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    Safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy: a real life study.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Apr 13;34(2):159-167. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Asthma and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Introduction: Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is recommended as the first-line treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom.

    Aim: To analyze the safety and efficacy of VIT in a real life setting.

    Material And Methods: One hundred and eighty patients undergoing VIT were studied to evaluate the safety, efficacy, incidence and nature of symptoms after field stings and adverse reactions to VIT. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-Up of Children after Venom Immunotherapy: Low Adherence to Anaphylaxis Guidelines.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2017 6;172(3):167-172. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Division of Pediatric Pneumology and Allergy, University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Data on the long-term outcome of children after specific venom immunotherapy (VIT) are limited. Therefore, we assessed sting recurrence and anaphylaxis relapse rates as well as adherence to anaphylaxis guidelines with regard to the availability of emergency equipment and education status.

    Methods: For this long-term survey, data of 311 children with a history of anaphylactic reactions to hymenoptera stings were collected by chart review. Read More

    A clinical trial protocol to treat massive Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera) attack with a new apilic antivenom.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 16;23:14. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista), Botucatu, SP Brazil.
    Background: Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). Read More

    Pharmacist use of the electronic medical record to identify adults at risk for anaphylaxis without epinephrine for self-administration.
    J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2017 May - Jun;57(3):369-374.e2. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Objectives: To describe an innovative pharmacist-led approach, with the use of electronic medical record (EMR) data, to identify patients at risk of anaphylaxis in need of epinephrine auto-injector (EAI) for self-administration.

    Setting: An urban free health care center for an uninsured indigent adult population in Pittsburgh, PA.

    Practice Innovation: In this pilot service, patients with allergy history fields containing the words "anaphylaxis," "nut," "bee," or "shellfish" were screened for inclusion. Read More

    Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2016 Sep-Dec;8(3):341-343. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.
    Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61). All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. Read More

    Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions: a retrospective study.
    Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2017 Jan 14;25(1). Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Center, Odense Research Center for Anaphylaxis (ORCA), Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, Odense, DK-5000, Denmark.
    Background: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. Read More

    Morphology of rare exogenous materials in dermatopathology.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Mar 12;44(3):237-248. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain.
    Dermatopathologists are occasionally challenged by exogenous materials found in their biopsies. Recognition of most of the structures and morphological parts of foreign materials is not always easy because most of the literature thus far has focused on the study of the histological and histopathological aspects of human tissues, as well as on the granulomatous response elicited by such foreign bodies. However, there are some cases of rare exogenous material in biopsies, mainly published as case reports; and dermatopathologists often lose precious time searching for information about such cases. Read More

    Acute ischemic stroke and severe multiorgan dysfunction due to multiple bee stings.
    Turk J Emerg Med 2016 Sep 29;16(3):126-128. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey.
    Various manifestations after bee sting have been described. Local reactions, such as pain, wheal, flare, edema and swelling, are common and generally self-limiting. Uncommonly manifestations like vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, generalized edema, acute renal failure, anaphylactic shock, myocardial infarction, hypotension, collapse, pulmonary hemorrhage, acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis, and atrial fibrillation may occur. Read More

    Safety of essential bee venom pharmacopuncture as assessed in a randomized controlled double-blind trial.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 10;194:774-780. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Jaseng Spine and Joint Research Institute, Jaseng Medical Foundation, 858 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: While bee venom (BV) pharmacopuncture use is common in Asia, frequent occurrence of allergic reactions during the treatment process is burdensome for both practitioner and patient.

    Aim Of The Study: This study compared efficacy and safety in isolated and purified essential BV (eBV) pharmacopuncture filtered for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and histamine sections, and original BV to the aim of promoting safe BV pharmacopuncture use.

    Materials And Methods: In in vitro, we examined the effect of BV and eBV on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264. Read More

    Possible complication of bee stings and a review of the cardiac effects of bee stings.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Nov 1;2016. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Cardiology, Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
    We report the case of a patient who, ∼3 weeks after multiple bee stings, developed a prolonged heart block, syncope and cardiac arrest. This required a temporary pacemaker to be implanted, which was later replaced with a permanent pacemaker. An ECG taken following surgery for a fractured humerus 6 years earlier was reportedly normal. Read More

    Dose-dependence of protection from systemic reactions to venom immunotherapy by omalizumab.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 24;14:14. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Allergy Unit, Sant'Anna Hospital, ASST Lariana, Via Napoleona 60, 22100 Como, Italy.
    Background: Systemic reactions (SR) to venom immunotherapy (VIT) are rare but may occur, with a rate significantly higher for honeybee than for vespid VIT. In patients with repeated SRs to VIT it is difficult to reach the maintenance dose of venom and pre-treatment with omalizumab is indicated, as shown by some studies reporting its preventative capacity, when antihistamines and corticosteroids are ineffective.

    Case Presentation: We present the case of a 47 years old woman allergic to bee venom who experienced two severe SRs after bee stings and several SRs to VIT with bee venom. Read More

    [Mortal poisoning by bee stings in a child: Study of a case observed in the regional hospital of Maradi (Niger)].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Dec 13;109(5):325-328. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Service de pédiatrie, hôpital national de Lamordé, université Abdou-Moumouni-Dioffo, Niamey, Niger.
    We report a fatal case due to a massive attack by a swarm of bees in a nine-year-old child. The accident was fatal because of two aggravating factors: the cephalic location and the large number of stings (about 300). Complications were coagulopathy, anemia, hemorrhage, coma, and oligoanuria. Read More

    Association of environmental markers with childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus revealed by a long questionnaire on early life exposures and lifestyle in a case-control study.
    BMC Public Health 2016 Sep 29;16(1):1021. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    INSERM U1169, Hôpital Bicêtre, Université Paris-Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
    Background: The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is rising in many countries, supposedly because of changing environmental factors, which are yet largely unknown. The purpose of the study was to unravel environmental markers associated with T1D.

    Methods: Cases were children with T1D from the French Isis-Diab cohort. Read More

    Honey Bee Swarms Aboard the USNS Comfort: Recommendations for Sting Prevention, Swarm Removal, and Medical Readiness on Military Ships.
    US Army Med Dep J 2016 Oct-Dec(3-16):29-37
    Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center, Portsmouth, Virginia.
    The article provides observations of multiple honey bee (Apis mellifera) swarms aboard the USNS Comfort (TAH-20) during the Continuing Promise 2015 mission. A brief overview of swarming biology is given along with control/removal recommendations to reduce sting exposures. The observations suggest that preventive medicine personnel should provide adequate risk communications about the potential occurrence of bee swarms aboard military ships, and medical department personnel should be prepared for the possibility of treating of multiple sting exposures, especially in the Southern Command Area of Operations where the Africanized genotype of A mellifera is common. Read More

    Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 3;170(3):194-200. Epub 2016 Sep 3.
    Allergy Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark.
    Background: Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce.

    Methods: Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) were collected from 2,090 adult participants in a cross-sectional survey.

    Results: 13% of the population reported symptoms of sting reactions and about half were systemic in nature. Read More

    Use of sIgE/T-IgE in Predicting Systemic Reactions: Retrospective Analysis of 54 Honeybee Venom Allergy Cases in North China.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2016 09;129(17):2091-5
    Department of Allergy, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.
    Background: Venom allergy is significantly underestimated in China. Venom-specific IgE may not provide accurate clinical reactions. Our conducted retrospective analysis observes alternative diagnostic considerations in assessing confirmation and severity of honeybee venom allergy. Read More

    Specific IgE sensitization to honey bee venom and auto-injector adrenaline prescriptions for Japanese beekeepers.
    Allergol Int 2017 Jan 8;66(1):149-151. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

    The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2016 Jun 17;33(3):206-10. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Introduction: Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests.

    Aim: The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. Read More

    [Not Available].
    Lakartidningen 2016 Aug 4;113. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Futurum - Akademin för hälsa och vård - Länssjukhuset Ryhov Jönköping, Sweden Futurum - Akademin för hälsa och vård - Länssjukhuset Ryhov Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bee and wasp stings can cause allergic reactions. Although the local reactions are more frequent, anaphylaxis due to insect stings can be potentially fatal. Rapid recognition of anaphylaxis is therefore critical and reactions should immediately be treated with i. Read More

    Multiple bee stings resulting in ST elevation myocardial infarction (the Kounis syndrome).
    Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2016 Jul;29(3):298-300
    Departments of Emergency Medicine (Pelli, Wieters) and Internal Medicine (Montalvo), Baylor Scott & White Hospital, Temple, Texas; and Texas A&M Medical School (Firozgary).
    Kounis syndrome consists of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction that is triggered by the release of inflammatory mediators in the setting of an allergic reaction. We present the case of a 61-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with anaphylaxis after being stung by >100 bees. During resuscitation, he subsequently developed ST elevation myocardial infarction. Read More

    EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HONEYBEE STING CASES IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016 24;58:40. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil.
    In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Read More

    Myocardial infarction following a bee sting: A case report of Kounis syndrome.
    Ann Card Anaesth 2016 Apr-Jun;19(2):375-8
    Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
    In this case report study a 41-year-old man envenomed by a bee sting and diagnosed as Kounis syndrome secondary to hymenoptera envenomation. The patient developed a typical course of myocardial infarction, but the electrocardiogram changes were reversed to almost normal limits. He had a nonsignificant mild lesion in the proximal port of right coronary artery in coronary angiography. Read More

    Safety of Ultrarush Venom Immunotherapy: Comparison Between Children and Adults.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2016 ;26(1):40-7
    Background: The ultrarush protocol is an attractive approach in the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy (VIT-UR). However, the degree of risk of VIT-UR in children remains unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the safety of VIT-UR in children and adults. Read More

    Immune and clinical response to honeybee venom in beekeepers.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2016 ;23(1):120-4
    Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess immune response to honeybee venom in relation to the degree of exposure, time after a sting and clinical symptoms.

    Materials And Method: Fifty-four volunteers were divided into 2 groups: beekeepers and a control group. The serum levels of total IgE (tIgE), bee venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE), tryptase and venom-specific IgG4 (venom sIgG4) were determined. Read More

    Human scFv antibodies (Afribumabs) against Africanized bee venom: Advances in melittin recognition.
    Toxicon 2016 Mar 30;112:59-67. Epub 2016 Jan 30.
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Africanized Apis mellifera bees, also known as killer bees, have an exceptional defensive instinct, characterized by mass attacks that may cause envenomation or death. From the years 2000-2013, 77,066 bee accidents occurred in Brazil. Bee venom comprises several substances, including melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Read More

    Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.
    Mol Immunol 2016 Feb 7;70:134-9. Epub 2016 Jan 7.
    Alergology Section, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Spain; Medical Faculty of Ciudad Real, University of Castilla La Mancha, Spain.
    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. Read More

    Deaths from bee stings: a report of three cases from Pretoria, South Africa.
    Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2016 Mar 12;12(1):81-5. Epub 2016 Jan 12.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa.
    In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). Read More

    Kounis syndrome.
    S Afr Med J 2015 Oct;105(10):878
    Kounis syndrome is characterised by a group of symptoms that manifest as unstable vasospastic or non-vasospastic angina secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction. It was first described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991 as the concurrence of an allergic response with an anaphylactoid or anaphylactic reaction and coronary artery spasm or even myocardial infarction. Since then, this condition has evolved to include a number of mast cell activation disorders associated with acute coronary syndrome. Read More

    New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae).
    Molecules 2015 Nov 9;20(11):20161-72. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
    Post-Graduation Program in Development and Technological Innovation in Medicines, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraiba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.
    Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. Read More

    Henoch Schonlein purpura associated with bee sting: case report.
    Medwave 2015 Oct 30;15(9):e6297. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
    Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú
    Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a common childhood vasculitis, characterized by a non-thrombocytopenic palpable purpura and systemic features. It can be triggered by conditions like infections and insect bites. We present the case of a six-year-old girl with palpable maculopapular lesions on the lower limbs, itching, mild pain, swelling of feet, limitation of limb mobility, and a history of bee sting. Read More

    The protective effect of bee venom on fibrosis causing inflammatory diseases.
    Toxins (Basel) 2015 Nov 16;7(11):4758-72. Epub 2015 Nov 16.
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, 3056-6, Daemyung-4-Dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718, Korea.
    Bee venom therapy is a treatment modality that may be thousands of years old and involves the application of live bee stings to the patient's skin or, in more recent years, the injection of bee venom into the skin with a hypodermic needle. Studies have proven the effectiveness of bee venom in treating pathological conditions such as arthritis, pain and cancerous tumors. However, there has not been sufficient review to fully elucidate the cellular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom and its components. Read More

    New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae).
    Molecules 2015 Nov 9;20(11):20161-72. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
    Post-Graduation Program in Development and Technological Innovation in Medicines, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraiba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.
    Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. Read More

    Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach.
    Toxins (Basel) 2015 Oct 30;7(11):4468-83. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
    Laboratory of Molecular Entomology and Bee Pathology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. Read More

    Elevated and cross-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals.
    Eur J Immunol 2016 Jan 17;46(1):242-52. Epub 2015 Nov 17.
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine and University of Oxford, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, England, UK.
    The role of CD1a-reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a-reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a-transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. Read More

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy caused by epinephrine-treated bee sting anaphylaxis: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2015 Oct 31;9:247. Epub 2015 Oct 31.
    Department of Cardiology, B Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Lower Galilee, Israel.
    Introduction: Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo) after bee stings in patients who have received catecholamines is rare. Endogenous as well as exogenous administration of catecholamines is thought to trigger stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Case Presentation: A 37-year-old healthy white woman was stung by an unknown Hymenoptera that resulted in an anaphylactic reaction. Read More

    Incidence of serum sickness after the administration of Australian snake antivenom (ASP-22).
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2016 22;54(1):27-33. Epub 2015 Oct 22.
    a Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle , Newcastle , NSW , Australia.
    Context: Serum sickness is a delayed immune reaction resulting from the injection of foreign protein or serum. Antivenom is known to cause serum sickness but the incidence and characteristics are poorly defined.

    Objective: To investigate the incidence and clinical features of serum sickness following the administration of Australian snake antivenoms. Read More

    ALLERGIC REACTIONS CAUSED BY VENOM OF HYMENOPTEROUS STINGING INSECTS AND THE ROLE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2015 Aug;45(2):403-12
    The Hymenoptera are the third largest order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants. Worldwide, over 150,000 species are recognized, with many more remaining to be described. The name refers to the wings of the insects, but the original derivation is ambiguous. Read More

    Animal toxins and renal ion transport: Another dimension in tropical nephrology.
    Nephrology (Carlton) 2016 May;21(5):355-62
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Renal vascular and tubular ion channels and transporters involved in toxin injury are reviewed. Vascular ion channels modulated by animal toxins, which result in haemodynamic alterations and changes in blood pressure, include ENaC/Degenerin/ASIC, ATP sensitive K channels (KATP ), Ca activated K channels (Kca) and voltage gated Ca channels, mostly L-type. Renal tubular Na channels and K channels are also targeted by animal toxins. Read More

    Improved recombinant Api m 1- and Ves v 5-based IgE testing to dissect bee and yellow jacket allergy and their correlation with the severity of the sting reaction.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2016 Apr;46(4):621-30
    University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia.
    Background: No study has assessed the diagnostic sensitivity of rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 on Immulite testing system.

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic sensitivity of commercially available venom recombinant allergens between the currently available immunoassays [ImmunoCAP (CAP) and Immulite (LITE)] and establish their correlation with the severity of the sting reaction.

    Methods: This study evaluated 95 bee venom and 110 yellow jacket venom-allergic subjects. Read More

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