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    1158 results match your criteria Behavior Modification[Journal]

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    The Effects of Worry and Relaxation on Flexibility During Cognitive Restructuring.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1:145445517732272. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    1 University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA.
    Worry is associated with inflexibility in cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. In addition, worry's negative valence and abstract level of construal are rigid characteristics that contribute to its nonadaptive consequences. Relaxation and cognitive therapy aim to increase flexibility in chronic worriers, and may have greater efficacy when administered in combination. Read More

    Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate Schedules Reduce Severe Problem Behavior.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1:145445517731723. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    2 University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD, USA.
    Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Read More

    Increasing Availability of Exposure Therapy Through Intensive Group Treatment for Childhood Anxiety and OCD.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1:145445517730831. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    1 Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2. Read More

    An Investigation of a Video-Based Preference Assessment of Social Interactions.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1:145445517731062. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    1 University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA.
    We examined the use of a paired-stimulus, video-based preference assessment (VPA) to identify high- and low-preference social interactions for three children with autism spectrum disorder. We conducted two VPAs with each participant: one with access to the interaction contingent on each selection and one without access. We also conducted a concurrent-operant reinforcer assessment to evaluate the accuracy of the VPAs in identifying reinforcers. Read More

    A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1:145445517730830. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    1 Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA.
    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. Read More

    Self-Regulation of Weight After Sleeve Gastrectomy.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517724540. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Instituto de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa.
    Bariatric surgery is recognized as the most effective method for achieving relevant weight loss in subjects with severe obesity. However, there is insufficient knowledge about weight self-regulation and quality of motivation in these patients. The main goal of this study was to characterize the association between the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) and the motivation to manage weight, at least 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Read More

    Effectiveness of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517724539. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 VA Puget Sound Health Care System-American Lake Division, Tacoma, WA, USA.
    Effective treatment options are needed for veterans who do not participate in trauma-focused psychotherapy. Research has yet to examine the effectiveness of transdiagnostic psychotherapy in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring psychological disorders. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) delivered in a 16-week group format. Read More

    Using Peer-Mediated Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions to Increase First Aid Safety Skills in Students With Developmental Disabilities.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517725866. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    2 Renaissance Learning Academy, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.
    Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. Read More

    Examining the Synergistic Effects of Two Transdiagnostic Vulnerability Factors in Relation to Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Disorders Among Latinos in a Community Health Care Setting.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517725867. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 University of Houston, TX, USA.
    Latinos are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic population in the United States yet they experience a substantial amount of mental health disparities, such as anxiety and depression, compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The current study examined the interactive effects of rumination and mindful attention on anxiety and depression symptoms among economically disadvantaged Latinos. Participants consisted of 391 Latinos (86. Read More

    Synthesis of Applied Behavior Analytic Interventions for Packing in Pediatric Feeding Disorders.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517724541. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    4 California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA.
    Packing, which consists of holding food in the mouth for an extended time during meals, is a form of disordered feeding associated with pediatric feeding disorders. The behavior can disrupt the pace and completion of a meal and lead to increased risk of choking, inadequate food and liquid intake, and elevated caregiver stress associated with mealtimes. Applied behavior analysis research has developed and evaluated behavioral interventions to improve feeding by reducing packing. Read More

    Within Your Control? When Problem Solving May Be Most Helpful.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517726300. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA.
    Emotion regulation strategies have been conceptualized as adaptive or maladaptive, but recent evidence suggests emotion regulation outcomes may be context-dependent. The present study tested whether the adaptiveness of a putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategy-problem solving-varied across contexts of high and low controllability. The present study also tested rumination, suggested to be one of the most putatively maladaptive strategies, which was expected to be associated with negative outcomes regardless of context. Read More

    The Evidence Base for Interventions Targeting Individuals With Work-Related PTSD: A Systematic Review and Recommendations.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517725048. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences (CHÉOS), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence base for interventions targeting individuals with work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to make recommendations for clinicians and administrative decision makers involved in their rehabilitation, and to guide future research in this area. Particular attention was given to studies that were conducted in naturalistic clinical settings or in a workers' compensation claim context. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, and EMBASE identified 11 articles. Read More

    Linear Trend in Single-Case Visual and Quantitative Analyses.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517726301. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 University of Barcelona, Spain.
    The frequently used visual analysis of single-case data focuses on data aspects such as level, trend, variability, overlap, immediacy of effect, and consistency of data patterns; most of these aspects are also commonly quantified besides inspecting them visually. The present text focuses on trend, because even linear trend can be operatively defined in several different ways, while there are also different approaches for controlling for baseline trend. We recommend using a quantitative criterion for choosing a trend line fitting technique and comparing baseline and intervention slopes, instead of detrending. Read More

    An Initial Open Trial of a Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression and Medication Adherence in HIV-Infected Patients.
    Behav Modif 2017 Aug 1:145445517723901. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    4 The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA.
    Advances in HIV treatment through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have led to a steady decline in HIV-related mortality rates. However, HAART requires adherence to strict and often complicated medication regimens, and nonadherence to HAART can significantly decrease its effectiveness. Depression has consistently shown a robust association with medication nonadherence; consequently, numerous psychological interventions have been developed to target depression and increase medication adherence among HIV-infected individuals. Read More

    Managing Student Behavior in Dual Immersion Classrooms: A Study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 20;41(5):626-646. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    2 University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS, USA.
    Classroom management in dual immersion classrooms includes unique challenges. The teacher must instruct and correct in the L2 language, in which students are beginning learners, and effective classroom management strategies appropriate to the L2 context. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a positive classroom management program that teaches social skills and uses group contingencies to improve behavior. Read More

    Internet-Delivered Acceptance-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Social Anxiety Disorder With and Without Therapist Support: A Randomized Trial.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 8;41(5):583-608. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    2 Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States. Although evidenced-based behavioral treatments are available, less than 20% of those with SAD receive treatment. Internet-based interventions can address barriers to treatment access, and guided Internet-based treatments have been demonstrated to be effective for SAD. Read More

    The Effects of Conducting a Functional Analysis on Problem Behavior in Other Settings: A Descriptive Study on Potential Interaction Effects.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1;41(5):609-625. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    1 Marcus Autism Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    It has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may raise ethical questions, such as resulting in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current translational study assessed whether conducting an FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA setting for six participants using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. The rate of problem behavior was measured outside the FA setting prior to and during an FA. Read More

    A Systematic Review of Pliance, Tracking, and Augmenting.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1;41(5):683-707. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    1 Ghent University, Belgium.
    Within relational frame theory, a distinction has been made between three types of rule-governed behavior known as pliance, tracking, and augmenting. This review examined whether there is support for the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting in the experimental analysis of behavior; whether these concepts refer to distinct functional classes of behavior; and how these concepts have been operationalized in experimental (behavioral-analytic) research. Given that the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting were first defined by Zettle and Hayes, we confined our review to studies published in or after 1982. Read More

    Social Cost Bias, Probability Bias, and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Behavioral Action in Social Anxiety.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 1:145445517720447. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 University of Massachusetts Boston, MA, USA.
    The present study investigated the role of social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy as correlates of behavioral action in a nonclinical sample of 197 individuals, using a series of vignettes and self-report measures. The findings indicated that, as hypothesized, social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy were associated with social anxiety. While social anxiety was associated with behavioral action, the three cognitive factors were associated with behavioral action above and beyond the contribution of social anxiety. Read More

    Cross-Cultural Validation of the York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 1:145445517719397. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is widely applied in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Little research has addressed the significance of adherence to EIBI practices for treatment outcomes. The York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention (YMQI) was designed to assess EIBI quality delivery in Ontario, Canada. Read More

    A Mindfulness Program Manual for People With Dementia.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 1:145445517715872. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 University College London, UK.
    This article describes a 10-session group-based Mindfulness Program for people with mild to moderate dementia. It aims to equip people with dementia with skills to manage psychological distress, with support from carers. The Mindfulness Program was developed through reviews of existing literature, consultation with experts, and a focus group with people with dementia. Read More

    Evaluating an Adjunctive Mobile App to Enhance Psychological Flexibility in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 1:145445517719661. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel adjunctive mobile app designed to enhance the acquisition, strengthening, and generalization of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) skills being taught in therapy. A sample of 14 depressed/anxious clients receiving ACT used the ACT Daily app for 2 weeks in a pre-post, open trial design. Participants reported a high degree of program satisfaction. Read More

    The Role of Emotion Reactivity in Health Anxiety.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 1:145445517719398. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Emotion reactivity, defined as heightened sensitivity, intensity, and persistence of emotional states, has been shown to contribute to the exacerbation of anxiety. However, the association between emotion reactivity and health anxiety has yet to be examined. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of emotion reactivity in terms of health anxiety in a sample of medically healthy undergraduates ( n = 194; 59. Read More

    Implementing a Manualized, Classroom Transition Intervention for Students With ASD in Underresourced Schools.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 1:145445517711437. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 University of Rochester Medical Center, NY, USA.
    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresourced districts. Read More

    Recovery of Percent Vital Capacity by Breathing Training in Patients With Panic Disorder and Impaired Diaphragmatic Breathing.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 1;41(5):665-682. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu, Japan.
    Slow diaphragmatic breathing is one of the therapeutic methods used in behavioral therapy for panic disorder. In practice, we have noticed that some of these patients could not perform diaphragmatic breathing and their percent vital capacity was initially reduced but could be recovered through breathing training. We conducted a comparative study with healthy controls to investigate the relationship between diaphragmatic breathing ability and percent vital capacity in patients with panic disorder. Read More

    Persistent Rule-Following in the Face of Reversed Reinforcement Contingencies: The Differential Impact of Direct Versus Derived Rules.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jun 1:145445517715871. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    1 Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rule-governed behavior and its role in generating insensitivity to direct contingencies of reinforcement have been implicated in human psychological suffering. In addition, the human capacity to engage in derived relational responding has also been used to explain specific human maladaptive behaviors, such as irrational fears. To date, however, very little research has attempted to integrate research on contingency insensitivity and derived relations. Read More

    Increasing Quiet Compliance by Detained Male Adolescents.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jun 1:145445517716675. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    1 Auburn University, AL, USA.
    Some adjudicated adolescents receive treatment for their offenses in residential facilities. Detained adolescents' engagement in either low levels of compliant behavior or excess behavior (e.g. Read More

    The Impact of Prior Activity History on the Influence of Restricted Repetitive Behaviors on Socialization for Children With High-Functioning Autism.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jun 1:145445517706346. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    1 University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.
    Research has demonstrated that incorporating restricted interests of an individual with autism into recess activities is effective at increasing socialization with typically developing peers. However, certain activity contexts may alter the reinforcing influence of the restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) depending on an individual's history in that activity. Using an alternating treatment design, this study examined whether an individual's history with an activity affected socialization. Read More

    Increasing Functional Leisure Engagement for Children With Autism Using Backward Chaining.
    Behav Modif 2017 May 1:145445517699929. Epub 2017 May 1.
    1 Marcus Autism Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Research with individuals with disabilities has demonstrated the utility of intervention approaches to address toy play, also referred to as functional leisure engagement (FLE). Examples include prompting FLE, blocking stereotypy, and differentially reinforcing appropriate FLE with social or automatic (i.e. Read More

    Comparing Book- and Tablet-Based Picture Activity Schedules: Acquisition and Preference.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 28;41(5):647-664. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    1 University of South Wales, Pontypridd, UK.
    Picture activity schedules consist of a sequence of images representing the order of tasks for a person to complete. Although, picture activity schedules have traditionally been presented in a book format, recently picture activity schedules have been evaluated on technological devices such as an iPod™ touch. The present study compared the efficiency of picture activity schedule acquisition on book- and tablet-based modalities. Read More

    An Evaluation of Single-Case Reading Intervention Study Quality for Students With and At Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
    Behav Modif 2017 Apr 1:145445517701896. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    4 American Institutes for Research, Austin, TX, USA.
    Researchers have noted the lack of research to guide reading practice for students with and at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Although comprehensive syntheses have identified promising practices and areas for future research, none have evaluated the rigor of studies according to quality indicators. The current study evaluated the extant single-case reading intervention research for this student population according to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards. Read More

    Token Economy: A Systematic Review of Procedural Descriptions.
    Behav Modif 2017 Sep 19;41(5):708-737. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    3 The Achievement Center, Erie, PA, USA.
    The token economy is a well-established and widely used behavioral intervention. A token economy is comprised of six procedural components: the target response(s), a token that functions as a conditioned reinforcer, backup reinforcers, and three interconnected schedules of reinforcement. Despite decades of applied research, the extent to which the procedures of a token economy are described in complete and replicable detail has not been evaluated. Read More

    Does Social Support Buffer the Association Between Stress Eating and Weight Gain During the Transition to College? Differences by Gender.
    Behav Modif 2017 May 21;41(3):368-381. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    1 Kent State University, OH, USA.
    This study sought to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between stress eating and body mass index (BMI) change over the freshman year in males and females. This longitudinal study included 70 college students (72.9% female; M age = 18. Read More

    Interdependent Group Contingencies Decrease Adolescents' Disruptive Behaviors During Group Therapy: A Practitioner's Demonstration.
    Behav Modif 2017 May 15;41(3):405-421. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    1 Auburn University, AL, USA.
    Adolescents who have been adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior may receive treatment that requires attending group therapy sessions and classes. For some adolescents, nonsexual problem behavior (e.g. Read More

    Isolating the Unique Effects of the Unified Protocol Treatment Modules Using Single Case Experimental Design.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 22;41(2):286-307. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    1 Boston University, MA, USA.
    The Unified Protocol (UP) for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to treat the range of anxiety, depressive, and related disorders. Thus far, the UP treatment modules have only been studied when they are delivered in their entirety and presented in a standard sequence. To personalize the presentation of the UP modules for a given patient's presentation (e. Read More

    A Review of the Pyramidal Training Approach for Practitioners Working With Individuals With Disabilities.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 13;41(4):558-580. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    1 The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.
    Pyramidal training has been used for many years to expedite training for those who work with individuals with disabilities and utilizes an expert who provides training to a practitioner who then trains another practitioner to implement practices with clients. Fourteen articles were analyzed to investigate the viability of this training approach for practitioners of all types who support individuals with disabilities. Research does support the effectiveness of pyramidal training within the parameters with which it has been evaluated in this review. Read More

    A Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism.
    Behav Modif 2017 May 27;41(3):382-404. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    1 Monarch House, Oakville, ON, Canada.
    Although many teaching techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require the instructor to gain the child's eye contact prior to delivering an instructional demand, the literature contains notably few procedures that reliably produce this outcome. To address this problem, we evaluated the effects of a sequential model for increasing eye contact in children with ASD. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only (for eye contact), contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, and maintenance evaluations for up to 2 years. Read More

    Restricted Interests and Autism.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jan 1:145445516686301. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Western New England University, Springfield, MA, USA.
    Researchers have yet to identify the conditions under which people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate restricted interests; it is possible that the impression of restricted interests is strengthened when a limited variety of items are included in a client's preference assessments. This study will extend past research on preferences of children with autism by (a) examining participants' preferences for unreplenished (familiar) play or leisure items versus items that are replenished frequently, (b) assessing if participants who prefer replenished items select items with properties that are matched or unmatched to their most preferred unreplenished item, and (c) assessing if participants who show an exclusive preference for unreplenished items will select replenished items during response-restriction and enhanced-replenished pool manipulations. Participants were four adolescents with autism and a caregiver-reported history of restricted interests. Read More

    Maintained Physical Activity Induced Changes in Delay Discounting.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 29;41(4):499-528. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    1 The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.
    Those who discount the subjective value of delayed rewards less steeply are more likely to engage in physical activity. There is limited research, however, showing whether physical activity can change rates of delay discounting. In a two-experiment series, treatment and maintenance effects of a novel, effort-paced physical activity intervention on delay discounting were evaluated with multiple baseline designs. Read More

    Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women: The WE QUIT Pilot Study.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 27;41(4):468-498. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    1 Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. Read More

    Curbing Our Enthusiasm: An Analysis of the Check-In/Check-Out Literature Using the Council for Exceptional Children's Evidence-Based Practice Standards.
    Behav Modif 2017 May 11;41(3):343-367. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    3 University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Check-in/Check-out (CICO) is an intervention designed to improve behavioral outcomes for students identified as at-risk for school failure. Core principles of the intervention include clearly defined behavioral expectations and rules, precorrections for meeting behavioral expectations, high rates of feedback and reinforcement for demonstration of desired behavior, use of data to monitor outcomes, and a system for school-to- home communication. The purpose of this investigation was to use the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children's quality indicators and standards for establishing evidence-based practices in special education to review the existing research for CICO. Read More

    An Improved Rank Correlation Effect Size Statistic for Single-Case Designs: Baseline Corrected Tau.
    Behav Modif 2017 Jul 9;41(4):427-467. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    1 Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Measuring treatment effects when an individual's pretreatment performance is improving poses a challenge for single-case experimental designs. It may be difficult to determine whether improvement is due to the treatment or due to the preexisting baseline trend. Tau- U is a popular single-case effect size statistic that purports to control for baseline trend. Read More

    Analysis of Behavioral Indicators as a Measure of Satiation.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 22;41(2):308-322. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    1 Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA.
    Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item. Read More

    Intercoder Reliability and Validity of WebPlotDigitizer in Extracting Graphed Data.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 22;41(2):323-339. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    1 Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, USA.
    Quantitative synthesis of data from single-case designs (SCDs) is becoming increasingly common in psychology and education journals. Because researchers do not ordinarily report numerical data in addition to graphical displays, reliance on plot digitizing tools is often a necessary component of this research. Intercoder reliability of data extraction is a commonly overlooked, but potentially important, step of this process. Read More

    Further Evaluation of the Use of Multiple Schedules for Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 28;41(2):269-285. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    1 Florida International University, Miami, USA.
    One potential limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that after the functional communication response (FCR) is taught, the response may be emitted at high rates or inappropriate times. Thus, schedule thinning is often necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple schedules can facilitate schedule thinning by establishing discriminative control of the communication response while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. Read More

    Intensity and Learning Outcomes in the Treatment of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 21;41(2):229-252. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    1 Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA.
    Ample research has shown that intensive applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment produces robust outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about the relationship between treatment intensity and treatment outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate this relationship. Participants included 726 children, ages 1. Read More

    Unified Protocol Transdiagnostic Treatment in Group Format.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 21;41(2):253-268. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Barlow et al. published the unified protocol (UP) for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders, focusing on common pathological factors across a variety of diagnoses. The limited UP research to date suggests that this treatment may be particularly useful for anxiety disorders. Read More

    Improvements in Child Behavior and Family Mealtime Environment After an Intensive Behavioral Feeding Intervention.
    Behav Modif 2016 Aug 31. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    St. Mary's Healthcare System for Children, Bayside, NY, USA.
    The present study examined changes in child and family mealtime patterns before and after intensive behavioral feeding intervention at a multidisciplinary hospital-based program for 50 children. At preintervention and postintervention, caregivers completed surveys to report child feeding goals and the About Your Child's Eating scale (AYCE). In addition, at postintervention, each caregiver rated intervention effectiveness for his or her child's feeding goals identified at preintervention and provided intervention satisfaction ratings. Read More

    How Can Single-Case Data Be Analyzed? Software Resources, Tutorial, and Reflections on Analysis.
    Behav Modif 2017 Mar 21;41(2):179-228. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    2 State University of New York, New York City, USA.
    The present article aims to present a series of software developments in the quantitative analysis of data obtained via single-case experimental designs (SCEDs), as well as the tutorial describing these developments. The tutorial focuses on software implementations based on freely available platforms such as R and aims to bring statistical advances closer to applied researchers and help them become autonomous agents in the data analysis stage of a study. The range of analyses dealt with in the tutorial is illustrated on a typical single-case dataset, relying heavily on graphical data representations. Read More

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