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    2397 results match your criteria Behavior Genetics [Journal]

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    Moderation of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Involvement by Rural Residency among Adolescents: Results from the 1962 National Merit Twin Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, 210 McAlester Hall, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.
    Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. Read More

    Impaired Dopamine-Dependent Locomotory Behavior of C. elegans Neuroligin Mutants Depends on the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase COMT-4.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Genetics, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Neurexins and neuroligins are neuronal membrane adhesion molecules that have been involved in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The nrx-1 and nlg-1 genes of Caenorhabditis elegans encode NRX-1 and NLG-1, orthologue proteins of human neurexins and neuroligins, respectively. Dopaminergic and serotoninergic signalling control the locomotory rate of the nematode. Read More

    ACEt: An R Package for Estimating Dynamic Heritability and Comparing Twin Models.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators. Read More

    The Quinpirole Hypolocomotive Effects are Strain and Route of Administration Dependent in SHR and SLA16 Isogenic Rats.
    Behav Genet 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Laboratory of Behavior Genetics, Department of Cellular Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    The SHR and SLA16 inbred strains present behavioral differences in anxiety/emotionality that could be under the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In order to investigate the role of D2 receptors in modulating such differences, an agonist (quinpirole) and an antagonist (haloperidol) of this receptor were administered, either via systemic injection (IP), or microinjected into the ventral area of the hippocampus (vHIP). Quinpirole and haloperidol IP decreased locomotor activity, only in SLA16 rats in the open-field (OF), and in both strains in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Read More

    Age at Menarche and Time Spent in Education: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. Read More

    Sum Scores in Twin Growth Curve Models: Practicality Versus Bias.
    Behav Genet 2017 Aug 5. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, 220 C Haggar Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.
    To study behavioral or psychiatric phenotypes, multiple indices of the behavior or disorder are often collected that are thought to best reflect the phenotype. Combining these items into a single score (e.g. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-Up of Cognition and Mental Health in Adult Phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Cognitive and mental health problems in individuals with the inherited metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) have often been associated with metabolic control and its history. For the present study executive functioning (EF) was assessed in 21 PKU patients during childhood (T1, mean age 10.4 years, SD = 2. Read More

    Interaction between Parental Education and Twin Correlations for Cognitive Ability in a Norwegian Conscript Sample.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    We examine a sample of Norwegian twin conscripts for evidence of an interaction between parental education and the heritability of general cognitive ability (GA). Ability scores were obtained on 1706 pairs of twins who were conscripted into the Norwegian Armed Forces between 1931and 1960. Education scores were available for mothers and fathers; the majority of the parents had less than a high school education. Read More

    Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine-Responsive Prefrontal Cortical Genetic Overlaps in "Impulsive" SHR/NCrl and Wistar Rats.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Pharmacy, Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Sahmyook University, 26-21 Kongreung-2-dong, Hwarangro-815, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139-742, Republic of Korea.
    Impulsivity, the predisposition to act prematurely without foresight, is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying genetic underpinnings of impulsive behavior may help decipher the complex etiology and neurobiological factors of disorders marked by impulsivity. To identify potential genetic factors of impulsivity, we examined common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent SHR/NCrl and Wistar rats, which showed marked decrease in preference for the large but delayed reward, compared with WKY/NCrl rats, in the delay discounting task. Read More

    Conservation of Phenotypes in the Roman High- and Low-Avoidance Rat Strains After Embryo Transfer.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    The Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains are bi-directionally bred for their good versus non-acquisition of two-way active avoidance, respectively. They have recently been re-derived through embryo transfer (ET) to Sprague-Dawley females to generate specific pathogen free (SPF) RHA-I/RLA-I rats. Offspring were phenotyped at generations 1 (G1, born from Sprague-Dawley females), 3 and 5 (G3 and G5, born from RHA-I and RLA-I from G2-G4, respectively), and compared with generation 60 from our non-SPF colony. Read More

    Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Alcohol Use.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    The precise nature of how genetic and environmental risk factors influence changes in alcohol use (AU) over time has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the nature of longitudinal changes in these risk factors to AU from mid-adolescence through young adulthood. Using a large sample of male twins, we compared five developmental models that each makes different predictions regarding the longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental risks for AU. Read More

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Reading Ability Show Connection to Socio-Economic Outcomes.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 15. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK.
    Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p < 0. Read More

    Higher Rates of DZ Twinning in a Twenty-First Century Birth Cohort.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 15. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.
    The Colorado Twin Registry is a population based registry initiated in 1984 with the involvement of the Colorado Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Recruitment includes birth cohorts several years prior to 1984 and all subsequent years. As part of a recent evaluation of Colorado birth records for the years 2006 through 2008 we became aware of a shifting trend in the proportion of MZ and DZ twins in the Colorado population. Read More

    Rsk2 Knockout Affects Emotional Behavior in the IntelliCage.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 6;47(4):434-448. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Center of Mental Health, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Margarete-Höppel-Platz 1, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany.
    Ribosomal s6 kinase 2 is a growth factor activated serine/threonine kinase and member of the ERK signaling pathway. Mutations in the Rsk2 gene cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome, a rare syndromic form of intellectual disability. The Rsk2 KO mouse model was shown to have learning and memory defects. Read More

    A Family-Based Study of the Association Between Labor Induction and Offspring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Low Academic Achievement.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 27;47(4):383-393. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.
    The current study examined associations between labor induction and both (1) offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in a Swedish birth cohort born 1992-2005 (n = 1,085,008) and (2) indices of offspring low academic achievement in a sub-cohort born 1992-1997 (n = 489,196). Associations were examined in the entire sample (i.e. Read More

    Genetic and Environmental Influences on Longitudinal Trajectories of Functional Biological Age: Comparisons Across Gender.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 27;47(4):375-382. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Box 1026, 551 11, Jönköping, Sweden.
    We used an alternate age variable, functional biological age (fBioAge), which was based on performance on functional body measures. The aim was to examine development of fBioAge across the adult life span, and to also examine potential gender differences and genetic and environmental influences on change with age. We used longitudinal data (n = 740; chronological age (ChronAge) range 45-85 at baseline) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Read More

    Pleiotropic Effects of DDT Resistance on Male Size and Behaviour.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 2;47(4):449-458. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, TR10 9FE, Cornwall, UK.
    Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. Read More

    Cannabis and Depression: A Twin Model Approach to Co-morbidity.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 2;47(4):394-404. Epub 2017 May 2.
    National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, Addiction Sciences Building, 4 Windsor Walk, SE5 8BB, London, UK.
    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD) more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, studies to date have not produced a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this co-morbidity. Genetically informative studies can add valuable insight to this problem, as they allow the evaluation of competing models of co-morbidity. Read More

    Decoupling of Behavioral Trait Correlation Across Life Stages in Two Holometabolous Insects.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 18;47(4):459-467. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratory of Evolutionary Ecology, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Many animal behaviors have a genetic base, and behavioral traits often correlate with one another. In this study, we tested for a behavioral correlation between tonic immobility and walking distance in the larval and adult stages independently of two holometabolous insects. We confirmed a negative correlation of traits between strains in adults of both the species; however, we did not find it in larvae of either species. Read More

    A New Look at Genetic and Environmental Architecture on Lipids Using Non-Normal Structural Equation Modeling in Male Twins: The NHLBI Twin Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 17;47(4):425-433. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Public Health, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, USA.
    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on the lipid concentrations of 1028 male twins using the novel univariate non-normal structural equation modeling (nnSEM) ADCE and ACE models. In the best fitting nnSEM ADCE model that was also better than the nnSEM ACE model, additive genetic factors (A) explained 4%, dominant genetic factors (D) explained 17%, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental factors explained 47% and 33% of the total variance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The percentage of variation explained for other lipids was 0% (A), 30% (D), 34% (C) and 37% (E) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); 30, 0, 31 and 39% for total cholesterol; and 0, 31, 12 and 57% for triglycerides. Read More

    Using Patterns of Genetic Association to Elucidate Shared Genetic Etiologies Across Psychiatric Disorders.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 25;47(4):405-415. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 842018, 817W. Franklin Street, Richmond, VA, 23284-2018, USA.
    Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399). Read More

    Upregulation of Mineralocorticoid Receptor in the Hypothalamus Associated with a High Anxiety-like Level in Apolipoprotein E4 Transgenic Mice.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 24;47(4):416-424. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, Anhui, People's Republic of China.
    Anxiety symptoms occur in a large portion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. ApolipoproteinE-4 (ApoE ε4 allele), a risk factor for AD, has been recognized as an important contributor to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the corticosterone level in relation to anxiety-like behavior changes in transgenic male mice with different glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE isoforms. Read More

    GW-SEM: A Statistical Package to Conduct Genome-Wide Structural Equation Modeling.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 15;47(3):345-359. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    Improving the accuracy of phenotyping through the use of advanced psychometric tools will increase the power to find significant associations with genetic variants and expand the range of possible hypotheses that can be tested on a genome-wide scale. Multivariate methods, such as structural equation modeling (SEM), are valuable in the phenotypic analysis of psychiatric and substance use phenotypes, but these methods have not been integrated into standard genome-wide association analyses because fitting a SEM at each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) along the genome was hitherto considered to be too computationally demanding. By developing a method that can efficiently fit SEMs, it is possible to expand the set of models that can be tested. Read More

    Cultural Hitchhiking in the Matrilineal Whales.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 9;47(3):324-334. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Biology & Forensic Sciences Programme, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Canada.
    Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Read More

    Enhanced Expression of Serotonin Receptor 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C is Associated with Increased Feather Damage in Dongxiang Blue-Shelled Layers.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 9;47(3):369-374. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2901 Beidi road, Minghang Qu, Shanghai, 201106, China.
    The gene encoding the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytraptamine 2C (HTR2C) has been implicated in behavioral phenotypes in a number of species. In previous studies, a mutation in the chicken HTR2C gene was found to be associated with feather condition, thereby suggesting a relationship between the gene and receiving feather pecking activity. The present study analyzed the chicken HTR2C gene at both the genomic make-up and expression level in Dongxiang blue-shelled layer. Read More

    Phenotypic and Genetic Relationship Between BMI and Drinking in a Sample of UK Adults.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 25;47(3):290-297. Epub 2017 Feb 25.
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado Boulder, 1480 30th Street, Boulder, CO, 80301, USA.
    The health impairments derived from both alcoholism and obesity are well known. However, reports that relate increased alcohol use with increased measures of obesity have been mixed in their findings, especially with respect to genetic factors that could potentially link these two behaviors. Here, using a large sample of adults from the UK (n ≈ 113,000), we report both the observed and genetic correlations between BMI (kg/m(2)) and two measures of alcohol use: reported quantity (drinks per week) and frequency of use (from never to daily). Read More

    Differential Brain, Cognitive and Motor Profiles Associated with Partial Trisomy. Modeling Down Syndrome in Mice.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 15;47(3):305-322. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Aix Marseille University, CNRS, LPC, Marseille, France.
    We hypothesize that the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is the additive and interactive outcome of the triple copy of different regions of HSA21. Because of the small number of patients with partial trisomy 21, we addressed the question in the Mouse in which three chromosomal regions located on MMU10, MMU17 and MMU16 carries almost all the HSA21 homologs. Male mice from four segmental trisomic strains covering the D21S17-ETS2 (syntenic to MMU16) were examined with an exhaustive battery of cognitive tests, motor tasks and MRI and compared with TS65Dn that encompasses D21S17-ETS2. Read More

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Low Educational Achievement: Evidence Supporting A Causal Hypothesis.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 13;47(3):278-289. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e. Read More

    The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 10;47(3):360-368. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Read More

    Differential Gene Expression Associated with Honey Bee Grooming Behavior in Response to Varroa Mites.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 3;47(3):335-344. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. Read More

    Genetic and Environmental Structure of DSM-IV Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Twin Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 21;47(3):265-277. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Read More

    Genetic and Environmental Sources of Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem and Affect: Results from a Genetically Sensitive Multi-group Design.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 12;47(2):175-192. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    In today's world, researchers frequently utilize indirect measures of implicit (i.e., automatic, spontaneous) evaluations. Read More

    Heritability of Working in a Creative Profession.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 15;47(3):298-304. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Creativity is the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities. Following a study on the genetic contribution to working in a creative profession, based on polygenic score analysis, we report the total heritability of this trait in a large sample of adult twins and their siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Data from 6755 twins and 1817 siblings were analyzed using genetic structural equation modeling. Read More

    The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) in Children: Reliability and Heritability.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 1;47(2):141-151. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980489, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.
    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits comprise the core symptoms of psychopathy, yet no study has estimated the heritability of CU traits in a community sample of children using an instrument designed solely to assess CU traits. The current study uses data from 339 twin pairs aged 9-14 to examine the reliability and heritability of the parent-report Inventory of Callous-unemotional Traits (ICU) at two assessments approximately 3 weeks apart. Time-specific measurement error was taken into account to obtain a more accurate estimate of the heritability reflecting the latent liability to CU traits. Read More

    Heritability and Longitudinal Stability of Planning and Behavioral Disinhibition Based on the Porteus Maze Test.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 25;47(2):164-174. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California (USC), (SGM 501), 3620 S. McClintock Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90089-1061, USA.
    The Porteus Maze Test (PMT) provides measures of planning and behavioral disinhibition. The PMT was administered to 941 twins during Wave 1 (9-10 years) and 320 twins during Wave 2 (11-13 years). Participants were drawn from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study (RFAB). Read More

    A Power Calculator for the Classical Twin Design.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 19;47(2):255-261. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    Power is a ubiquitous, though often overlooked, component of any statistical analyses. Almost every funding agency and institutional review board requires that some sort of power analysis is conducted prior to data collection. While there are several excellent on line power calculators for independent observations, twin studies pose unique challenges that are not incorporated into these algorithms. Read More

    Behavioral and Molecular Genetics of Reading-Related AM and FM Detection Thresholds.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 9;47(2):193-201. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Auditory detection thresholds for certain frequencies of both amplitude modulated (AM) and frequency modulated (FM) dynamic auditory stimuli are associated with reading in typically developing and dyslexic readers. We present the first behavioral and molecular genetic characterization of these two auditory traits. Two extant extended family datasets were given reading tasks and psychoacoustic tasks to determine FM 2 Hz and AM 20 Hz sensitivity thresholds. Read More

    Adequacy of Using a Three-Item Questionnaire to Determine Zygosity in Chinese Young Twins.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 7;47(2):244-254. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    The present study examined the adequacy of a three-item parent questionnaire in determining the zygosity of young Chinese twins and whether there was any association between parent response accuracy and some demographic variables. The sample consisted of 334 pairs of same-sex Chinese twins aged from 3 to 11 years. Three scoring methods, namely the summed score, logistic regression, and decision tree, were employed to evaluate parent response accuracy of twin zygosity based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information. Read More

    Chimpanzee Personality and the Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A Genotype.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 2;47(2):215-226. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea. Read More

    Heritability of Behavioral Problems in 7-Year Olds Based on Shared and Unique Aspects of Parental Views.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 28;47(2):152-163. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    In studies of child psychopathology, phenotypes of interest are often obtained by parental ratings. When behavioral ratings are obtained in the context of a twin study, this allows for the decomposition of the phenotypic variance, into a genetic and a non-genetic part. If a phenotype is assessed by a single rater, heritability is based on the child's behavior as expressed in the presence of that particular rater, whereas heritability based on assessments by multiple raters allows for the estimation of the heritability of the phenotype based on rater agreement, as well as the heritability of the rater specific view of the behavior. Read More

    Using Twins to Better Understand Sibling Relationships.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 28;47(2):202-214. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, BN1 9QH, UK.
    We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5. Read More

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