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    A Comparative Study of Four Methods for the Detection of Nematode Eggs and Large Protozoan Cysts in Mandrill Faecal Material.
    Folia Primatol (Basel) 2017 18;88(4):344-357. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Nantes - Oniris, Nantes, France.
    Coproscopical methods like sedimentation and flotation techniques are widely used in the field for studying simian gastrointestinal parasites. Four parasites of known zoonotic potential were studied in a free-ranging, non-provisioned population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): 2 nematodes (Necatoramericanus/Oesophagostomum sp. complex and Strongyloides sp. Read More

    Urinary balantidiasis: A rare incidental finding in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    J Cytol 2016 Jul-Sep;33(3):169-171
    Department of Pathology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Health Research, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Balantidiasis is a rare zoonotic disease in humans. is the causative ciliated protozoan. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in a patient having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who was on steroids for a long time. Read More

    Occurrence, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of endoparasites infecting Swiss pigs.
    Parasitol Int 2016 Dec 14;65(6 Pt A):618-624. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Farm Animals, Division of Swine Medicine, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Read More

    Comparison of five parasitological techniques for laboratory diagnosis of Balantidium coli cysts.
    Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2016 Jul-Sep;25(3):286-92. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    Laboratório de Toxoplasmose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz-RJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
    Balantidium coli is a protozoon that can cause dysentery in humans, pigs and nonhuman primates, with zoonotic potential. In the literature, there is still little information on the effectiveness of different laboratory techniques for diagnosing this disease. This study compared and evaluated the performance of the Lutz, modified Ritchie, Faust, modified Sheather and direct examination techniques for detecting cysts of this protozoon. Read More

    Rare Case of Polymicrobial Keratitis With Balantidium coli.
    Cornea 2016 Dec;35(12):1665-1667
    Departments of *Ophthalmology; and†Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Udupi, Karnataka, India.
    Purpose: To report a rare case of polymicrobial keratitis due to Balantidium coli and gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a soft contact lens (CL) wearer.

    Methods: We report a case of CL-related keratitis due to B. coli, P. Read More

    Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
    Acta Vet Hung 2016 Jun;64(2):213-21
    Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences , P.O. Box 18, H-1581 Budapest , Hungary.
    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. Read More

    A case report of an uncommon parasitic infection of human balantidiasis.
    Trop Parasitol 2016 Jan-Jun;6(1):82-4
    Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.
    Balantidium coli, a large, ciliated pathogen, is known to cause balantidiasis in humans. We report a case of B. coli infection in a 37-year-old male with tuberculosis and presenting with fever, anorexia, mild abdominal pain, and episodes of loose stools for 1 week. Read More

    Endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (Balaenoptera musculus, B. physalus, B. borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.
    Parasitol Res 2016 Feb 23;115(2):889-96. Epub 2015 Nov 23.
    Institute of Parasitology, Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Schubertstr. 81, 35392, Giessen, Germany.
    A number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. Here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. In total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (B. Read More

    Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2015 Dec 30;47(8):1637-40. Epub 2015 Aug 30.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, 410128, Changsha, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.
    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. Read More

    Parasitic colitis.
    Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2015 Jun;28(2):79-86
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Virginia Hospital Center, Arlington, Virginia.
    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Read More

    Isolation and maintenance of Balantidium coli (Malmsteim, 1857) cultured from fecal samples of pigs and non-human primates.
    Vet Parasitol 2015 Jun 17;210(3-4):240-5. Epub 2015 Apr 17.
    Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro), Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Toxoplasmosis Laboratory, Avenue Brazil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21045900, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Balantidium coli is a protozoa that can determine dysentery in humans, pigs and non-human primates having zoonotic potential. The lack of standardization in isolation and maintenance hinders the development of research on its biology and epidemiology. This study is aimed to standardize the isolation and maintenance of this parasite from animal feces, in culture medium, Pavlova modified. Read More

    A survey of intestinal parasites including associated risk factors in humans in Panama.
    Acta Trop 2015 Jul 28;147:54-63. Epub 2015 Mar 28.
    Laboratorio de Parasitología, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide, leading to illness with serious and long lasting implications in children and immunocompromised people. Transmission of intestinal parasites is more frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where sanitation is poor and socioeconomic conditions are deficient. Panama is a country where climate and social conditions could be reflected in a high number of people infected with intestinal parasites. Read More

    Differences between chimpanzee and baboon gastrointestinal parasite communities.
    Parasitology 2015 Jun 3;142(7):958-67. Epub 2015 Mar 3.
    Department of Anthropology,Miami University,501 East High Street,Oxford,OH 45056,UK.
    Cross-species infection among humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and baboons (Papio spp.) is potentially a significant public health issue in Africa, and of concern in the conservation of P. troglodytes. Read More

    New insights into the molecular phylogeny of Balantidium (Ciliophora, Vetibuliferida) based on the analysis of new sequences of species from fish hosts.
    Parasitol Res 2014 Dec 23;113(12):4327-33. Epub 2014 Oct 23.
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430023, China.
    We obtained sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for two new isolates of Balantidium from fishes, Balantidium polyvacuolum and Balantidium ctenopharingodoni. This is the first introduction of molecular data of Balantidium species from fish hosts in the phylogenetic analyses of the ciliate subclass Trichostomatia. Despite the fact that these species share morphological characteristics common to other species of Balantidium, the phylogenetic analysis of their sequences has shown that they are to be placed in a different branch closely related to the so-called Australian clade. Read More

    Balantidium coli and other gastrointestinal parasites in captives non-human primates of the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    J Med Primatol 2015 Feb 15;44(1):18-26. Epub 2014 Sep 15.
    Toxoplasmosis Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro), Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Parasites are agents of diarrhea in captive non-human primates (NHP). To broaden information about those etiological agents in captive animals in Brazil, gastrointestinal parasites in captive NHP were researched in nurturing Centers of Rio de Janeiro State.

    Methods: Fecal samples were collected from primates, of which 960 came from the Research Center (Cecal/Fiocruz) and 115 from the Primate Center (CPRJ/Inea). Read More

    Reisolation and redescription of Balantidium duodeni Stein, 1867 (Litostomatea, Trichostomatia).
    Parasitol Res 2014 Nov 4;113(11):4207-15. Epub 2014 Sep 4.
    Facility "Centre for culturing collections of microorganisms", St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia, 199034.
    In this work, we present reisolation and redescription of Balantidium duodeni Stein, 1867 from the European common brown frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 using light and electron microscopy. This species has a unique morphological feature--its cells are flattened along the dorsoventral axis. Because of its unique morphology and localization (duodenum) in the gastrointestinal tract of the host, it has been proposed to recognize B. Read More

    Ultrastructural study of Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955 (Class: Litostomatea) from China with an emphasis on its vestibulum.
    Acta Parasitol 2014 Sep 15;59(3):413-9. Epub 2014 Aug 15.
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430023, China.
    A detailed description of the fine structure of Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955 with an emphasis on its vestibulum is given in the present paper. As to the vestibular kinetids, special attention is paid to the characters of T1, T2 microtubules and nematodesmata. Serving as the major skeleton to the vestibular cortex, the T1, T2 and Pc microtubules are described herein and their support function is also discussed. Read More

    Gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in south-west Nigeria.
    Trop Biomed 2014 Mar;31(1):54-62
    Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites are a major health issue in captive birds. However, prevalence data of gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in Nigeria are scarce. This study was carried out to establish the gastrointestinal parasite profile of birds kept in zoological gardens in the University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ilorin, University of Lagos and Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, all in south-west Nigeria. Read More

    A rare case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly renal failure patient.
    Trop Parasitol 2014 Jan;4(1):47-9
    Department of General Medicine, M.K.C.G Medical College, Brahmapur, Ganjam, Odisha, India.
    Balantidium coli is the largest ciliated protozoa infecting humans by the feco-oral transmission from pigs. Large gut is the most common site of involvement. Symptomatology varies from asymptomatic carrier to invasive dysentery. Read More

    Occurrence and molecular analysis of Balantidium coli in mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.
    J Wildl Dis 2013 Oct;49(4):1063-5
    1  Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA UK.
    Cysts morphologically resembling Balantidium coli were identified in the feces of a mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Confirmatory PCR and sequencing revealed two distinct B. coli-specific sequences (ITS-1, sub-types A0 and B1). Read More

    Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.
    PLoS One 2013 25;8(11):e81374. Epub 2013 Nov 25.
    Institute of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. Read More

    Balantidium honghuensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from Honghu Lake, China.
    Korean J Parasitol 2013 Aug 30;51(4):427-31. Epub 2013 Aug 30.
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China. ; Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Freshwater Aquaculture, Wuhan 430070, China.
    A new trichostome ciliate, Balantidium honghuensis n. sp., was isolated from the recta of Rana nigromaculata and R. Read More

    Dysenteric syndrome due to Balantidium coli: a case report.
    New Microbiol 2013 Apr 31;36(2):203-5. Epub 2013 Mar 31.
    CNRS, University of Franche-Comte, UMR 6249 Chrono-Environnement, Besançon, France.
    A 28-year-old man was hospitalized for a dysenteric syndrome that had developed during the previous days. Physical examination revealed abdominal pains, fever, vomiting and more than ten liquid stools per day. Fresh stool examination showed numerous mobile ciliated trophozoites of Balantidium coli. Read More

    Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 28;7(3):e2140. Epub 2013 Mar 28.
    Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. Read More

    Supplemental feeding drives endoparasite infection in wild boar in Western Spain.
    Vet Parasitol 2013 Sep 28;196(1-2):114-23. Epub 2013 Feb 28.
    Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Wildlife population management is thought to destabilize existing host-parasite equilibriums in opposing directions, that is, it may increase parasite success or host resilience once infection takes place. This process is of special importance for species such as the wild boar (Sus scrofa) that are managed for game purposes throughout much of Europe. However, little is known about how this practices influcences either gastrointestinal or pulmonary parasitism in the wild boar. Read More

    Prevalence, hematology, and treatment of balantidiasis among donkeys in and around Lahore, Pakistan.
    Vet Parasitol 2013 Sep 30;196(1-2):203-5. Epub 2013 Jan 30.
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Punjab, Pakistan.
    The prevalence of Balantidium coli among donkeys in Lahore and adjoining areas was surveyed and a trial conducted to determine the efficacy of two antiprotozoal drugs: secnidazole (Dysen Forte) and Kalonji (Nigella sativa). Four-hundred donkeys were examined, and 73 (18.3%) were found positive for Balantidium coli. Read More

    Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 31;7(1):e1755. Epub 2013 Jan 31.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology & Microbiology, and National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. Read More

    Balantidium coli: an unrecognized cause of vertebral osteomyelitis and myelopathy.
    J Neurosurg Spine 2013 Mar 21;18(3):310-3. Epub 2012 Dec 21.
    Histopathology Division, Department of Pathology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoan parasite that primarily infects primates and pigs. It is the largest protozoan to infect humans and is a well-known cause of diarrhea and dysentery. Extraintestinal disease is uncommon, and extraintestinal spread to the peritoneal cavity, appendix, genitourinary tract, and lung has rarely been reported. Read More

    [Approaches to developing a procedure for mapping water basin regions, by using the parasitological criteria].
    Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2011 Jul-Sep(3):10-5
    The structure of a parasite system is formed and its functioning takes place in qualitatively different environments. The aquatic environment serves as a source of new elements and modules, energy, and information for parasite systems. And the parasite systems, for their part, affect the physical and biological parameters of the environment. Read More

    [Population characterization of Balantidium coli from pigs using ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence].
    Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 2011 Jun;51(6):828-34
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China.
    Objective: To determine the species and genotypes of Balantidium isolated from pigs in Henan province, China.

    Methods: Scatoscopy and the modified DMEM media were used to isolate trophozoites of Balantidium from pig feces. The ITS1-5. Read More

    Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.
    J Parasitol 2010 Dec 15;96(6):1139-44. Epub 2010 Jul 15.
    Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1-3, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic.
    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. Read More

    Balantidium coli-induced pulmonary haemorrhage with iron deficiency.
    S Afr Med J 2010 Jul 26;100(8):534-6. Epub 2010 Jul 26.
    Background: Balantidium coli, a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects primates and pigs, and is the largest protozoan to infect humans, is a well-known cause of diarrhoea and dysentery in humans. Extra-intestinal disease is uncommon, however.

    Objective: We describe a case of lung involvement, with severe pulmonary haemorrhage resulting in iron deficiency anaemia and respiratory failure, of a 20-year-old, immune-competent man. Read More

    Urinary balantidiasis: diagnosis at a glance by urine sediment examination.
    J Nephrol 2010 Nov-Dec;23(6):732-7
    Department of Internal Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Fondazione Ca'Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Commenda 15, Milan, Italy.
    A 56-year-old Caucasian man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who had previously been treated with prolonged intensive chemotherapy, was hospitalized for an acute and reversible kidney injury of multifactorial origin. The urinary sediment examination, performed daily, demonstrated the presence of renal tubular cells and renal tubular cell casts. Surprisingly, it also showed the presence of trophozoites of the protozoan Balantidium coli, which were identified on the basis of its characteristic morphology and rapid movements across the slide, and transient leukocyturia. Read More

    Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Balantidium coli isolated in the Philippines.
    Parasitol Res 2010 Jan 10;106(2):387-94. Epub 2009 Nov 10.
    Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.
    Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoon inhabiting the colon of swine, rodents, horses, nonhuman primates and humans. In association with disease triggered by other infectious agents, B. coli may become a pathogenic opportunist. Read More

    Redescription of Balantidium polyvacuolum Li 1963 (Class: Litostomatea) inhabiting the intestines of Xenocyprinae fishes in Hubei, China.
    Parasitol Res 2009 Dec 29;106(1):177-82. Epub 2009 Oct 29.
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430023, China.
    Redescription of Balantidium polyvacuolum Li 1963, collected from the hindgut of Xenocypris davidi and Xenocypris argentea, from Niushan Lake Fishery (30 degrees 19' N, 114 degrees 31' E) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in April and June 2007 is presented in this paper to complete Li's description at both light and scanning electronic microscopic levels. The unique body shape of B. polyvacuolum-highly arched dorsal side and flattened ventral surface-as well as its remarkable concave platelet present in the centroventral were well described and compared with other close Balantidium species. Read More

    Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2009 ;33(3):218-21
    Istanbul University Medical School Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology/Parasitology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Read More

    Prevalence and chemotherapy of Balantidium coli in cattle in the River Ravi region, Lahore (Pakistan).
    Vet Parasitol 2009 Jul 22;163(1-2):15-7. Epub 2009 Apr 22.
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-54000, Punjab, Pakistan.
    The prevalence of Balantidium coli in cattle from the River Ravi region of Lahore was examined and the efficacy of three treatments measured. A total of 200 fecal samples were collected from cattle and examined microscopically; 50 (25%) were positive for B. coli cysts. Read More

    Balantidium coli-infection in a Finnish horse.
    Vet Parasitol 2008 Nov 29;158(1-2):129-32. Epub 2008 Aug 29.
    Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoan that inhabits the large intestine of swine, man, rodents, and nonhuman primates. Frequently this organism is associated with enteric diseases in man and nonhuman primates, with rare manifestations of disease in swine and other mammalian species. This report describes a case of B. Read More

    Current world status of Balantidium coli.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2008 Oct;21(4):626-38
    California Department of Health, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Richmond, California 9480, USA.
    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. Pigs are its reservoir hosts, and humans become infected through direct or indirect contact with pigs. In rural areas and in some developing countries where pig and human fecal matter contaminates the water supply, there is a greater likelihood that balantidiosis may develop in humans. Read More

    Balantidium sp. in ostriches (Struthio camelus L., 1758) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 1:327-30
    Laboratóriode Sanidade Animal, Hospital Veterinário, CCTA, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28.013-602, Brazil.
    The aim of this work was report for the first time the occurrence of Balantidium sp. in ostriches reared in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Feces samples from 82 ostriches were examined by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique and morphometric analyses were made of the cysts. Read More

    Tentative identification of the species of Balantidium from ostriches (Struthio camelus) as Balantidium coli-like by analysis of polymorphic DNA.
    Vet Parasitol 2008 Oct 2;157(1-2):41-9. Epub 2008 Jul 2.
    Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    The characteristics of Balantidium from ostriches (Struthio camelus) are similar to those of Balantidium coli; however, the species Balantidium struthionis was proposed on the basis of the host species (ostriches) and the shape of the macronucleus (with a deep depression in one side). In the present work, we have performed morphological and genetic comparisons between isolates of Balantidium from ostriches and B. coli from pigs to determine the specific status of B. Read More

    Fatal ulcerative colitis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
    J Med Primatol 2008 Dec 2;37(6):297-302. Epub 2008 May 2.
    The Limbe Wildlife Centre, Limbe, Cameroon.
    A captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) presented with watery diarrhoea that progressed to become profuse and haemorrhagic. Faecal analyses revealed Balantidium (B.) coli trophozoites and salmonella-like bacteria. Read More

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