role of brain activation outside the reading network, especially in executive control networks important for reading comprehension. However, it is unclear whether any intervention-related executive control changes in the brain are specific to reading tasks or reflect more domain general changes. Read More

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November 2018

Soil fumigation alters adsorption and degradation behavior of pesticides in soil.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 3;246:264-273. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China; Beijing Innovation Consortium of Agriculture Research System, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Many crops are produced using soil fumigation and chemical pesticides to control soil-borne fungi and bacterial diseases, nematodes and weeds. Fumigation of soil, however, may alter its ability to adsorb, degrade and volatilize pesticides, which can then change the potential for pesticides to leach into groundwater. Soil adsorption kinetics, Freundlich isothermal adsorption and pesticide degradation techniques were used to determine the potential for pesticides to pollute groundwater in fumigated soil. Read More

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December 2018
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Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM personal exposure of two cohorts living in urban and suburban Beijing.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 4;246:225-236. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, China. Electronic address:

In the study, personal PM exposures and their source contributions were characterized for 159 subjects living in the Beijing Metropolitan area. The exposures and sources were examined as functions of residential location, season, vocation, cigarette smoking, and time spent outdoors. Sampling was performed for two categories of volunteers, guards and students, that lived in urban and suburban areas of Beijing. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal Receptors Display Cytoskeleton-Independent Directed Motion on the Plasma Membrane.

iScience 2018 Dec 5;10:234-244. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK; MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. Electronic address:

Directed transport of transmembrane proteins is generally believed to occur via intracellular transport vesicles. However, using single-particle tracking in rat hippocampal neurons with a pH-sensitive quantum dot probe that specifically reports surface movement of receptors, we have identified a subpopulation of neuronal EphB2 receptors that exhibit directed motion between synapses within the plasma membrane itself. This receptor movement occurs independently of the cytoskeleton but is dependent on cholesterol and is regulated by neuronal activity. Read More

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December 2018
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Convergent microstructural brain changes across genetic models of autism spectrum disorder-A pilot study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 8;283:83-91. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 USA; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53705 USA. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and genetically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease affecting as many as 1 in 68 children. Large scale genetic sequencing of individuals along the autism spectrum has uncovered several genetic risk factors for ASD; however, understanding how, and to what extent, individual genes contribute to the overall disease phenotype remains unclear. Neuroimaging studies of ASD have revealed a wide spectrum of structural and functional perturbations that are thought to reflect, in part, the complex genetic heterogeneity underpinning ASD. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral and neural evidence on the processing of ambiguous adjective-noun dependencies in Korean sentence comprehension.

Brain Lang 2018 Dec 14;188:28-41. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dept. of Media and Communication, Konkuk Univeirsity, Seoul 5029, Republic of Korea; Brain and Cognition Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 5029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In Korean, it is allowed for an adjective to modify a distant noun that appears after an intervening relative clause instead of an adjacent noun. The current study investigated the time course of syntactic and semantic integration between an adjective (A) and an adjacent noun (N1) and/or a distant noun (N2) during on-line reading comprehension of Korean sentences. Semantic congruence between adjectives and nouns were manipulated, such that A was congruent with both N1 and N2, either with N1 or N2, or with none of N1/N2. Read More

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December 2018

Chronic stress exposure and daily stress appraisals relate to biological aging marker p16.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 7;102:139-148. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, 300 Medical Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California, 502 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Previous research has linked exposure to adverse social conditions with DNA damage and accelerated telomere shortening, raising the possibility that chronic stress may impact biological aging pathways, ultimately increasing risk for age-related diseases. Less clear, however, is whether these stress-related effects extend to additional hallmarks of biological aging, including cellular senescence, a stable state of cell cycle arrest. The present study aimed to investigate associations between psychosocial stress and two markers of cellular aging-leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cellular senescence signal p16. Read More

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December 2018

Resting state functional connectivity and neural correlates of face-name encoding in patients with ischemic vascular lesions with and without the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Cortex 2018 Nov 26;113:15-28. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Face-name association is a relevant ability for social interactions and involves the ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, particularly in the left hemisphere, bilateral hippocampal, fusiform gyrus and occipital regions. Previous studies demonstrated the primary role of the hippocampus for this ability in healthy subjects. However, no study has examined the participation of the left inferior frontal area, specially the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in patients with ischemic vascular lesions. Read More

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November 2018

Gaze allocation in face-to-face communication is affected primarily by task structure and social context, not stimulus-driven factors.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:28-43. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Gaze allocation to human faces has recently been shown to be greatly dependent on the social context. However, what has not been considered explicitly here, is how gaze allocation may be supportive of the specific task that individuals carry out. In the present study, we combined these two insights. Read More

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December 2018

Infant motor skill predicts later expressive language and autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

Infant Behav Dev 2018 Dec 14;54:37-47. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 3901 Greenspring Ave, Baltimore, MD 21211, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States. Electronic address:

Motor difficulties may be an early Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) risk indicator and may predict subsequent expressive language skills. Further understanding of motor functioning in the first year of life in children with ASD is needed. We examined motor skills in 6-month-olds (n = 140) at high and low familial risk for ASD using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (Grasping, Visual-Motor Integration, and Stationary subscales). Read More

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December 2018

Methotrexate-loaded biodegradable polymeric micelles for lymphoma therapy.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu, 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

Drug resistance and recurrence are the main clinical challenges in chemotherapy of lymphoma. Methotrexate (MTX), especially high dose MTX (HD MTX), is extensively used to treat some aggressive subtypes of lymphoma, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, in order to overcome drug resistance. But poor solubility of the free drug and severe side effects of HD MTX limit its clinical application. Read More

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December 2018

Vascular burden and APOE ε4 are associated with white matter microstructural decline in cognitively normal older adults.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

White matter microstructure can be measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While increasing age is a predictor of white matter (WM) microstructure changes, roles of other possible modifiers, such as cardiovascular risk factors, APOE ε4 allele status and biological sex have not been clarified. We investigated 665 cognitively normal participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (age 50-95, 56. Read More

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December 2018

The Acute Influence of Acid Suppression with Esomeprazole on Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Brain Gene Expression Profiles in a Murine Model of Restraint Stress.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, B168 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

The central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are linked through neuro-endocrine and humoral pathways. Critically ill patients suffer severe physical and emotional stress and frequently receive acid suppressants; however, stress and acid suppression may alter GIT microbiota. This study evaluated the effects of acid suppression on the GIT microbiota and genome-wide expression of brain-specific genes in a murine model of restraint stress. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis of high-performance sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-based adsorbent for effective removal of methylene blue and Pb (II).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China.

In this work, a biobased adsorbent (CMC-PAMA) consisting of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide was prepared by a simple thermal crosslinking method for the removal of methylene blue (MB) and Pb (II) from aqueous solutions. The CMC-PAMA showed excellent static adsorption capacities for MB and Pb (II) of 1611.44 mg·g 840. Read More

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December 2018

Comparing Stress and Arousal Systems in Response to Different Social Contexts in Children with ASD.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.

Response to psychological stress can vary based on the extent to which the context is perceived as stressful, especially under different social conditions. The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare physiological stress (cortisol) and regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) of 10-12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 31) or typical development (TD, n = 25) when exposed to two social stress protocols. The extent to which perceived emotion (affect recognition) and anxiety (state and trait) mediate the stress response was also explored. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of immediate early genes in brain reward circuitries: Differential regulation by psychostimulant and opioid drugs.

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

NIDA Intramural Program, Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Although some of the clinical manifestations of substance use disorders might be superficially similar, it is highly likely that different classes of abused drugs including opioids (heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, other opioids) and psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines) cause different neuroadaptations in various brain regions dependent in the distribution and concentration of their biochemical sites of actions. In fact, different molecular networks are indeed impacted by acute and chronic administration of addictive substances. Some of the genes whose expression is influenced by the administration of these substances are immediate-early genes (IEGs). Read More

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December 2018

Body compassion safeguards against the impact of major life events on binge eating.

Appetite 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CINEICC - Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention, Portugal. Electronic address:

Body compassion is a fresh construct that incorporates two multidimensional concepts: body image and self-compassion. Although self-compassion has revealed a protective role against body image and eating-related problems (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Exposure to methylphenidate in adolescence and adulthood modulates cross-sensitization to amphetamine in adulthood in three genetically variant female rat strains.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 United States.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, behavioral disorder that is characterized by patterns of impulsivity and limited attention. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPD) and amphetamine (Amph), are utilized as first-line agents in the treatment of ADHD. While Amph is known elicit dependence, MPD is not. Read More

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December 2018

Development of somatic markers guiding decision-making along adolescence.

Int J Psychophysiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Behavioral Neurology and Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey.

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December 2018

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mitigates the impact of acute social stress.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Neuroscience Institute, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States. Electronic address:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to promote fear learning as well as avoidant behavioral responses to chronic social defeat stress, but, conversely, this peptide can also have antidepressant effects and can reduce depressant-like symptoms such as social avoidance. The purpose of this study was to use a variety of approaches to determine whether BDNF acting on tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) promotes or prevents avoidant phenotypes in hamsters and mice that have experienced acute social defeat stress. We utilized systemic and brain region-dependent manipulation of BDNF signaling before or immediately following social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters, TrkB knock-in mice, and C57Bl/6J mice and measured the subsequent behavioral response to a novel opponent. Read More

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December 2018

Heightened olfactory dysfunction and oral irritation among chronic smokers and heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness among menthol smokers.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Behavioral Sciences & Community Health, University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States.

Chronic cigarette smoking may influence chemosensory function, which in turn, may affect cigarette usage. Because menthol in cigarettes can attenuate nicotine bitterness, choice of menthol/nonmenthol cigarettes may be influenced by ability to perceive bitterness. We examined chemosensory function of chronic smokers, hypothesizing they would show altered function in comparison to non-smokers and by menthol cigarette preference. Read More

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December 2018

Exploration of sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variability in multivariate parameter spaces for a pharmacokinetic compartment model.

Math Biosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 599 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Electronic address:

Pharmacokinetic models are particularly useful to study the underlying and complex physiological mechanisms contributing to clinical differences across patient subgroups or special populations. Unfortunately, the inherent variability of biological systems and knowledge gaps in physiological data limit confidence in model predictions for special populations. Sourcing data to reflect the desired physiologies can be resource intensive, particularly for a larger model. Read More

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December 2018

Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory cytokines in perinatal depression.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Northwestern University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Background: While perinatal depression is one of the most common complications of pregnancy, there is an insufficient understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of disease. While an association between peripheral inflammatory cytokines and major depressive disorder has been demonstrated, cytokines cannot freely cross the blood brain barrier and thus they give little insight into alternations in brain function. As the brain is in direct communication with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), assessment of inflammation in the CSF may be more directly related to the biologic markers of affective change. Read More

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December 2018

Physician gender differences in processing surgical risk features in videos of standardized patients.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago.

Background: Physician gender differences exist for estimating surgical risk and recommending lung resection. We assessed gender differences in perceived importance of health characteristics portrayed by standardized patients posing as lung resection candidates.

Methods: Physicians read a clinical vignette categorized as low, average, or high surgical risk, then viewed a video of a standardized patient exhibiting vigorous, normal, or frail behavior. Read More

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December 2018

One-Year Survival and Neurologic Outcomes after Pediatric Open-Chest Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: Limited data exist regarding neurobehavioral outcomes of children treated with open-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Our objective was to describe neurobehavioral outcomes one year post-arrest among children who received open-chest CPR during in-hospital cardiac arrest; and explore factors associated with one-year survival and survival with good neurobehavioral outcome.

Methods: The study is a secondary analysis of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest In-Hospital Trial. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of Cracks on the Optical Properties of Silver Nanocrystals Supracrystal Films.

ACS Nano 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Physical properties of nanocrystals self-assembled into 3D superlattices called supracrystals are highly specific with unexpected behavior. The best example to support such claim was given, through STM/STS experiments at low temperature, of very thick supracrystals (around 1000 layers) where it was possible to image the surpracrystal surface and study their electronic properties. From previous studies, we know the optical properties of Ag nanocrystals self-assembled in hexagonal network (2D) or forming small 3D superlattices (from around 2 to 7 layers) are governed by dipolar interactions. Read More

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December 2018

Spatial presentation of cholesterol units on a DNA cube as a determinant of membrane protein-mimicking functions.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Cells use membrane proteins as gatekeepers to transport ions and molecules, catalyze reactions, relay signals, and interact with other cells. DNA nanostructures with lipidic anchors are promising as membrane protein mimics because of their high tuneability. However, the design features specifying DNA nanostructure's functions in lipid membranes are yet to be fully understood. Read More

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December 2018

Do male and female soccer players differ in helping? A study on prosocial behavior among young players.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209168. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Social and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Acting prosocially can be quite challenging in one of the most salient intergroup contexts in contemporary society: Soccer. When winning is the ultimate goal, balancing self-interest with helping a fellow player in distress can be a tough decision; yet it happens. To date, we know little about what motivates soccer players to offer such help in the heat of the game. Read More

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December 2018

The effectiveness of art therapy for anxiety in adults: A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208716. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Faculty of Health, University of Applied Sciences Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Anxiety disorders are one of the most diagnosed mental health disorders. Common treatment consists of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. In clinical practice, also art therapy is additionally provided to patients with anxiety (disorders), among others because treatment as usual is not sufficiently effective for a large group of patients. Read More

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December 2018

How do complex animal signals evolve?

Authors:
Chad M Eliason

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 17;16(12):e3000093. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Integrative Research Center, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, United States of America.

Animal signals-involving combinations of acoustic, chemical, visual, and behavioral cues-are among the most diverse traits in nature. Testing hypotheses about signal evolution has been hampered by difficulties with comparing highly divergent signals among species. In this Primer, I describe recent advances in capturing signals and studying their evolution. Read More

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December 2018

Who self-medicates? Results from structural equation modeling in the Greater Paris area, France.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208632. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Social Epidemiology, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique (UMRS 1136), INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Objectives: Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of self-medication among the Paris adult population and to identify the factors associated with self-medication.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from the SIRS cohort (a French acronym for "Health, inequalities and social ruptures") in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area using a face-to-face administration questionnaire among a representative sample of 3,023 French-speaking adults. Structural equation models were used to investigate the factors associated with self-medication in the overall population and according to income. Read More

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December 2018

Indomethacin blocks the increased conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209291. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

It is well established that repeated social defeat stress can induce negative long-term consequences such as increased anxiety-like behavior and enhances the reinforcing effect of psychostimulants in rodents. In the current study, we evaluated how the immune system may play a role in these long-term effects of stress. A total of 148 OF1 mice were divided into different experimental groups according to stress condition (exploration or social defeat) and pre-treatment (saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin) before each social defeat or exploration episode. Read More

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December 2018

Commentary on "Moving Toward Excellence in Pediatric Physical Therapy Education: A Scoping Review".

Pediatr Phys Ther 2019 Jan;31(1):114

Department of Physical Therapy, Department of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama Children's Hospital of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.

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January 2019

Adapted Dance Improves Motor Abilities and Participation in Children With Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

Pediatr Phys Ther 2019 Jan;31(1):76-82

Division of Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy (Ms McGuire and Drs Long and Bailes) and Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (Dr Esbensen), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Purpose: This pilot study measured effects of an adapted dance program on motor abilities and participation in children with Down syndrome (DS) and explored caregivers' qualitative feedback regarding its benefits.

Methods: Children with DS participated in 20 weekly 1-hour adapted dance sessions. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) Dimensions D and E were administered before and after the program. Read More

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January 2019

Behavior and sleep disturbance in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an update of the most recent studies on Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) with a focus on the unique pattern of behavioral and sleep disturbances associated with the condition.

Recent Findings: The recent literature on SMS has focused on the characteristic severe behavioral and sleep disturbances. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and common clinical course has helped further characterize SMS, while much is left to be discovered in regard to effective treatment/management. Read More

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December 2018

Masking Release for Speech in Modulated Maskers: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures.

Ear Hear 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to obtain an electrophysiological analog of masking release using speech-evoked cortical potentials in steady and modulated maskers and to relate this masking release to behavioral measures for the same stimuli. The hypothesis was that the evoked potentials can be tracked to a lower stimulus level in a modulated masker than in a steady masker and that the magnitude of this electrophysiological masking release is of the same order as that of the behavioral masking release for the same stimuli.

Design: Cortical potentials evoked by an 80-ms /ba/ stimulus were measured in two steady maskers (30 and 65 dB SPL), and in a masker that modulated between these two levels at a rate of 25 Hz. Read More

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December 2018

Opioid and Cannabis Co-Use among Adults with Chronic Pain: Relations to Substance Misuse, Mental Health, and Pain Experience.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (AHR, JB, DJP, MJV); Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (JDB); College of Nursing, Washington State University, Washington, DC (MFO); Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, New York, NY (JWD); Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MJZ); and HEALTH Institute, University of Houston, Houston, TX (MJZ).

Objectives: Opioid misuse constitutes a significant public health problem and is associated with a host of negative outcomes. Despite efforts to curb this increasing epidemic, opioids remain the most widely prescribed class of medications. Prescription opioids are often used to treat chronic pain despite the risks associated with use, and chronic pain remains an important factor in understanding this epidemic. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of smoking behavior on the pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and antipsychotics: evidence for the role of alternative pathways apart from CYP1A2.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy.

Smoking is common among psychiatric patients and has been shown to accelerate the metabolism of different drugs. We aimed to determine the effect of smoking on the serum concentrations of psychopharmacological drugs in a naturalistic clinical setting. Dose-corrected, steady-state serum concentrations of individual patients were analyzed retrospectively by linear regression including age, sex, and smoking for amitriptyline (n=503), doxepin (n=198), mirtazapine (n=572), venlafaxine (n=534), clozapine (n=106), quetiapine (n=182), and risperidone (n=136). Read More

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December 2018

The Transcriptional Signature of a Runner's High.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

SUNY Upstate Medical University, Departments of Neuroscience & Physiology, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Syracuse NY.

Introduction: Endorphins, endocannabinoids, monoamines, and neurotrophins have all been implicated in the euphoric response to endurance running, known as a runner's high. The epi-transcriptional mechanisms regulating this effect have not been defined. Here, we investigate peripheral micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) changes unique to athletes experiencing post-run euphoria, yielding insights about gene networks that control a runner's high. Read More

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December 2018

Socio-behavioural and community predictors of unsuppressed viral load: multi-level results from a hyper-endemic rural South African population.

AIDS 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa.

Objective: Extensive anti-retroviral therapy scale-up is expected to prevent onward transmission of HIV by reducing the overall community viral load (VL). Despite countless studies about predictors of VL derived from clinical settings, to date, no study has established them in sub-Saharan Africa hyperendemic community settings that can inform population-based interventions designed to halt HIV transmission. We used one of Africa's largest population-based prospective cohorts in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to establish for the first time the socio-demographic, behavioral and community predictors of unsuppressed VL. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Binge Drinking on the Developing Brain.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):87-96

Scott A. Jones and Jordan M. Lueras are graduate students in the Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Bonnie J. Nagel, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol drinking that raises a person's blood alcohol concentration to at least .08%, which amounts to consuming five alcoholic drinks for men and four alcoholic drinks for women in about 2 hours. It is the most common form of alcohol misuse in adolescents and young adults. Read More

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January 2018

Binge Drinking's Effects on the Developing Brain-Animal Models.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):77-86

Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Ph.D., is a science writer and editor affiliated with CSR Inc., Arlington, Virginia. Linda Patia Spear, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor, Department of Psychology, State University of New York, and the director of the Developmental Exposure Alcohol Research Center, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York.

Adolescence typically is a time of experimentation, including alcohol use and, particularly, binge drinking. Because the brain is still developing during adolescence, such exposure could have long-lasting effects. Animal models and adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) paradigms have been used to help elucidate the consequences of adolescent binge drinking. Read More

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January 2018

Gender Differences in Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):57-76

Richard W. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is a professor emeritus in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Sharon C. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is the Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Gerhard Gmel, Ph.D., is a professor, University of Lausanne, and is affiliated with the Alcohol Treatment Center, University of Lausanne Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also an invited professor, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom. Lori Wolfgang Kantor, M.A., is a science writer at CSR, Incorporated.

Just as binge drinking rates differ for men and women, the predictors and consequences of binge drinking vary by gender as well. This article examines these differences and how binge drinking definitions and research samples and methods may influence findings. It also describes the relationship between age and binge drinking among men and women, and how drinking culture and environment affect this relationship. Read More

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January 2018

NIAAA's College Alcohol Intervention Matrix.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):43-47

Jessica M. Cronce, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Human Services, College of Education, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. Traci L. Toomey, Ph.D., is a professor in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Kathleen Lenk, M.P.H., is a senior research fellow in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Toben F. Nelson, Sc.D., is an associate professor in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Jason R. Kilmer, Ph.D., is an assistant director of Health and Wellness for Alcohol and Other Drug Education and an associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Mary E. Larimer, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

The College Alcohol Intervention Matrix (CollegeAIM) is a user-friendly, interactive decision tool based on a synthesis of the substantial and growing literature on campus alcohol use prevention. It includes strategies targeted at both the individual and environmental levels. Commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), CollegeAIM reflects the collective knowledge of 16 separate experts in the field, which makes it unique relative to other summaries of the science. Read More

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January 2018

"Maturing Out" of Binge and Problem Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):31-42

Matthew R. Lee, Ph.D., is research assistant professor, Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Kenneth J. Sher, Ph.D., is curators' distinguished professor, Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

This article reviews literature aiming to explain the widespread reductions in binge and problem drinking that begin around the transition to young adulthood (i.e., "maturing out"). Read More

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January 2018

The Epidemiology of Binge Drinking Among College-Age Individuals in the United States.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):23-30

Heather Krieger, M.A., is a graduate student; Chelsie M. Young, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral researcher; Amber M. Anthenien, M.S., is a graduate student; and Clayton Neighbors, Ph.D., is a professor, all in the Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

Rates of alcohol consumption continue to be a concern, particularly for individuals who are college age. Drinking patterns have changed over time, with the frequency of binge drinking (consuming four/five or more drinks for women/men) remaining high (30% to 40%). Young adults in the college age range are developmentally and socially at higher risk for drinking at binge levels. Read More

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January 2018

The Temporal Dimension in Maternal Sensitivity Predicting Organized Attachment in Children.

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2019 Jan;23(1):137-171

National Distance Education University, Madrid, Spain.

This study analyzed Maternal Sensitivity in the interaction of mother-infant dyads to distinguish different dynamics associated with their attachment group membership - Insecure-Avoidant (A), Secure (B), or Insecure-Resistant (C), with no Disorganized traits - that they developed at 15 months. Participants were 26 eight-month old infants interacting with their mothers in a free-play setting. The analyses used sequential streams of infant actions and maternal responses, and state-space grids to study the temporal organization of the sequences. Read More

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January 2019

A Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Model of Psychotherapy: First Steps Toward Validation and the Role of External Input.

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2019 Jan;23(1):79-112

Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Mathematical modeling and computer simulations are important means to understand the mechanisms of psychotherapy. The challenge is to design models which not only predict outcome, but simulate the nonlinear trajectories of change. Another challenge is to validate them with empirical data. Read More

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January 2019
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