1,857 results match your criteria Behavior Research Methods[Journal]


The validity of RFID badges measuring face-to-face interactions.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences, ETH Zürich, Weinbergstrasse 109, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.

Face-to-face interactions are important for a variety of individual behaviors and outcomes. In recent years, a number of human sensor technologies have been proposed to incorporate direct observations in behavioral studies of face-to-face interactions. One of the most promising emerging technologies is the application of active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) badges. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13428-018-1180-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1180-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Motor content norms for 4,565 verbs in Spanish.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

Embodiment theory suggests that, during the processing of words related to movement, as in the case of action verbs, somatotopic activation is produced in the motor and premotor cortices. In the same way, some studies have demonstrated that patients with frontal-lobe damage, such as Parkinson's patients, have difficulties processing that kind of stimulus. At the moment, no standardized data exist concerning the motor content of Spanish verbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01241-1DOI Listing

MultiSCED: A tool for (meta-)analyzing single-case experimental data with multilevel modeling.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, imec - ITEC, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The MultiSCED web application has been developed to assist applied researchers in behavioral sciences to apply multilevel modeling to quantitatively summarize single-case experimental design (SCED) studies through a user-friendly point-and-click interface embedded within R. In this paper, we offer a brief introduction to the application, explaining how to define and estimate the relevant multilevel models and how to interpret the results numerically and graphically. The use of the application is illustrated through a re-analysis of an existing meta-analytic dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01216-2DOI Listing

Design factors in mouse-tracking: What makes a difference?

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Investigating cognitive processes by analyzing mouse movements has become a popular method in many psychological disciplines. When creating mouse-tracking experiments, researchers face many design choices-for example, whether participants indicate responses by clicking a button or just by entering the button area. Hitherto, numerous different settings have been employed, but little is known about how these methodological differences affect mouse-tracking data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01228-yDOI Listing

Normative data for Chinese-English paired associates.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Paired-associate learning is one of the most commonly used paradigms to study human memory. In many of these studies, participants are typically told to learn foreign language-English translations, such as Swahili-English or Lithuanian-English pairs. One limitation of these currently available foreign language-English translation norms is that their foreign languages are based on the alphabetic writing system, thereby preventing researchers from generalizing their findings to languages based on logographic writing systems. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13428-019-01240-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01240-2DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Cross-modal associations and synesthesia: Categorical perception and structure in vowel-color mappings in a large online sample.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

We report associations between vowel sounds, graphemes, and colors collected online from over 1,000 Dutch speakers. We also provide open materials, including a Python implementation of the structure measure and code for a single-page web application to run simple cross-modal tasks. We also provide a full dataset of color-vowel associations from 1,164 participants, including over 200 synesthetes identified using consistency measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01203-7DOI Listing

Analyzing social media data: A mixed-methods framework combining computational and qualitative text analysis.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Data61, CSIRO, Corner Vimiera and Pembroke Streets, Marsfield, NSW, 2122, Australia.

To qualitative researchers, social media offers a novel opportunity to harvest a massive and diverse range of content without the need for intrusive or intensive data collection procedures. However, performing a qualitative analysis across a massive social media data set is cumbersome and impractical. Instead, researchers often extract a subset of content to analyze, but a framework to facilitate this process is currently lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01202-8DOI Listing

Quantifying the informational value of classification images.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Reverse correlation is an influential psychophysical paradigm that uses a participant's responses to randomly varying images to build a classification image (CI), which is commonly interpreted as a visualization of the participant's mental representation. It is unclear, however, how to statistically quantify the amount of signal present in CIs, which limits the interpretability of these images. In this article, we propose a novel metric, infoVal, which assesses informational value relative to a resampled random distribution and can be interpreted like a z score. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01232-2DOI Listing
April 2019
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formr: A study framework allowing for automated feedback generation and complex longitudinal experience-sampling studies using R.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Technical Workgroup, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Open-source software improves the reproducibility of scientific research. Because existing open-source tools often do not offer dedicated support for longitudinal data collection on phones and computers, we built formr, a study framework that enables researchers to conduct both simple surveys and more intricate studies. With automated email and text message reminders that can be sent according to any schedule, longitudinal and experience-sampling studies become easy to implement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01236-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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Detecting which variables alter component interpretation across multiple groups: A resampling-based method.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

In psychology, many studies measure the same variables in different groups. In the case of a large number of variables when a strong a priori idea about the underlying latent construct is lacking, researchers often start by reducing the variables to a few principal components in an exploratory way. Herewith, one often wants to evaluate whether the components represent the same construct in the different groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01222-4DOI Listing
April 2019
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WordSeg: Standardizing unsupervised word form segmentation from text.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

LSCP, Département d'études Cognitives, ENS, EHESS, CNRS, PSL Research University, 29, rue d'Ulm, 75005, Paris, France.

A basic task in first language acquisition likely involves discovering the boundaries between words or morphemes in input where these basic units are not overtly segmented. A number of unsupervised learning algorithms have been proposed in the last 20 years for these purposes, some of which have been implemented computationally, but whose results remain difficult to compare across papers. We created a tool that is open source, enables reproducible results, and encourages cumulative science in this domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01223-3DOI Listing
April 2019
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SMITE: A toolbox for creating Psychophysics Toolbox and PsychoPy experiments with SMI eye trackers.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Lund University Humanities Lab, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

We present SMITE, a toolbox for the measurement of eye movements using eye trackers manufactured by SMI GmbH. The toolbox provides a wrapper around the iViewX SDK provided by SMI, allowing simple integration of SMI eye trackers into Psychophysics Toolbox and PsychoPy programs. The toolbox provides a graphical interface for participant setup and calibration that is implemented natively in Psychophysics Toolbox and PsychoPy drawing commands, as well as providing several convenience features for, inter alia, creating gaze-contingent experiments and working with two-computer setups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01226-0DOI Listing

A parameter recovery assessment of time-variant models of decision-making.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Mathematics, Quantitative Systems Biology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Evidence accumulation models have been one of the most dominant modeling frameworks used to study rapid decision-making over the past several decades. These models propose that evidence accumulates from the environment until the evidence for one alternative reaches some threshold, typically associated with caution, triggering a response. However, researchers have recently begun to reconsider the fundamental assumptions of how caution varies with time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01218-0DOI Listing

The mistuning perception test: A new measurement instrument.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK.

An important aspect of the perceived quality of vocal music is the degree to which the vocalist sings in tune. Although most listeners seem sensitive to vocal mistuning, little is known about the development of this perceptual ability or how it differs between listeners. Motivated by a lack of suitable preexisting measures, we introduce in this article an adaptive and ecologically valid test of mistuning perception ability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01225-1DOI Listing

A method, framework, and tutorial for efficiently simulating models of decision-making.

Authors:
Nathan J Evans

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Evidence accumulation models (EAMs) have become the dominant models of rapid decision-making. Several variants of these models have been proposed, ranging from the simple linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) to the more complex leaky-competing accumulator (LCA), and further extensions that include time-varying rates of evidence accumulation or decision thresholds. Although applications of the simpler variants have been widespread, applications of the more complex models have been fewer, largely due to their intractable likelihood function and the computational cost of mass simulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01219-zDOI Listing

A heteroscedastic hidden Markov mixture model for responses and categorized response times.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

ACTNext, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Various mixture modeling approaches have been proposed to identify within-subjects differences in the psychological processes underlying responses to psychometric tests. Although valuable, the existing mixture models are associated with at least one of the following three challenges: (1) A parametric distribution is assumed for the response times that-if violated-may bias the results; (2) the response processes are assumed to result in equal variances (homoscedasticity) in the response times, whereas some processes may produce more variability than others (heteroscedasticity); and (3) the different response processes are modeled as independent latent variables, whereas they may be related. Although each of these challenges has been addressed separately, in practice they may occur simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01229-xDOI Listing

Simple Bayesian testing of scientific expectations in linear regression models.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Methodology and Statistics, Tilburg University, Warrandelaan 1, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

Scientific theories can often be formulated using equality and order constraints on the relative effects in a linear regression model. For example, it may be expected that the effect of the first predictor is larger than the effect of the second predictor, and the second predictor is expected to be larger than the third predictor. The goal is then to test such expectations against competing scientific expectations or theories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01196-9DOI Listing

SUBTLEX-CAT: Subtitle word frequencies and contextual diversity for Catalan.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Psychology and Research Center for Behavior Assessment, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

SUBTLEX-CAT is a word frequency and contextual diversity database for Catalan, obtained from a 278-million-word corpus based on subtitles supplied from broadcast Catalan television. Like all previous SUBTLEX corpora, it comprises subtitles from films and TV series. In addition, it includes a wider range of TV shows (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01233-1DOI Listing

Investigation of adolescents' developmental stages in deductive reasoning: An application of a specialized confirmatory mixture IRT approach.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

In this paper, we propose a specialized confirmatory mixture IRT model to analyze complex cognitive assessment data that is designed to evaluate adolescents' developmental stages in deductive reasoning. The model is specified for the following purposes: (1) to measure multiple deductive reasoning traits, (2) to identify adolescents' differential developmental stages based on their ability levels in the multiple dimensions, (3) to quantify the differences in dimension-specific performance between developmental stages, and (4) to examine the difficulty levels of test design factors. A Bayesian estimation of the model is described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01221-5DOI Listing

Confounder detection in linear mediation models: Performance of kernel-based tests of independence.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

It is well-known that the identification of direct and indirect effects in mediation analysis requires strong unconfoundedness assumptions. Even when the predictor is under experimental control, unconfoundedness assumptions must be imposed on the mediator-outcome relation in order to guarantee valid indirect-effect identification. Researchers are therefore advised to test for unconfoundedness when estimating mediation effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01230-4DOI Listing

Implementing a concept network model.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The same concept can mean different things or be instantiated in different forms, depending on context, suggesting a degree of flexibility within the conceptual system. We propose that a feature-based network model can be used to capture and predict this flexibility. We modeled individual concepts (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01217-1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

A regularization approach for the detection of differential item functioning in generalized partial credit models.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Most common analysis tools for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in item response theory are restricted to the use of single covariates. If several variables have to be considered, the respective method is repeated independently for each variable. We propose a regularization approach based on the lasso principle for the detection of uniform DIF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01224-2DOI Listing

An automated segmentation approach to calibrating infantile nystagmus waveforms.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Infantile nystagmus (IN) describes a regular, repetitive movement of the eyes. A characteristic feature of each cycle of the IN eye movement waveform is a period in which the eyes are moving at minimal velocity. This so-called "foveation" period has long been considered the basis for the best vision in individuals with IN. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13428-018-1178-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1178-5DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Think of the consequences: A decade of discourse about same-sex marriage.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Approaching issues through the lens of nonnegotiable values increases the perceived intractability of debate (Baron & Spranca in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 1-16, 1997), while focusing on the concrete consequences of policies instead results in the moderation of extreme opinions (Fernbach, Rogers, Fox, & Sloman in Psychological Science, 24, 939-946, 2013) and a greater likelihood of conflict resolution (Baron & Leshner in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6, 183-194, 2000). Using comments on the popular social media platform Reddit from January 2006 until September 2017, we showed how changes in the framing of same-sex marriage in public discourse relate to changes in public opinion. We used a topic model to show that the contributions of certain protected-values-based topics to the debate (religious arguments and freedom of opinion) increased prior to the emergence of a public consensus in support of same-sex marriage (Gallup, 2017), and declined afterward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01215-3DOI Listing

Comparing the accuracy and speed of four data-checking methods.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Double entry locates and corrects more data-entry errors than does visual checking or reading the data out loud with a partner. However, many researchers do not use double entry, because it is substantially slower. Therefore, in this study we examined the speed and accuracy of solo read aloud, which has never before been examined and might be faster than double entry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01207-3DOI Listing

Using the iterative latent-class analysis approach to improve attribute accuracy in diagnostic classification models.

Authors:
Zhehan Jiang

Behav Res Methods 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.

The focus of diagnostic classification models is on investigating a respondent's mastery status of the attributes required for completing tasks and/or solving problems. Recent advances in model development have produced saturated model variants such as the log-linear cognitive diagnostic model (LCDM), but works focusing on improving the accuracy of their attribute estimates have not been accomplished commensurably. This article proposes an iterative latent class analysis (ILCA) approach to estimating attributes, such that the accuracy can be higher than that of traditional approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01191-0DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A robust method for calibration of eye tracking data recorded during nystagmus.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Eye tracking is a useful tool when studying the oscillatory eye movements associated with nystagmus. However, this oscillatory nature of nystagmus is problematic during calibration since it introduces uncertainty about where the person is actually looking. This renders comparisons between separate recordings unreliable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01199-0DOI Listing

Do your eyes give you away? A validation study of eye-movement measures used as indicators for mindless reading.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Psychology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Identifying eye-movement measures as objective indicators of mind wandering seems to be a work in progress. We reviewed research comparing eye movements during self-categorized episodes of normal versus mindless reading and found little consensus regarding the specific measures that are sensitive to attentional decoupling during mind wandering. To address this issue of inconsistency, we conducted a new, high-powered eye-tracking experiment and considered all previously identified mind-wandering indicators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01214-4DOI Listing
February 2019

The SNARC and MARC effects measured online: Large-scale assessment methods in flexible cognitive effects.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

The Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect (i.e., faster reactions to small/large numbers on the left-/right-hand side) is usually observed along with the linguistic Markedness of Response Codes (MARC) effect-that is, faster left-/right-hand responses to odd/even numbers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01213-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Dealing with missing data by EM in single-case studies.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Single-case experimental design (SCED) research plays an important role in establishing and confirming evidence-based practices. Due to multiple measures of a target behavior in such studies, missing information is common in their data. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to deal with missing data in between-subjects designs, but only in a handful of SCED studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01210-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Chinese character handwriting: A large-scale behavioral study and a database.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Linguistics and Modern Languages/Brain and Mind Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

We report on a psycholinguistic database of Chinese character handwriting based on a large-scale study that involved 203 participants, each handwriting 200 characters randomly sampled from a cohort of 1,600 characters. Apart from collecting writing latencies, durations, and accuracy, we also compiled 14 lexical variables for each character. Regressions showed that frequency, age of acquisition, and the word context (in which a character appears) are all-around and influential predictors of orthographic access (as reflected in writing latency), motor execution of handwriting (as reflected in writing duration), and accuracy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01206-4DOI Listing
February 2019

SOLID-Similar object and lure image database.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Stimulus selection is a critical part of experimental designs in the cognitive sciences. Quantifying and controlling item similarity using a unified scale provides researchers with the tools to eliminate item-dependent effects and improve reproducibility. Here we present a novel Similar Object and Lure Image Database (SOLID) that includes 201 categories of grayscale objects, with approximately 17 exemplars per set. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01211-7DOI Listing
February 2019

spreadr: An R package to simulate spreading activation in a network.

Authors:
Cynthia S Q Siew

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

The notion of spreading activation is a central theme in the cognitive sciences; however, the tools for implementing spreading activation computationally are not as readily available. This article introduces the spreadr R package, which can implement spreading activation within a specified network structure. The algorithmic method implemented in the spreadr subroutines follows the approach described in Vitevitch, Ercal, and Adagarla (Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 369, 2011), who viewed activation as a fixed cognitive resource that could "spread" among connected nodes in a network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1186-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Examining the effects of probe frequency, response options, and framing within the thought-probe method.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb;51(1):398-408

Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

A recent surge of interest in the empirical measurement of mind-wandering has led to an increase in the use of thought-probing to measure attentional states, which has led to large variation in methodologies across studies (Weinstein in Behavior Research Methods, 50, 642-661, 2018). Three sources of variation in methodology include the frequency of thought probes during a task, the number of response options provided for each probe, and the way in which various attentional states are framed during the task instructions. Method variation can potentially affect behavioral performance on the tasks in which thought probes are embedded, the experience of various attentional states within those tasks, and/or response biases to the thought probes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01212-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Systematic mappings between semantic categories and types of iconic representations in the manual modality: A normed database of silent gesture.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

An unprecedented number of empirical studies have shown that iconic gestures-those that mimic the sensorimotor attributes of a referent-contribute significantly to language acquisition, perception, and processing. However, there has been a lack of normed studies describing generalizable principles in gesture production and in comprehension of the mappings of different types of iconic strategies (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01204-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Make-A-Dice Test: Assessing the intersection of mathematical and spatial thinking.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Individuals with better spatial thinking have increased interest and greater achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow in Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 817-835, 2009). This relationship means that STEM education may benefit from leveraging spatial thinking, but measures of spatial thinking as they relate to specific STEM disciplines are needed. The present work presents an assessment of spatial and mathematical reasoning, called Make-A-Dice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01192-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Measuring the importance of context when modeling language comprehension.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

It is widely accepted that language requires context in order to function as communication between speakers and listeners. As listeners, we make use of background knowledge - about the speaker, about entities and concepts, about previous utterances - in order to infer the speaker's intended meaning. But even if there is consensus that these sources of information are a necessary component of linguistic communication, it is another matter entirely to provide a thorough, quantitative accounting for context's interaction with language. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01200-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Unrestricted factor analysis of multidimensional test items based on an objectively refined target matrix.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

A common difficulty in the factor analysis of items designed to measure psychological constructs is that the factor structures obtained using exploratory factor analysis tend to be rejected if they are tested statistically with a confirmatory factor model. An alternative to confirmatory factor analysis is unrestricted factor analysis based on Procrustes rotation, which minimizes the distance from a target matrix proposed by the researcher. In the present article, we focus on the situation in which researchers propose a partially specified target matrix but are prepared to allow their initial target to be refined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01209-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Identifying category representations for complex stimuli using discrete Markov chain Monte Carlo with people.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

With the explosion of "big data," digital repositories of texts and images are growing rapidly. These datasets present new opportunities for psychological research, but they require new methodologies before researchers can use these datasets to yield insights into human cognition. We present a new method that allows psychological researchers to take advantage of text and image databases: a procedure for measuring human categorical representations over large datasets of items, such as arbitrary words or pictures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01201-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Self-reported face recognition is highly valid, but alone is not highly discriminative of prosopagnosia-level performance on objective assessments.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Severe developmental deficits in face recognition ability (developmental prosopagnosia, or DP) have been vigorously studied over the past decade, yet many questions remain unanswered about their origins, nature, and social consequences. A rate-limiting factor in answering such questions is the challenge of recruiting rare DP participants. Although self-reported experiences have long played a role in efforts to identify DPs, much remains unknown about how such self-reports can or should contribute to screening or diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01195-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Do current statistical learning tasks capture stable individual differences in children? An investigation of task reliability across modality.

Authors:
Inbal Arnon

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Do commonly used statistical-learning tasks capture stable individual differences in children? Infants, children, and adults are capable of using statistical learning (SL) to extract information about their environment. Although most studies have looked at group-level performance, a growing literature examines individual differences in SL and their relation to language-learning outcomes: Individuals who are better at SL are expected to show better linguistic abilities. Accordingly, studies have shown positive correlations between SL performance and language outcomes in both children and adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01205-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Mouse tracking as a window into decision making.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, PSL Research University, CNRS, EHESS École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.

Mouse tracking promises to be an efficient method to investigate the dynamics of cognitive processes: It is easier to deploy than eyetracking, yet in principle it is much more fine-grained than looking at response times. We investigated these claimed benefits directly, asking how the features of decision processes-notably, decision changes-might be captured in mouse movements. We ran two experiments, one in which we explicitly manipulated whether our stimuli triggered a flip in decision, and one in which we replicated more ecological, classical mouse-tracking results on linguistic negation (Dale & Duran, Cognitive Science, 35, 983-996, 2011). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13428-018-01194-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01194-xDOI Listing
February 2019
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A thousand studies for the price of one: Accelerating psychological science with Pushkin.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Linguistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Half of the world's population has internet access. In principle, researchers are no longer limited to subjects they can recruit into the laboratory. Any study that can be run on a computer or mobile device can be run with nearly any demographic anywhere in the world, and in large numbers. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13428-018-1155-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1155-zDOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

The Macroscope: A tool for examining the historical structure of language.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

The recent rise in digitized historical text has made it possible to quantitatively study our psychological past. This involves understanding changes in what words meant, how words were used, and how these changes may have responded to changes in the environment, such as in healthcare, wealth disparity, and war. Here we make available a tool, the Macroscope, for studying historical changes in language over the last two centuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1177-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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PsychoPy2: Experiments in behavior made easy.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb;51(1):195-203

CCN, Department of Psychology and Communication, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

PsychoPy is an application for the creation of experiments in behavioral science (psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, etc.) with precise spatial control and timing of stimuli. It now provides a choice of interface; users can write scripts in Python if they choose, while those who prefer to construct experiments graphically can use the new Builder interface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01193-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420413PMC
February 2019

A tutorial on Bayes Factor Design Analysis using an informed prior.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129-B, 1018WS, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Well-designed experiments are likely to yield compelling evidence with efficient sample sizes. Bayes Factor Design Analysis (BFDA) is a recently developed methodology that allows researchers to balance the informativeness and efficiency of their experiment (Schönbrodt & Wagenmakers, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(1), 128-142 2018). With BFDA, researchers can control the rate of misleading evidence but, in addition, they can plan for a target strength of evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01189-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Autobiographical recall of personally familiar names and temporal information in e-mails: An automatic analytic approach using e-mail communications.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

An important question that arises from autobiographical memory research is whether the variables that influence memory in the laboratory also drive memory for autobiographical episodes in real life. We explored this question within the context of e-mail communications and investigated the variables that influence recall for personally familiar names and temporal information in e-mails. We designed a Web-based program that analyzed each participant's year-old sent e-mail archive and applied textual analysis algorithms to identify a set of sentences likely to be memorable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1182-9DOI Listing
February 2019
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CHAP: Open-source software for processing and analyzing pupillometry data.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Special Education, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Pupil dilation is an effective indicator of cognitive and affective processes. Although several eyetracker systems on the market can provide effective solutions for pupil dilation measurement, there is a lack of tools for processing and analyzing the data provided by these systems. For this reason, we developed CHAP: open-source software written in MATLAB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-01190-1DOI Listing
February 2019

MIMIC approach to assessing differential item functioning with control of extreme response style.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Social and Behavioural Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Likert or rating scales may elicit an extreme response style (ERS), which means that responses to scales do not reflect the ability that is meant to be measured. Research has shown that the presence of ERS could lead to biased scores and thus influence the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection. In this study, a new method under the multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) framework is proposed as a means to eliminate the impact of ERS in DIF detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01198-1DOI Listing
January 2019
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Development and validation of a high-speed video system for measuring saccadic eye movement.

Behav Res Methods 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Laboratory-based retroreflective and magnetic scleral search-coil technologies are the current standards for collecting saccadometric data, but such equipment is costly and cumbersome. We have validated a novel, portable, high-speed video camera-based system (Exilim EX-FH20, Casio, Tokyo, Japan) for measuring saccade reaction time (RT) and error rate in a well-lit environment. This system would enable measurements of pro- and antisaccades in athletes, which is important because antisaccade metrics provide a valid tool for concussion diagnosis and determining an athlete's safe return to play. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13428-019-01197-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01197-2DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads