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    2411 results match your criteria Behavior Genetics [Journal]

    1 OF 49

    Cross-Lagged Analysis of Interplay Between Differential Traits in Sibling Pairs: Validation and Application to Parenting Behavior and ADHD Symptomatology.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.
    Understanding the factors that contribute to behavioral traits is a complex task, and partitioning variance into latent genetic and environmental components is a useful beginning, but it should not also be the end. Many constructs are influenced by their contextual milieu, and accounting for background effects (such as gene-environment correlation) is necessary to avoid bias. This study introduces a method for examining the interplay between traits, in a longitudinal design using differential items in sibling pairs. Read More

    Adaptive SNP-Set Association Testing in Generalized Linear Mixed Models with Application to Family Studies.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, A460 Mayo Building, MMC 303, 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it has been increasingly recognized that, as a complementary approach to standard single SNP analyses, it may be beneficial to analyze a group of functionally related SNPs together. Among the existent population-based SNP-set association tests, two adaptive tests, the aSPU test and the aSPUpath test, offer a powerful and general approach at the gene- and pathway-levels by data-adaptively combining the results across multiple SNPs (and genes) such that high statistical power can be maintained across a wide range of scenarios. We extend the aSPU and the aSPUpath test to familial data under the framework of the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), which can take account of both subject relatedness and possible population structure. Read More

    The Impact of Variation in Twin Relatedness on Estimates of Heritability and Environmental Influences.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, 431 Moore Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.
    By taking advantage of the natural variation in genetic relatedness among identical (monozygotic: MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic: DZ) twins, twin studies are able to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to complex human behaviors. Recently concerns have been raised about the accuracy of twin studies in light of findings of genetic and epigenetic changes in twins. One of the concerns raised is that MZ twins are not 100% genetically and epigenetically similar because they show variations in their genomes and epigenomes leading to inaccurate estimates of heritability. Read More

    Partitioning Phenotypic Variance Due to Parent-of-Origin Effects Using Genomic Relatedness Matrices.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    We propose a new method, G-REMLadp, to estimate the phenotypic variance explained by parent-of-origin effects (POEs) across the genome. Our method uses restricted maximum likelihood analysis of genome-wide genetic relatedness matrices based on individuals' phased genotypes. Genome-wide SNP data from parent child duos or trios is required to obtain relatedness matrices indexing the parental origin of offspring alleles, as well as offspring phenotype data to partition the trait variation into variance components. Read More

    Persistent One-Way Walking in a Circular Arena in Drosophila melanogaster Canton-S Strain.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada.
    We describe persistent one-way walking of Drosophila melanogaster in a circular arena. Wild-type Canton-S adult flies walked in one direction, counter-clockwise or clockwise, for minutes, whereas white-eyed mutant [Formula: see text] changed directions frequently. Locomotion in the circular arena could be classified into four components: counter-clockwise walking, clockwise walking, nondirectional walking and pausing. Read More

    An Extended Twin-Pedigree Study of Neuroticism in the Netherlands Twin Register.
    Behav Genet 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Netherlands Twin Register, Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    For the participants in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) we constructed the extended pedigrees which specify all relations among nuclear and larger twin families in the register. A total of 253,015 subjects from 58,645 families were linked to each other, to the degree that we had information on the relations among participants. We describe the algorithm that was applied to construct the pedigrees. Read More

    Effects of Social Attitude Change on Smoking Heritability.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Departament of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Societal attitudes and norms to female smoking changed in Spain in the mid-twentieth century from a restrictive to a tolerant, and an even pro-smoking, posture, while social attitudes remained stable for males. We explored whether this difference in gender-related social norms influenced the heritability of two tobacco use measures: lifetime smoking and number of years smoking. We used a population-based sample of 2285 twins (mean age = 55. Read More

    Identification of Candidate Genes for Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures in Noda Epileptic Rat.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 21;47(6):609-619. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.
    The Noda epileptic rat (NER) exhibits generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). A genetic linkage analysis identified two GTCS-associated loci, Ner1 on Chr 1 and Ner3 on Chr 5. The wild-type Ner1 and Ner3 alleles suppressed GTCS when combined in double-locus congenic lines, but not when present in single-locus congenic lines. Read More

    Moderation of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Involvement by Rural Residency among Adolescents: Results from the 1962 National Merit Twin Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 18;47(6):587-595. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, 210 McAlester Hall, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.
    Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. Read More

    Impaired Dopamine-Dependent Locomotory Behavior of C. elegans Neuroligin Mutants Depends on the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase COMT-4.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 6;47(6):596-608. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Genetics, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Neurexins and neuroligins are neuronal membrane adhesion molecules that have been involved in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The nrx-1 and nlg-1 genes of Caenorhabditis elegans encode NRX-1 and NLG-1, orthologue proteins of human neurexins and neuroligins, respectively. Dopaminergic and serotoninergic signalling control the locomotory rate of the nematode. Read More

    ACEt: An R Package for Estimating Dynamic Heritability and Comparing Twin Models.
    Behav Genet 2017 Nov 6;47(6):620-641. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators. Read More

    The Quinpirole Hypolocomotive Effects are Strain and Route of Administration Dependent in SHR and SLA16 Isogenic Rats.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 18;47(5):552-563. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Laboratory of Behavior Genetics, Department of Cellular Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    The SHR and SLA16 inbred strains present behavioral differences in anxiety/emotionality that could be under the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In order to investigate the role of D2 receptors in modulating such differences, an agonist (quinpirole) and an antagonist (haloperidol) of this receptor were administered, either via systemic injection (IP), or microinjected into the ventral area of the hippocampus (vHIP). Quinpirole and haloperidol IP decreased locomotor activity, only in SLA16 rats in the open-field (OF), and in both strains in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Read More

    Age at Menarche and Time Spent in Education: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 9;47(5):480-485. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. Read More

    Sum Scores in Twin Growth Curve Models: Practicality Versus Bias.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 5;47(5):516-536. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, 220 C Haggar Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.
    To study behavioral or psychiatric phenotypes, multiple indices of the behavior or disorder are often collected that are thought to best reflect the phenotype. Combining these items into a single score (e.g. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-Up of Cognition and Mental Health in Adult Phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 3;47(5):486-497. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Cognitive and mental health problems in individuals with the inherited metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) have often been associated with metabolic control and its history. For the present study executive functioning (EF) was assessed in 21 PKU patients during childhood (T1, mean age 10.4 years, SD = 2. Read More

    Interaction between Parental Education and Twin Correlations for Cognitive Ability in a Norwegian Conscript Sample.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 25;47(5):507-515. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    We examine a sample of Norwegian twin conscripts for evidence of an interaction between parental education and the heritability of general cognitive ability (GA). Ability scores were obtained on 1706 pairs of twins who were conscripted into the Norwegian Armed Forces between 1931and 1960. Education scores were available for mothers and fathers; the majority of the parents had less than a high school education. Read More

    Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine-Responsive Prefrontal Cortical Genetic Overlaps in "Impulsive" SHR/NCrl and Wistar Rats.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 25;47(5):564-580. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Pharmacy, Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Sahmyook University, 26-21 Kongreung-2-dong, Hwarangro-815, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139-742, Republic of Korea.
    Impulsivity, the predisposition to act prematurely without foresight, is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying genetic underpinnings of impulsive behavior may help decipher the complex etiology and neurobiological factors of disorders marked by impulsivity. To identify potential genetic factors of impulsivity, we examined common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent SHR/NCrl and Wistar rats, which showed marked decrease in preference for the large but delayed reward, compared with WKY/NCrl rats, in the delay discounting task. Read More

    Conservation of Phenotypes in the Roman High- and Low-Avoidance Rat Strains After Embryo Transfer.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 17;47(5):537-551. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    The Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains are bi-directionally bred for their good versus non-acquisition of two-way active avoidance, respectively. They have recently been re-derived through embryo transfer (ET) to Sprague-Dawley females to generate specific pathogen free (SPF) RHA-I/RLA-I rats. Offspring were phenotyped at generations 1 (G1, born from Sprague-Dawley females), 3 and 5 (G3 and G5, born from RHA-I and RLA-I from G2-G4, respectively), and compared with generation 60 from our non-SPF colony. Read More

    Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Alcohol Use.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 17;47(5):498-506. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    The precise nature of how genetic and environmental risk factors influence changes in alcohol use (AU) over time has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the nature of longitudinal changes in these risk factors to AU from mid-adolescence through young adulthood. Using a large sample of male twins, we compared five developmental models that each makes different predictions regarding the longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental risks for AU. Read More

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Reading Ability Show Connection to Socio-Economic Outcomes.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 15;47(5):469-479. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK.
    Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p < 0. Read More

    Higher Rates of DZ Twinning in a Twenty-First Century Birth Cohort.
    Behav Genet 2017 Sep 15;47(5):581-584. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.
    The Colorado Twin Registry is a population based registry initiated in 1984 with the involvement of the Colorado Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Recruitment includes birth cohorts several years prior to 1984 and all subsequent years. As part of a recent evaluation of Colorado birth records for the years 2006 through 2008 we became aware of a shifting trend in the proportion of MZ and DZ twins in the Colorado population. Read More

    Rsk2 Knockout Affects Emotional Behavior in the IntelliCage.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 6;47(4):434-448. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Center of Mental Health, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Margarete-Höppel-Platz 1, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany.
    Ribosomal s6 kinase 2 is a growth factor activated serine/threonine kinase and member of the ERK signaling pathway. Mutations in the Rsk2 gene cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome, a rare syndromic form of intellectual disability. The Rsk2 KO mouse model was shown to have learning and memory defects. Read More

    A Family-Based Study of the Association Between Labor Induction and Offspring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Low Academic Achievement.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 27;47(4):383-393. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.
    The current study examined associations between labor induction and both (1) offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in a Swedish birth cohort born 1992-2005 (n = 1,085,008) and (2) indices of offspring low academic achievement in a sub-cohort born 1992-1997 (n = 489,196). Associations were examined in the entire sample (i.e. Read More

    Genetic and Environmental Influences on Longitudinal Trajectories of Functional Biological Age: Comparisons Across Gender.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 27;47(4):375-382. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Box 1026, 551 11, Jönköping, Sweden.
    We used an alternate age variable, functional biological age (fBioAge), which was based on performance on functional body measures. The aim was to examine development of fBioAge across the adult life span, and to also examine potential gender differences and genetic and environmental influences on change with age. We used longitudinal data (n = 740; chronological age (ChronAge) range 45-85 at baseline) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Read More

    Pleiotropic Effects of DDT Resistance on Male Size and Behaviour.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 2;47(4):449-458. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, TR10 9FE, Cornwall, UK.
    Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. Read More

    Cannabis and Depression: A Twin Model Approach to Co-morbidity.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 2;47(4):394-404. Epub 2017 May 2.
    National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, Addiction Sciences Building, 4 Windsor Walk, SE5 8BB, London, UK.
    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD) more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, studies to date have not produced a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this co-morbidity. Genetically informative studies can add valuable insight to this problem, as they allow the evaluation of competing models of co-morbidity. Read More

    Decoupling of Behavioral Trait Correlation Across Life Stages in Two Holometabolous Insects.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 18;47(4):459-467. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratory of Evolutionary Ecology, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Many animal behaviors have a genetic base, and behavioral traits often correlate with one another. In this study, we tested for a behavioral correlation between tonic immobility and walking distance in the larval and adult stages independently of two holometabolous insects. We confirmed a negative correlation of traits between strains in adults of both the species; however, we did not find it in larvae of either species. Read More

    A New Look at Genetic and Environmental Architecture on Lipids Using Non-Normal Structural Equation Modeling in Male Twins: The NHLBI Twin Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 17;47(4):425-433. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Public Health, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, USA.
    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on the lipid concentrations of 1028 male twins using the novel univariate non-normal structural equation modeling (nnSEM) ADCE and ACE models. In the best fitting nnSEM ADCE model that was also better than the nnSEM ACE model, additive genetic factors (A) explained 4%, dominant genetic factors (D) explained 17%, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental factors explained 47% and 33% of the total variance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The percentage of variation explained for other lipids was 0% (A), 30% (D), 34% (C) and 37% (E) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); 30, 0, 31 and 39% for total cholesterol; and 0, 31, 12 and 57% for triglycerides. Read More

    Using Patterns of Genetic Association to Elucidate Shared Genetic Etiologies Across Psychiatric Disorders.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 25;47(4):405-415. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 842018, 817W. Franklin Street, Richmond, VA, 23284-2018, USA.
    Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399). Read More

    Upregulation of Mineralocorticoid Receptor in the Hypothalamus Associated with a High Anxiety-like Level in Apolipoprotein E4 Transgenic Mice.
    Behav Genet 2017 Jul 24;47(4):416-424. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, Anhui, People's Republic of China.
    Anxiety symptoms occur in a large portion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. ApolipoproteinE-4 (ApoE ε4 allele), a risk factor for AD, has been recognized as an important contributor to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the corticosterone level in relation to anxiety-like behavior changes in transgenic male mice with different glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE isoforms. Read More

    GW-SEM: A Statistical Package to Conduct Genome-Wide Structural Equation Modeling.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 15;47(3):345-359. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    Improving the accuracy of phenotyping through the use of advanced psychometric tools will increase the power to find significant associations with genetic variants and expand the range of possible hypotheses that can be tested on a genome-wide scale. Multivariate methods, such as structural equation modeling (SEM), are valuable in the phenotypic analysis of psychiatric and substance use phenotypes, but these methods have not been integrated into standard genome-wide association analyses because fitting a SEM at each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) along the genome was hitherto considered to be too computationally demanding. By developing a method that can efficiently fit SEMs, it is possible to expand the set of models that can be tested. Read More

    Cultural Hitchhiking in the Matrilineal Whales.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 9;47(3):324-334. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Biology & Forensic Sciences Programme, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Canada.
    Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Read More

    Enhanced Expression of Serotonin Receptor 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C is Associated with Increased Feather Damage in Dongxiang Blue-Shelled Layers.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 9;47(3):369-374. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2901 Beidi road, Minghang Qu, Shanghai, 201106, China.
    The gene encoding the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytraptamine 2C (HTR2C) has been implicated in behavioral phenotypes in a number of species. In previous studies, a mutation in the chicken HTR2C gene was found to be associated with feather condition, thereby suggesting a relationship between the gene and receiving feather pecking activity. The present study analyzed the chicken HTR2C gene at both the genomic make-up and expression level in Dongxiang blue-shelled layer. Read More

    Phenotypic and Genetic Relationship Between BMI and Drinking in a Sample of UK Adults.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 25;47(3):290-297. Epub 2017 Feb 25.
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado Boulder, 1480 30th Street, Boulder, CO, 80301, USA.
    The health impairments derived from both alcoholism and obesity are well known. However, reports that relate increased alcohol use with increased measures of obesity have been mixed in their findings, especially with respect to genetic factors that could potentially link these two behaviors. Here, using a large sample of adults from the UK (n ≈ 113,000), we report both the observed and genetic correlations between BMI (kg/m(2)) and two measures of alcohol use: reported quantity (drinks per week) and frequency of use (from never to daily). Read More

    Differential Brain, Cognitive and Motor Profiles Associated with Partial Trisomy. Modeling Down Syndrome in Mice.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 15;47(3):305-322. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Aix Marseille University, CNRS, LPC, Marseille, France.
    We hypothesize that the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is the additive and interactive outcome of the triple copy of different regions of HSA21. Because of the small number of patients with partial trisomy 21, we addressed the question in the Mouse in which three chromosomal regions located on MMU10, MMU17 and MMU16 carries almost all the HSA21 homologs. Male mice from four segmental trisomic strains covering the D21S17-ETS2 (syntenic to MMU16) were examined with an exhaustive battery of cognitive tests, motor tasks and MRI and compared with TS65Dn that encompasses D21S17-ETS2. Read More

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Low Educational Achievement: Evidence Supporting A Causal Hypothesis.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 13;47(3):278-289. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e. Read More

    The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 10;47(3):360-368. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Read More

    Differential Gene Expression Associated with Honey Bee Grooming Behavior in Response to Varroa Mites.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 3;47(3):335-344. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. Read More

    Genetic and Environmental Structure of DSM-IV Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Twin Study.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 21;47(3):265-277. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Read More

    Genetic and Environmental Sources of Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem and Affect: Results from a Genetically Sensitive Multi-group Design.
    Behav Genet 2017 Mar 12;47(2):175-192. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    In today's world, researchers frequently utilize indirect measures of implicit (i.e., automatic, spontaneous) evaluations. Read More

    Heritability of Working in a Creative Profession.
    Behav Genet 2017 May 15;47(3):298-304. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Creativity is the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities. Following a study on the genetic contribution to working in a creative profession, based on polygenic score analysis, we report the total heritability of this trait in a large sample of adult twins and their siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Data from 6755 twins and 1817 siblings were analyzed using genetic structural equation modeling. Read More

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