2,040 results match your criteria Behavior Research Methods[Journal]


Magic Curiosity Arousing Tricks (MagicCATs): A novel stimulus collection to induce epistemic emotions.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kochi, Japan.

There has been considerable interest in empirical research on epistemic emotions, i.e., emotions related to knowledge-generating qualities of cognitive tasks and activities such as curiosity, interest, and surprise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01431-2DOI Listing

The saccade main sequence revised: A fast and repeatable tool for oculomotor analysis.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genoa, Via All'Opera Pia, 13, Genoa, 16145, Italy.

Saccades are rapid ballistic eye movements that humans make to direct the fovea to an object of interest. Their kinematics is well defined, showing regular relationships between amplitude, duration, and velocity: the saccadic 'main sequence'. Deviations of eye movements from the main sequence can be used as markers of specific neurological disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01388-2DOI Listing

A set of 750 words in Spanish characterized in two survival-related dimensions: avoiding death and locating nourishment.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Facultad de Psicología y Logopedia, University of La Laguna (IUNE), E-38205, La Laguna, Spain.

With the aim of finding quantitative indicators of the survival relevance for a set of concrete concepts, a subjective rating task was administered to a large sample of college students (N = 300). In the rating task, participants used a five-point scale to rate 750 concepts in one of two survival-relevant dimensions, providing their own judgment about the relevance of each concept in a situation in which either avoiding death (AD) or obtaining food (OF) was of importance. The subjective ratings showed high stability and reliability and showed varied patterns of association to potentially relevant concept-defining variables, with correlational analyses showing both commonalities and differences between the two rated dimensions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01434-zDOI Listing

Sample-size determination for the Bayesian t test and Welch's test using the approximate adjusted fractional Bayes factor.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University, PO Box 80140, 3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

When two independent means μ and μ are compared, H : μ = μ, H : μ≠μ, and H : μ > μ are the hypotheses of interest. This paper introduces the R package SSDbain, which can be used to determine the sample size needed to evaluate these hypotheses using the approximate adjusted fractional Bayes factor (AAFBF) implemented in the R package bain. Both the Bayesian t test and the Bayesian Welch's test are available in this R package. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01408-1DOI Listing

Circumspection in using automated measures: Talker gender and addressee affect error rates for adult speech detection in the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, Michigan State University, 104 Oyer Centerp, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Automatic speech processing devices have become popular for quantifying amounts of ambient language input to children in their home environments. We assessed error rates for language input estimates for the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) audio processing system, asking whether error rates differed as a function of adult talkers' gender and whether they were speaking to children or adults. Audio was sampled from within LENA recordings from 23 families with children aged 4-34 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01419-yDOI Listing

Norms for emotion-false memory lists.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Psychology, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN, USA.

False memory has been a flourishing research area for decades, and recently there has been considerable interest in how emotional content affects it. Literature reviews have noted a lack of normed materials that vary in emotional valence and arousal as a factor that contributes to the mixed findings on emotion-false memory effects. We report a pool of normed materials of this sort, the Cornell/Cortland Emotional Lists (CEL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01410-7DOI Listing

CompLex: an eye-movement database of compound word reading in English.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

The CompLex database presents a large-scale collection of eye-movement studies on English compound-word processing. A combined total of 440 participants completed eye-tracking experiments in which they silently read unspaced English compound words (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01397-1DOI Listing

Identifying relationships between cognitive processes across tasks, contexts, and time.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.

It is commonly assumed that a specific testing occasion (task, design, procedure, etc.) provides insights that generalize beyond that occasion. This assumption is infrequently carefully tested in data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01405-4DOI Listing

The famous melodies stimulus set.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA.

Famous musical melodies, such as "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" and "Hot Cross Buns," are frequently used in psychological research. Such melodies have been used to assess the degree of cognitive impairments in various neurological disorders, and to investigate differences between "naming" vs. "knowing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01411-6DOI Listing

Are divergence point analyses suitable for response time data?

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Estimating the time course of the influence of different factors in human performance is one of the major topics of research in cognitive psychology/neuroscience. Over the past decades, researchers have proposed several methods to tackle this question using latency data. Here we examine a recently proposed procedure that employs survival analyses on latency data to provide precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of a given factor (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01424-1DOI Listing

Multiple moderator meta-analysis using the R-package Meta-CART.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Mathematical Institute, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9512, 2300, RA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

In meta-analysis, heterogeneity often exists between studies. Knowledge about study features (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01360-0DOI Listing

The Metronome Counting Task for measuring meta-awareness.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6, Canada.

How can we measure the absence of awareness? Attention research has developed tools for measuring self-caught meta-awareness restoration and behavioral mind-wandering, but we lack a way to dynamically track the loss of meta-awareness. The present pre-registered study sought to bring together three extant paradigms into one tool designed to dynamically measure meta-awareness: the Metronome Counting Task (MCT). The MCT is a continuous performance task wherein participants tap along to a steady beat while counting to 20, indicating the final count by a special button press. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01418-zDOI Listing

FaReT: A free and open-source toolkit of three-dimensional models and software to study face perception.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

A problem in the study of face perception is that results can be confounded by poor stimulus control. Ideally, experiments should precisely manipulate facial features under study and tightly control irrelevant features. Software for 3D face modeling provides such control, but there is a lack of free and open source alternatives specifically created for face perception research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01421-4DOI Listing

Impact of violations of measurement invariance in cross-lagged panel mediation models.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Measurement & Statistics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4453, USA.

When fitting cross-lagged panel mediation models, the assumption of longitudinal measurement invariance should be made. This simulation study investigated the impact of violations of measurement invariance on cross-lagged panel mediation analysis using the latent cross-lagged panel mediation model (L-CLPM). Results showed that estimates of direct and mediated effects tended to be less accurate and the type I error rate of testing mediated effects can be inflated under non-invariance conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01426-zDOI Listing

PyTrack: An end-to-end analysis toolkit for eye tracking.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Eye tracking is a widely used tool for behavioral research in the field of psychology. With technological advancement, we now have specialized eye-tracking devices that offer high sampling rates, up to 2000 Hz, and allow for measuring eye movements with high accuracy. They also offer high spatial resolution, which enables the recording of very small movements, like drifts and microsaccades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01392-6DOI Listing

Addressing missing data in specification search in measurement invariance testing with Likert-type scale variables: A comparison of two approaches.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychological Science, University of California Merced, Merced, CA, USA.

In measurement invariance testing, when a certain level of full invariance is not achieved, the sequential backward specification search method with the largest modification index (SBSS_LMFI) is often used to identify the source of non-invariance. SBSS_LMFI has been studied under complete data but not missing data. Focusing on Likert-type scale variables, this study examined two methods for dealing with missing data in SBSS_LMFI using Monte Carlo simulation: robust full information maximum likelihood estimator (rFIML) and mean and variance adjusted weighted least squared estimator coupled with pairwise deletion (WLSMV_PD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01415-2DOI Listing

Individual differences in visual attention: A short, reliable, open-source, and multilingual test of multiple object tracking in PsychoPy.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Individual differences in attentional abilities provide an interesting approach in studying visual attention as well as the relation of attention to other psychometric measures. However, recent research has demonstrated that many tasks from experimental research are not suitable for individual differences research, as they fail to capture these differences reliably. Here, we provide a test for individual differences in visual attention which relies on the multiple object tracking task (MOT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01413-4DOI Listing

Characterizing gaze position signals and synthesizing noise during fixations in eye-tracking data.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Computer Science and Informatics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The magnitude of variation in the gaze position signals recorded by an eye tracker, also known as its precision, is an important aspect of an eye tracker's data quality. However, data quality of eye-tracking signals is still poorly understood. In this paper, we therefore investigate the following: (1) How do the various available measures characterizing eye-tracking data during fixation relate to each other? (2) How are they influenced by signal type? (3) What type of noise should be used to augment eye-tracking data when evaluating eye-movement analysis methods? To support our analysis, this paper presents new measures to characterize signal type and signal magnitude based on RMS-S2S and STD, two established measures of precision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01400-9DOI Listing

Smartphone sensor accuracy varies from device to device in mobile research: The case of spatial orientation.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Research Methods, Assessment, & iScience, Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Smartphone usage is increasing around the globe-in daily life and as a research device in behavioral science. Smartphones offer the possibility to gather longitudinal data at little cost to researchers and participants. They provide the option to verify self-report data with data from sensors built into most smartphones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01404-5DOI Listing

Consistency norms for 37,677 english words.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117570, Singapore.

Consistency reflects the mapping between spelling and sound. That is, a word is feedforward consistent if its pronunciation matches that of similarly spelled words, and feedback consistent if its spelling matches that of similar pronounced words. For a quasi-regular language such as English, the study of consistency effects on lexical processing has been limited by the lack of readily accessible norms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01391-7DOI Listing

Testing multiple polynomial models for eye-tracker calibration.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Laboratory of Human-Centered Computing, Center of Mathematical Research (CIMAT), Calle Lasec y Andador Galileo Galilei, Quantum, Ciudad del Conocimiento C.P., 98160, Zacatecas, Mexico.

The straightforward approach to eye-tracker calibration considers that the calibration data do not have erroneous associations, and the calibration function is defined. The violation of the non-erroneous assumption could cause an arbitrarily large bias. The MMransac algorithm proposed in this paper is a modified version of the Random Sample Consensus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01371-xDOI Listing

A measure of the interference effect distribution.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Aix Marseille University CNRS, LNC, Marseille, France.

We elaborated an index, the Interference Distribution Index, which allows quantifying the relation between response times and the size of the interference effect. This index is associated with an intuitive graphical representation, the Lorenz-interference plot. We show that this index has some convenient properties in terms of sensitivity to changes in the distribution of the interference effect and to aggregation of individual data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01339-6DOI Listing

A little garbage in, lots of garbage out: Assessing the impact of careless responding in personality survey data.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Faculty of Education, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

In self-report surveys, it is common that some individuals do not pay enough attention and effort to give valid responses. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which careless and insufficient effort responding contributes to the biasing of data. We performed analyses of dimensionality, internal structure, and data reliability of four personality scales (extroversion, conscientiousness, stability, and dispositional optimism) in two independent samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01401-8DOI Listing

The lasting smell of emotions: The effects of reutilizing fear sweat samples.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco 34, 1149-041, Lisbon, Portugal.

A growing body of research has shown that human apocrine sweat carries information about the emotional state of its donor. Exposure to sweat produced in a fear-inducing context triggers in its receivers a simulacrum of this emotional state, as evidenced by increased medial frontalis and corrugator supercilii (facial electromyography; fEMG) activity - two facial muscles involved in the display of fear facial expressions. However, despite the increased interest in the effects of emotional sweat, little is known about the properties of these chemical sweat samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01412-5DOI Listing

Lexique-Infra: grapheme-phoneme, phoneme-grapheme regularity, consistency, and other sublexical statistics for 137,717 polysyllabic French words.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

University Grenoble Alpes, University Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, LPNC, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

Psycholinguistic research has shown that both the regularity and consistency of the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondences impact word processing. Lexique-Infra is a new database providing infra-lexical statistics for 137,717 French words. The frequencies of the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondences as well as other indicators (consistency, regularity, letter frequencies, bigrams, trigrams, phonemes, biphones, and syllables, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01396-2DOI Listing

Assessing evidence for replication: A likelihood-based approach.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, UK.

How to evaluate replications is a fundamental issue in experimental methodology. We develop a likelihood-based approach to assessing evidence for replication. In this approach, the design of the original study is used to derive an estimate of a theoretically interesting effect size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01403-6DOI Listing

Assessing consistency of effects when applying multilevel models to single-case data.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Educational and Psychological Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

In the context of single-case experimental designs, replication is crucial. On the one hand, the replication of the basic effect within a study is necessary for demonstrating experimental control. On the other hand, replication across studies is required for establishing the generality of the intervention effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01417-0DOI Listing

Quantifying streams of thought during cognitive task performance using sequence analysis.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, 5665 Ponce de Leon Blvd, Coral Gables, FL, 33146, USA.

Streams of thought vary in content from one moment to the next, and these temporal patterns have been argued to be critical to understanding the wandering mind. But few analytic methods have been proposed that can account for both the content and temporal ordering of categorical experience sampling thought probes over time. In the present study, I apply sequence analytic methods to quantify the dynamics of thought from time series sequences of categorical experience sampling thought probes delivered across five different cognitive tasks in the same individuals (N = 545). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01416-1DOI Listing

Using a linear mixed-effect model framework to estimate multivariate generalizability theory parameters in R.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Educational Studies, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Multivariate generalizability theory (mG-theory) is an important framework in many behavioral and educational studies, as it describes useful psychometric properties of multidimensional assessments. Nevertheless, the use of mG-theory estimation is limited due to the lack of available software for carrying out the necessary calculations: users rely heavily on independent software programs such as mGENOVA and the BUGS/JAGS suite of programs. Considering the prevalence of R software, this paper presents a solution using the glmmTMB package to accomplish the estimation task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01399-zDOI Listing

Design choices: Empirical recommendations for designing two-dimensional finger-tracking experiments.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Psychology, Julius-Maximilians-University of Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070, Würzburg, Germany.

The continuous tracking of mouse or finger movements has become an increasingly popular research method for investigating cognitive and motivational processes such as decision-making, action-planning, and executive functions. In the present paper, we evaluate and discuss how apparently trivial design choices of researchers may impact participants' behavior and, consequently, a study's results. We first provide a thorough comparison of mouse- and finger-tracking setups on the basis of a Simon task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01409-0DOI Listing

Size and shape constancy in consumer virtual reality.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, England.

With the increase in popularity of consumer virtual reality headsets, for research and other applications, it is important to understand the accuracy of 3D perception in VR. We investigated the perceptual accuracy of near-field virtual distances using a size and shape constancy task, in two commercially available devices. Participants wore either the HTC Vive or the Oculus Rift and adjusted the size of a virtual stimulus to match the geometric qualities (size and depth) of a physical stimulus they were able to refer to haptically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01336-9DOI Listing

LexOPS: An R package and user interface for the controlled generation of word stimuli.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, 62 Hillhead Street, Glasgow, G12 8QB, UK.

LexOPS is an R package and user interface designed to facilitate the generation of word stimuli for use in research. Notably, the tool permits the generation of suitably controlled word lists for any user-specified factorial design and can be adapted for use with any language. It features an intuitive graphical user interface, including the visualization of both the distributions within and relationships among variables of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01389-1DOI Listing

Joint modeling of the two-alternative multidimensional forced-choice personality measurement and its response time by a Thurstonian D-diffusion item response model.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun;52(3):1091-1107

Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The two-alternative multidimensional forced-choice measurement of personality has attracted researchers' attention for its tolerance to response bias. Moreover, the response time can be collected along with the item response when personality measurement is conducted with computers. In view of this situation, the objective of this study is to propose a Thurstonian D-diffusion item response theory (IRT) model, which combines two key existing frameworks: the Thurstonian IRT model for forced-choice measurement and the D-diffusion IRT model for the response time in personality measurement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01302-5DOI Listing

rtmpt: An R package for fitting response-time extended multinomial processing tree models.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Jun;52(3):1313-1338

Department of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Engelbergerstrasse, 41, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

Response-time extended multinomial processing tree models (RT-MPT; Klauer and Kellen, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 82, 111-130 2018) provide estimates of process-completion times for cognitive processes modeled by means of multinomial processing tree (MPT) models (Batchelder and Riefer, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 57-86 1999). We present the R package rtmpt with which it is possible to fit RT-MPT models easily. The package is free and open source, it can be used with two established MPT syntaxes, and has a number of useful features, such as suppressing process-completion times for specific process outcomes, holding process probabilities constant, and changing some prior parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01318-xDOI Listing

The processing of pseudoword form and meaning in production and comprehension: A computational modeling approach using linear discriminative learning.

Behav Res Methods 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft, Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Pseudowords have long served as key tools in psycholinguistic investigations of the lexicon. A common assumption underlying the use of pseudowords is that they are devoid of meaning: Comparing words and pseudowords may then shed light on how meaningful linguistic elements are processed differently from meaningless sound strings. However, pseudowords may in fact carry meaning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01356-wDOI Listing

The Linguistic Analysis of Scene Semantics: LASS.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Psychology Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

In this paper, we define a new method for analyzing object-scene contextual relationships using computational linguistics: Linguistic Analysis of Scene Semantics, or LASS. LASS uses linguistic semantic similarity relationships between scene object and context labels embedded in a vector-space language model: Facebook Research's fastText. Importantly, the use of fastText permits semantic similarity score calculation between any set of strings and thus elements of any set of image data for which labels are available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01390-8DOI Listing

Standardizing measurement in psychological studies: On why one second has different value in a sprint versus a marathon.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Research School of Psychology, The Australian National University, Canberra, 2601, Australia.

Here we highlight the importance of considering relative performance and the standardization of measurement in psychological research. In particular, we highlight three key analytic issues. The first is the fact that the popular method of calculating difference scores can be misleading because current approaches rely on absolute differences, neglecting what proportion of baseline performance this change reflects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01383-7DOI Listing

Two-stage maximum likelihood approach for item-level missing data in regression.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Psychologists use scales comprised of multiple items to measure underlying constructs. Missing data on such scales often occur at the item level, whereas the model of interest to the researcher is at the composite (scale score) level. Existing analytic approaches cannot easily accommodate item-level missing data when models involve composites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01355-xDOI Listing

An open-source, wireless vest for measuring autonomic function in infants.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Infant behavior, like all behavior, is the aggregate product of many nested processes operating and interacting over multiple time scales; the result of a tangle of inter-related causes and effects. Efforts in identifying the mechanisms supporting infant behavior require the development and advancement of new technologies that can accurately and densely capture behavior's multiple branches. The present study describes an open-source, wireless autonomic vest specifically designed for use in infants 8-24 months of age in order to measure cardiac activity, respiration, and movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01394-4DOI Listing

Thinking twice about sum scores.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

A common way to form scores from multiple-item scales is to sum responses of all items. Though sum scoring is often contrasted with factor analysis as a competing method, we review how factor analysis and sum scoring both fall under the larger umbrella of latent variable models, with sum scoring being a constrained version of a factor analysis. Despite similarities, reporting of psychometric properties for sum scored or factor analyzed scales are quite different. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01398-0DOI Listing

Modeling and quality assessment of nystagmus eye movements recorded using an eye-tracker.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Mathematical modeling of nystagmus oscillations is a technique with applications in diagnostics, treatment evaluation, and acuity testing. Modeling is a powerful tool for the analysis of nystagmus oscillations but quality assessment of the input data is needed in order to avoid misinterpretation of the modeling results. In this work, we propose a signal quality metric for nystagmus waveforms, the normalized segment error (NSE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01346-yDOI Listing

The Auditory English Lexicon Project: A multi-talker, multi-region psycholinguistic database of 10,170 spoken words and nonwords.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117570, Singapore.

The Auditory English Lexicon Project (AELP) is a multi-talker, multi-region psycholinguistic database of 10,170 spoken words and 10,170 spoken nonwords. Six tokens of each stimulus were recorded as 44.1-kHz, 16-bit, mono WAV files by native speakers of American, British, and Singapore English, with one from each gender. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01352-0DOI Listing

Measuring Lexical Quality: The Role of Spelling Ability.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

The construct of 'lexical quality' (Perfetti Scientific Studies of Reading 11, 357-383, 2007) is widely invoked in literature on word recognition and reading to refer to a systematic dimension of individual differences that predicts performance in a range of word identification and reading tasks in both developing readers and skilled adult populations. Many different approaches have been used to assess lexical quality, but few have captured the orthographic precision that is central to the construct. This paper describes, evaluates, and disseminates spelling dictation and spelling recognition tests that were developed to provide sensitive measures of the precision component of lexical quality in skilled college student readers - the population that has provided most of the benchmark data for models of word recognition and reading. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01387-3DOI Listing

GazeR: A Package for Processing Gaze Position and Pupil Size Data.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK.

Eye-tracking is widely used throughout the scientific community, from vision science and psycholinguistics to marketing and human-computer interaction. Surprisingly, there is little consistency and transparency in preprocessing steps, making replicability and reproducibility difficult. To increase replicability, reproducibility, and transparency, a package in R (a free and widely used statistical programming environment) called gazeR was created to read and preprocess two types of data: gaze position and pupil size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01374-8DOI Listing

Brief communication: Three errors and two problems in a recent paper: gazeNet: End-to-end eye-movement event detection with deep neural networks (Zemblys, Niehorster, and Holmqvist, 2019).

Authors:
Lee Friedman

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Derrick M5, Department of Computer Science, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78640, USA.

Zemblys et al. (Behavior Research Methods, 51(2), 840-864, 2019) reported on a method for the classification of eye-movements ("gazeNet"). I have found three errors and two problems with that paper that are explained herein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01342-xDOI Listing

A primer on running human behavioural experiments online.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Apr 6. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Moving from the lab to an online environment opens up enormous potential to collect behavioural data from thousands of participants with the click of a button. However, getting the first online experiment running requires familiarisation with a number of new tools and terminologies. There exist a number of tutorials and hands-on guides that can facilitate this process, but these are often tailored to one specific online platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01395-3DOI Listing

Quantifying the benefits of using decision models with response time and accuracy data.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Research Software Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Response time and accuracy are fundamental measures of behavioral science, but discerning participants' underlying abilities can be masked by speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATOs). SATOs are often inadequately addressed in experiment analyses which focus on a single variable or which involve a suboptimal analytic correction. Models of decision-making, such as the drift diffusion model (DDM), provide a principled account of the decision-making process, allowing the recovery of SATO-unconfounded decision parameters from observed behavioral variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01372-wDOI Listing

Improving the robustness of infant lexical processing speed measures.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Wundtlaan 1, 6525XD, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Visual reaction times to target pictures after naming events are an informative measurement in language acquisition research, because gaze shifts measured in looking-while-listening paradigms are an indicator of infants' lexical speed of processing. This measure is very useful, as it can be applied from a young age onwards and has been linked to later language development. However, to obtain valid reaction times, the infant is required to switch the fixation of their eyes from a distractor to a target object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01385-5DOI Listing

Improved 3D tracking and automated classification of rodents' behavioral activity using depth-sensing cameras.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Analysis of rodents' behavior/activity is of fundamental importance in many research fields. However, many behavioral experiments still rely on manual scoring, with obvious problems in reproducibility. Despite important advances in video-analysis systems and computational ethology, automated behavior quantification is still a challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01381-9DOI Listing

Order effects in two-alternative forced-choice tasks invalidate adaptive threshold estimates.

Behav Res Methods 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Departamento de Metodología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223, Madrid, Spain.

Adaptive psychophysical methods are widely used for the quick estimation of percentage points (thresholds) on psychometric functions for two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) tasks. The use of adaptive methods is supported by numerous simulation studies documenting their performance, which have shown that thresholds can be reasonably estimated with them when their founding assumptions hold. One of these assumptions is that the psychometric function is invariant, but empirical evidence is mounting that human performance in 2AFC tasks needs to be described by two different psychometric functions, one that holds when the test stimulus is presented first in the 2AFC trial and a different one that holds when the test is presented second. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01384-6DOI Listing