2,348 results match your criteria Behavioral And Brain Sciences[Journal]


Random isn't real: How the patchy distribution of ecological rewards may generate "incentive hope".

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e53

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences,Dartmouth College,Hanover,NH

Anselme & Güntürkün generate exciting new insights by integrating two disparate fields to explain why uncertain rewards produce strong motivational effects. Their conclusions are developed in a framework that assumes a random distribution of resources, uncommon in the natural environment. We argue that, by considering a realistically clumped spatiotemporal distribution of resources, their conclusions will be stronger and more complete. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002005DOI Listing
January 2019

Extending models of "How Foraging Works": Uncertainty, controllability, and survivability.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e43

Danish Research Institute of Translational Neuroscience (DANDRITE), Aarhus University,Aarhus

We argue that How Foraging Works sketches a good foundational model, but it needs expanding to incorporate hierarchical and multiscale conceptions of uncertainty and to incorporate inference of environmental controllability. Most pressingly, its algorithmic implementation needs to be better justified in terms of its functional forms and, ultimately, to be more heavily constrained by survival optimality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002017DOI Listing
January 2019

"How Foraging Works": Let's not forget the physiological mechanisms of energy balance.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e51

Institute of Neuroscience,Centre for Behaviour and Evolution,Newcastle University,Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2

Anselme & Güntürkün propose a novel mechanism to explain the increase in foraging motivation when experiencing an unpredictable food supply. However, the physiological mechanisms that maintain energy homeostasis already control foraging intensity in response to changes in energy balance. Therefore, unpredictability may just be one of many factors that feeds into the same dopaminergic "wanting" system to control foraging intensity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X1800198XDOI Listing
January 2019

Food seeking and food sharing under uncertainty.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e36

Triangle Research and Development Center (TRDC),Kafr Kara,Israel 30075.

We propose an elaboration of Anselme and Güntürkün's research that considers individuals' foraging behavior as part of group efforts to cope with uncertainty. We discuss different possibilities for the interaction between individual and group mechanisms for risk reduction in uncertain environments, and we raise some open questions for future research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001887DOI Listing
January 2019

Evolutionary-developmental modeling of neurodiversity and psychopathology.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e19

School of Communication Sciences and Disorders,the University of Memphis,Community Health Building,Memphis,TN

Modeling the extremes of mental/emotional conditions requires explicit accounts of evolutionary-developmental sources of human neurodiversity, not merely psychopathology. The target article's approach could be improved by incorporation of a hierarchical scheme wherein mental/emotional infrastructure interacts across differentiated layers of function. The notion of "symptom networks" thus calls for differentiation into hierarchically interacting components of mental/emotional evolution and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001103DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Food-seeking behavior has complex evolutionary pressures in songbirds: Linking parental foraging to offspring sexual selection.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e52

Department of Biological Sciences,Vanderbilt University,Nashville,TN

The target article addresses increased food-seeking behaviors in times of instability, particularly in passerines. We note that food instability might have intergenerational effects on birds: Nutritional stress during development affects song-learning abilities, associating parental foraging with offspring sexual selection. We explore the implications of these compounding selection pressures on food-seeking motivation during breeding, as well as the hormonal underpinnings of these behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002030DOI Listing
January 2019

Reductionism - simplified and scientific.

Authors:
Leonid Perlovsky

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e21

Department of Psychology,Northeastern University,Boston,MA

In this commentary on Borsboom et al.'s target article, I address an inadequate, simplified use of the idea of "reductionism" in clinical psychology and psychiatry. This is important because reductionism is a fundamental methodology of science. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001127DOI Listing
January 2019

Elimination, not reduction: Lessons from the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) and multiple realisation.

Authors:
Tuomas K Pernu

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e22

Department of Philosophy,King's College London,London,WC2R 2LS,United

The thesis of multiple realisation that Borsboom et al. are relying on should not be taken for granted. In dissolving the apparent multiple realisation, the reductionist research strategies in psychopathology research (the Research Domain Criteria [RDoC] framework, in particular) are bound to lead to eliminativism rather than reductionism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001139DOI Listing
January 2019

Incentive hope: A default psychological response to multiple forms of uncertainty.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e58

Faculty of Psychology,Department of Biopsychology,University of Bochum,D-44801

Our target article proposes that a new concept - incentive hope - is necessary in the behavioral sciences to explain animal foraging under harsh environmental conditions. Incentive hope refers to a specific motivational mechanism in the brain - considered only in mammals and birds. But it can also be understood at a functional level, as an adaptive behavioral strategy that contributes to improve survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002194DOI Listing
January 2019

Symptoms are not the solution but the problem: Why psychiatric research should focus on processes rather than symptoms.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e7

Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry,80804

Progress in psychiatric research has been hindered by the use of artificial disease categories to map distinct biological substrates. Efforts to overcome this obstacle have led to the misconception that relevant psychiatric dimensions are not biologically reducible. Consequently, the return to phenomenology is once again advocated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001000DOI Listing
January 2019

Taking an engineer's view: Implications of network analysis for computational psychiatry.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e24

Department of Psychiatry,University of Minnesota,Minneapolis,MN

An engineer's viewpoint on psychiatry asks: What are the failure modes that underlie psychiatric dysfunction? And: How can we modify the system? Psychiatry has made great strides in understanding and treating disorders using biology; however, failure modes and modification access points can also exist extrinsically in environmental interactions. The network analysis suggested by Borsboom et al. in the target article provides a new viewpoint that should be incorporated into current theoretical constructs, not placed in opposition to them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001152DOI Listing
January 2019

Considerations for the study of "incentive hope" and sign-tracking behaviors in humans.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e48

Swiss Center for Affective Sciences,University of Geneva,CH-1202

The amplification of reward-seeking behavior under uncertainty described by Anselme & Güntürkün is based on the animal literature. However, this phenomenon could provide valuable information for the understanding of several dysfunctional human behaviors such as overeating and gambling. Therefore, we formulated some considerations on how the "incentive hope" hypothesis could be tested on a human population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001929DOI Listing
January 2019

What's in a model? Network models as tools instead of representations of what psychiatric disorders really are.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e30

Faculty of Philosophy,University of Groningen,9712 GL Groningen,The

Network models block reductionism about psychiatric disorders only if models are interpreted in a realist manner - that is, taken to represent "what psychiatric disorders really are." A flexible and more instrumentalist view of models is needed to improve our understanding of the heterogeneity and multifactorial character of psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001206DOI Listing
January 2019

Why not be pluralists about explanatory reduction?

Authors:
Kathryn Tabb

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e27

Department of Philosophy,Columbia University,New York,NY

Borsboom et al. convincingly argue that, from their symptom network perspective, mental disorders cannot be reduced to brain disorders. While granting that network structures exist, I respond that there is no reason to think they are the only psychiatric phenomena worth explaining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002054DOI Listing
January 2019

How uncertainty begets hope: A model of adaptive and maladaptive seeking behavior.

Authors:
Martin Zack

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e57

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health,Toronto,ON M5S

The "incentive hope" model creatively explains hoarding and fat accumulation by foragers under uncertainty and food seeking when food cues are present but food is not. The model has difficulty explaining why animals driven by cues fare better than animals driven by food reward itself, why human obesity exists when food is abundant, and why people enjoy gambling and care about winning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001875DOI Listing
January 2019

Neither biological nor symptomatology reductionism: A call for integration in psychopathology research.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e17

School of Nursing,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,Chapel Hill,NC

We agree with Borsboom et al. in challenging neurobiological reductionism, and underscore some specific strengths of a network approach. However, they do not acknowledge that a similar problem is present in current psychosocial frameworks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001279DOI Listing
January 2019

Complex social ecology needs complex machineries of foraging.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e45

Department of Social Psychology,Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology,University of Tokyo,Tokyo

Uncertainty is caused not only by environmental changes, but also by social interference resulting from competition over food resources. Actually, foraging effort is socially facilitated, which, however, does not require incentive control by the dopamine system; Zajonc's "drive" theory is thus questionable. Instead, social adjustments may be pre-embedded in the limbic network responsible for decisions of appropriate effort-cost investment. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0140525X1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002078DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

"Incentive hope" and the nature of impulsivity in low-socioeconomic-status individuals.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e55

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences,University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA

Low-income environments have been associated with greater levels of impulsive behavior, which contribute to the higher debt and obesity rates that further perpetuate current wealth and health disparities. In this commentary, we describe how this might be explained by an appeal to "incentive hope" and the motivational drive toward consumption triggered by the future uncertainty these groups face. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001978DOI Listing
January 2019

Mechanistic models must link the field and the lab.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e42

School of Psychological Science,University of Bristol,Bristol BS8

In the theory outlined in the target article, an animal forages continuously, making sequential decisions in a world where the amount of food and its uncertainty are fixed, but delays are variable. These assumptions contrast with the risk-sensitive foraging theory and create a problem for comparing the predictions of this model with many laboratory experiments that do not make these assumptions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001966DOI Listing
January 2019

Food security and obesity: Can passerine foraging behavior inform explanations for human weight gain?

Authors:
Ursula Pool

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e49

Healthy & Sustainable Settings Unit,Faculty of Health & Wellbeing,University of Central Lancashire,Westlakes Campus,Cumbria CA24

Commonly used measures of human food insecurity differ categorically from measures determining food security in other species. In addition, human foraging behaviors may have arisen in a divergent evolutionary context from nonhuman foraging. Hence, a theoretical framework based on food insecurity and fat storage in nonhumans may not be appropriate for explaining associations between human food insecurity and obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001899DOI Listing
January 2019

Beyond uncertainty: A broader scope for "incentive hope" mechanisms and its implications.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e44

Department of Biology,Stanford University,Stanford,CA

We propose that food-related uncertainty is but one of multiple cues that predicts harsh conditions and may activate "incentive hope." An evolutionarily adaptive response to these would have been to shift to a behavioral-metabolic phenotype geared toward facing hardship. In modernity, this phenotype may lead to pathologies such as obesity and hoarding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002029DOI Listing
January 2019

Simulating exploration versus exploitation in agent foraging under different environment uncertainties.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e39

Faculty of Information Technology,Monash University,Melbourne,VIC

For artificial agents trading off exploration (food seeking) versus (short-term) exploitation (or consumption), our experiments suggest that uncertainty (interpreted information, theoretically) magnifies food seeking. In more uncertain environments, with food distributed uniformly randomly, exploration appears to be beneficial. In contrast, in biassed (less uncertain) environments, with food concentrated in only one part, exploitation appears to be more advantageous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001954DOI Listing
January 2019

The value of uncertainty: An active inference perspective.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e47

Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging,University College London,London WC1N

We discuss how uncertainty underwrites exploration and epistemic foraging from the perspective of active inference: a generic scheme that places pragmatic (utility maximization) and epistemic (uncertainty minimization) imperatives on an equal footing - as primary determinants of proximal behavior. This formulation contextualizes the complementary motivational incentives for reward-related stimuli and environmental uncertainty, offering a normative treatment of their trade-off. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002066DOI Listing
January 2019

Does the "incentive hope" hypothesis explain food-wasting behavior among humans? Yes and no.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e46

Institute of Psychology,University of Wroclaw,50-527

In this commentary, we discuss how the "incentive hope" hypothesis explains differences in food-wasting behaviors among humans. We stress that the role of relevant ecological characteristics should be taken into consideration together with the incentive hope hypothesis: population mobility, animal domestication, and food-wasting visibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001942DOI Listing
January 2019

A neural basis for food foraging in obesity.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e37

Center for Public Health Nutrition,University of Washington,Seattle, WA

Poverty-related food insecurity can be viewed as a form of economic and nutritional uncertainty that can lead, in some situations, to a desire for more filling and satisfying food. Given the current obesogenic food environment and the nature of the food supply, those food choices could engage a combination of sensory, neurophysiological, and genetic factors as potential determinants of obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001905DOI Listing
January 2019
20.771 Impact Factor

Hoarding all of the chips: Slot machine gambling and the foraging for coins.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e50

Psychology Department and Neuroscience & Behavior Program,Wesleyan University,Middletown,CT

Predictions made by the "incentive hope" hypothesis account for overconsumption in unpredictable food environments. However, when applied to uncertain gambling situations, there are several areas where this theory falls short. Most notably, it has trouble explaining why, in slot machine gambling, players are motivated by extended play to spend time trying to resolve uncertainty, rather than hoarding monetary gains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001917DOI Listing
January 2019

Problem behavior in autism spectrum disorders: A paradigmatic self-organized perspective of network structures.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e28

"Ca'Leido" Autism Center,61-31030 Altivole

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects can present temporary behaviors of acute agitation and aggressiveness, named problem behaviors. They have been shown to be consistent with the self-organized criticality (SOC), a model wherein occasionally occurring "catastrophic events" are necessary in order to maintain a self-organized "critical equilibrium." The SOC can represent the psychopathology network structures and additionally suggests that they can be considered as self-organized systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001188DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Reductionism in retreat.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e32

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies,Utrecht University,3512 BL Utrecht,The

We address the commentaries on our target article in terms of four major themes. First, we note that virtually all commentators agree that mental disorders are not brain disorders in the common interpretation of these terms, and establish the consensus that explanatory reductionism is not a viable thesis. Second, we address criticisms to the effect that our article was misdirected or aimed at a straw man; we argue that this is unlikely, given the widespread communication of reductionist slogans in psychopathology research and society. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002091DOI Listing
January 2019

Beyond trait reductionism: Implications of network structures for dimensional models of psychopathology.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e4

Department of Psychology,Adelphi University,Garden City,NY

Borsboom et al. discuss the implications of network structures for neurobiology-based reductionism, but inherent in the network approach is that dimensional models of psychopathology are untenable as well. Insofar as mental disorders are complex dynamic constellations of symptoms, the "trait reductionism" of dimensional psychopathology frameworks suffers from the same limitations as neurobiological reductionism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001243DOI Listing
January 2019

Getting to the bottom of things: The value of evolutionary approaches in discerning the origin of psychopathology.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e18

Department of Psychiatry,Psychotherapy and Preventive Medicine,LWL University Hospital Bochum,Division of Cognitive Neuropsychiatry and Psychiatric Preventive Medicine,Ruhr-University Bochum,D-44791

The network approach as a novel way of understanding psychopathology has helped address some of the existing issues associated with traditional biological interpretations. Nonetheless, it has similarly failed in explaining the fundamental etiology of mental conditions - a persistent conundrum that arguably could be adequately addressed only by evolutionary formulations, specifically evolutionary mismatch and life history theories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001097DOI Listing
January 2019

Overlapping neural systems underlying "incentive hope" and apprehension.

Authors:
Mattie Tops

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e54

VU University Amsterdam,Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology,1081 BT Amsterdam,The

Positioning "incentive hope" in a general model of behavioral control systems removes artificial boundaries between mechanisms of incentive motivation in foraging behavior and other functions of the striatum and connected systems. Specifically, incentive hope may involve mechanisms of anticipation of both reward and threat, explaining why anxious individuals show stronger potentiation of incentive motivation under conditions of reward uncertainty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001991DOI Listing
January 2019

Beyond "incentive hope": Information sampling and learning under reward uncertainty.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e56

Department of Neuroscience and Center for Magnetic Resonance Research,University of Minnesota,Minneapolis,MN

Information seeking, especially when motivated by strategic learning and intrinsic curiosity, could render the new mechanism "incentive hope" proposed by Anselme & Güntürkün sufficient, but not necessary to explain how reward uncertainty promotes reward seeking and consumption. Naturalistic and foraging-like tasks can help parse motivational processes that bridge learning and foraging behaviors and identify their neural underpinnings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001930DOI Listing
January 2019

Conceptualizing neurodevelopmental disorders as networks: Promises and challenges.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e10

Laboratory for Experimental Psychology,University of Leuven (KU Leuven),3000

The target article by Borsboom et al. proposes network models as an alternative to reductionist approaches in the analysis of mental disorders, using mood disorders such as depression and anxiety as examples. We ask how this framework can be applied to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001218DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Unpredictable homeodynamic and ambient constraints on irrational decision making of aneural and neural foragers.

Authors:
Kevin B Clark

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e40

Research and Development Service,Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System,Los Angeles,CA 90073;Felidae Conservation Fund,Mill Valley,CA 94941;Campus Champions,Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE),National Center for Supercomputing Applications,University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana,IL 61801;Expert Network, Penn Center for Innovation,University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia,PA 19104;Virus Focus Group,NASA Astrobiology Institute,NASA Ames Research Center,Moffett Field,CA

Foraging for nutritional sustenance represents common significant learned/heritable survival strategies evolved for phylum-diverse cellular life on Earth. Unicellular aneural to multicellular neural foragers display conserved rational or irrational decision making depending on outcome predictions for noise-susceptible real/illusory homeodynamic and ambient dietary cues. Such context-dependent heuristic-guided foraging enables optimal, suboptimal, or fallacious decisions that drive organismal adaptation, health, longevity, and life history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X1800184XDOI Listing
January 2019

Reductionist thinking and animal models in neuropsychiatric research.

Authors:
Nicole M Baran

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e3

School of Biological Sciences,Georgia Institute of Technology,Atlanta,GA

Reductionist thinking in neuroscience is manifest in the widespread use of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Broader investigations of diverse behaviors in non-model organisms and longer-term study of the mechanisms of plasticity will yield fundamental insights into the neurobiological, developmental, genetic, and environmental factors contributing to the "massively multifactorial system networks" which go awry in mental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001231DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Functional disorders can also be explained through a non-reductionist application of network theory.

Authors:
Michael E Hyland

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e12

School of Psychology,University of Plymouth,Plymouth PL4 8AA,United

A network structure explains why reductionism is not possible for mental illness, but the same argument applies for the somatic symptoms of functional disorders. Because the covariation of symptoms of functional disorders cannot be explained in terms of symptom-to-symptom causality, explanation requires a network of biological mechanisms having emergent properties that cannot be reduced to biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001048DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Hope, exploration, and equilibrated action schemes.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e41

Department of Psychology,University of Macau,Taipa, Macau

The concepts want, hope, and exploration cannot be organized in relation to a single type of motive (e.g., motive for food). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001863DOI Listing
January 2019

Special, radical, failure of reduction in psychiatry.

Authors:
Don Ross

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e25

Department of Philosophy,University College Cork,Cork, T12

Use of network models to identify causal structure typically blocks reduction across the sciences. Entanglement of mental processes with environmental and intentional relationships, as Borsboom et al. argue, makes reduction of psychology to neuroscience particularly implausible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001164DOI Listing
January 2019

Indeed, not really a brain disorder: Implications for reductionist accounts of addiction.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e9

Department of Psychology,University of Amsterdam,PB 15916,1001 NK Amsterdam,The

Borsboom et al.'s formulation provides an opportunity for a fundamental rethink about the "brain disease model" of addiction that dominates research, treatment, policy, and lay understanding of addiction. We also demonstrate how the American opioid crisis provides a contemporary example of how "brain disease" is not moderated by the environmental context but is instead crucially dependent upon it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001024DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Intentional content in psychopathologies requires an expanded interpretivism.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e26

Faculty of Philosophy,Theology and Religious Studies,Radboud University Nijmegen,6500 HD,Nijmegen,The

We argue that the explanatory role of intentional content in connecting symptoms in a network approach to psychopathology hinges neither on causality nor on rationality. Instead, we argue that it hinges on a pluralistic body of practical and clinical know-how. Incorporating this practical approach to intentional state ascription in psychopathological cases expands and improves traditional interpretivism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001176DOI Listing
January 2019

Network models can help focus research on the role of culture and context in psychopathology, but don't discount latent variable models.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e14

Department of Psychology,Wake Forest University,Winston-Salem,NC

Borsboom et al. correctly note that the use of latent variable models in cross-cultural research has resulted in a futile search for universal, biological causes of psychopathology; however, this is not an inevitable outcome of such models. While network analytic approaches require further development, network models have the potential to better elucidate the role of cultural and contextual variables related to psychopathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001061DOI Listing
January 2019

Brain networks for emotion and cognition: Implications and tools for understanding mental disorders and pathophysiology.

Authors:
Luiz Pessoa

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e23

Department of Psychology and Maryland Neuroimaging Center,University of Maryland,College Park,MD

Understanding how structure maps to function in the brain in terms of large-scale networks is critical to elucidating the brain basis of mental phenomena and mental disorders. Given that this mapping is many-to-many, I argue that researchers need to shift to a multivariate brain and behavior characterization to fully unravel the contributions of brain processes to typical and atypical function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001140DOI Listing
January 2019

Foraging extends beyond food: Hoarding of mental energy and information seeking in response to uncertainty.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e38

School of Psychology,University of Queensland,St Lucia, QLD

When an environment is uncertain, humans and other animals benefit from preparing for and attempting to predict potential outcomes. People respond to uncertainty both by conserving mental energy on tasks unrelated to the source of the uncertainty and by increasing their attentiveness to information related to the uncertainty. This mental hoarding and foraging allow people to prepare in uncertain situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001838DOI Listing
January 2019

Networks, intentionality and multiple realizability: Not enough to block reductionism.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e8

Department of Psychometrics and Statistics,University of Groningen,9712 TS Groningen,The

Borsboom et al. propose that the network approach blocks reductionism in psychopathology. We argue that the two main arguments, intentionality and multiple realizability of mental disorders, are not sufficient to establish that mental disorders are not brain disorders, and that the specific role of networks in these arguments is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001012DOI Listing
January 2019

The network takeover reaches psychopathology.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e15

Department of Psychology,Harvard University,Cambridge,MA

Borsboom et al. have written a trenchant critique of biological reductionism in psychopathology. After commenting on recent controversies concerning the network perspective, I discuss ways of integrating biology into the network enterprise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001073DOI Listing
January 2019

Families of network structures - we need both phenomenal and explanatory models.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e31

School of Psychology,Victoria University of Wellington,PO Box 600,Wellington,New

Symptom network models (SNWMs) play an important role in identifying but not explaining patterns of symptoms. We discuss underlying assumptions of SNWMs and argue that they represent phenomenal models, best suited to detecting patterns among symptoms. SNWMs need to be supplemented with mechanistic models that provide constitutive and etiological explanations of each symptom (network nodes) once relevant patterns have been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X1800122XDOI Listing
January 2019

Making a case for constructive reductionism.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e16

Section of Addiction Medicine,Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy,Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg,91054

Borsboom and colleagues argue that reductionism in psychopathology research has not provided the expected insights. Instead, they suggest a systems approach of interacting syndromes, which, however, falls short of a perspective for empirical testing. Here, a combination of both approaches is suggested: a reductionistic empirical approach allowing testability, synergistic with a constructivistic systems appraisal of syndrome networks - a constructive reductionism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001085DOI Listing
January 2019

Beyond reduction with the representation: The need for causality with full complexity to unravel mental health.

Behav Brain Sci 2019 01;42:e6

GIGA Cyclotron Research Centre (CRC) in vivo imaging,University of Liege,Liège B-4000,Belgium.

In this commentary on Borsboom et al.'s target article, we argue that researchers should be aware of the historical development of models in neuroscience. Considering the importance of causality in anatomo-clinical approach and stressing the complexity of mental phenomenon, we provide new insight on reductionism and representation limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18001267DOI Listing
January 2019