274 results match your criteria Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans


Balanitis xerotica obliterans: An observational, descriptive and retrospective clinical study.

Exp Ther Med 2022 May 31;23(5):361. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

CMI DERMAMED Private Medical Office, 540530 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Lichen sclerosus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that can occur in the genital area of both sexes. Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) occurs only in the genital area of men and typically affects the foreskin, penile glans, and/or the meatus. In the present report, an observational, descriptive, and retrospective epidemiological clinical study of available data between January 2006 and December 2020 in patients diagnosed with BXO from the casuistic of CMI DERMAMED (Târgu Mureș, Romania) was performed. Read More

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Primary care of preputial adhesions in children - a retrospective cohort study.

Malays Fam Physician 2022 Mar 15;17(1):52-56. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

MCh, Department of Pediatric Surgery, ESIC medical college Hospital, sanath nagar, Hyderabad.

Introduction: Aside from religious circumcisions, the indications for circumcision are few. However, in the cultural context, many patients are unnecessarily referred for circumcision for physiological phimosis (adhesions). Due to parental concerns and misperceptions by general practitioners, non-retractile prepuce is one of the most common indications for referral to a paediatric surgeon in many countries. Read More

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Comparison of lichen sclerosus in boys and girls: A systematic literature review of epidemiology, symptoms, genetic background, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis.

Pediatr Dermatol 2022 Mar 1. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Dermatology, Center of Paediatric Dermatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Studies concerning pediatric lichen sclerosus are limited, and, to date, there have been no studies comparing the course of lichen sclerosus in boys and girls. We sought to examine all publications on boys and girls with lichen sclerosus and assess and compare epidemiology, symptoms and signs, genetic background, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in the Embase, Medline, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases. Read More

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Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans:an underestimated cause of secondary phimosis.

Folia Med Cracov 2021 Dec;61(4):93-100

First Department of Pediatric Surgery, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece, General Hospital "G.Gennimatas", Thessaloniki, Greece.

Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans is a chronic, progressive, sclerosing inflammation of unclear etiology. It involves the external genitalia of males and more specifically the prepuce and its frenulum, the glans, and the external urethral meatus while it may extend to the peripheral part of the urethra. Recent studies have noted an increasing incidence in the paediatric population. Read More

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December 2021

Male circumcision and Sexually transmitted Infections - An update.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2021 Jan-Jun;42(1):1-6. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Skin and VD, SBKS Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Role of male circumcision (MC) as a tool to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was assessed. An attempt was made to search articles related to association between MC and STIs/HIV. A thorough search was carried out to find out quality articles published in indexed specialty journals. Read More

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Circumcision versus preputioplasty for balanitis xerotica obliterans: a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

BJU Int 2021 12 11;128(6):759-765. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

Objectives: To determine: (i) feasibility for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing circumcision to preputioplasty and intralesional triamcinolone (PIT) to treat balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and (ii) patient outcomes to inform future study design.

Patients And Methods: Approval was obtained from the UK Health Research Authority and local Research Ethics Committee (Reference 16/NW/0364) and the trial protocol registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02854995). Read More

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December 2021

Creation of a pioneering interdisciplinary genital dermatology unit for Hispanic men: First 269 patients.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 09 29;32(10):957-962. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Male Genital Dermatology (Urodermatology) Unit, 226552Hospital de Clínicas "Dr Manuel Quintela", Montevideo, Uruguay.

The role of circumcision in partially protecting against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other dermatoses has been documented. Neonatal circumcision is not routinely practiced in South America. Although it is logical to assume that male genital dermatoses are more prevalent in Hispanic men, they are underrepresented in the existing literature. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term outcomes for 2-stage urethroplasty: an analysis of risk factors for urethral stricture recurrence.

World J Urol 2021 Oct 3;39(10):3903-3911. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Urology, University of California, 333 City Blvd West, Suite 1240, IrvineOrange, CA, 92868, USA.

Purpose: To report long-term results and patient reported outcomes of staged anterior urethroplasties, and isolate risk factors for recurrence.

Methods:  We reviewed urethroplasty database for all patients who underwent staged urethroplasty from 2000 to 2017. Follow-up included a cystoscopy 4 months after their 2nd stage to assess early success, and then annual follow-up thereafter with post-void residual and symptom assessment. Read More

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October 2021

Preputial balanitis xerotica obliterans shortly after hand, foot and mouth disease in a 5-year-old boy: Coincidence or consequence?

Asian J Surg 2021 May 20;44(5):773-774. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research Unit, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

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Bittersweet: infective complications of drug-induced glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus on SGLT2-inhibitors: two case reports.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Mar 20;21(1):284. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel hypoglycemic agents which reduce reabsorption of glucose at the renal proximal tubule, resulting in significant glycosuria and increased risk of genital mycotic infections (GMI). These infections are typically not severe as reported in large systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the medications. These reviews have also demonstrated significant cardiovascular benefits through other mechanisms of action, making them attractive options for the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Read More

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Nerve-sparing circumcision: Myth or reality?

J Pediatr Urol 2021 04 30;17(2):257.e1-257.e8. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Private Practice, Antalya, Turkey.

Background: Circumcision is a common procedure. Recently, tissue-sparing approaches have become a matter of interest, and a nerve-sparing approach is described in adults. Although circumcision is common in the practice, the nerve-sparing approach has not been evaluated in the pediatric age group. Read More

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Pediatric Circumcision in the 21st Century National Health Service: A Snapshot of Practice in a United Kingdom Center.

Surg J (N Y) 2020 Oct 14;6(4):e188-e191. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Urology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon, United Kingdom.

 Pediatric circumcision is a commonly performed operation, yet outcomes related to procedures performed for medical indications remain underreported.  The aim of this study was to report outcomes of therapeutic circumcision from our center.  Prospective registry of elective circumcisions was maintained and analyzed at a single institution in the United Kingdom. Read More

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October 2020

Pathologically oriented descriptive study of male genital circumcisions across medical and surgical specialties.

Int J Dermatol 2021 May 15;60(5):559-563. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Circumcision is one of the most frequently performed procedure by clinicians, yet its role and indication in clinical practice lacks consensus and remains unclear. We sought to evaluate a collection of male circumcisions to determine the range of indications, histopathological diagnoses, and type of clinicians associated with circumcision.

Methods: We performed a retrospective descriptive cohort study of male patients who received a circumcision reported by one major dermatopathology laboratory between January 2017 and December 2018. Read More

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Morphea patients with mucocutaneous involvement: A cross-sectional study from the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 27;85(1):114-120. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:

Background: Demographic and clinical findings of patients with mucocutaneous morphea have not been well characterized, to our knowledge.

Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of morphea patients with mucocutaneous lesions who were enrolled in the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of 735 patients in the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort from 2007 to 2018. Read More

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Lichen Sclerosus and Phimosis - Discrepancies Between Clinical and Pathological Diagnosis and Its Consequences.

Urology 2021 02 26;148:274-279. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses and the true incidence of lichen sclerosus (LS) in patients with phimosis.

Materials And Methods: The 92 adult male patients who were qualified for circumcision due to phimosis, were included in the study. The patients were diagnosed clinically by a urologist and dermatologist before the surgical procedure. Read More

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February 2021

Could a careful clinical examination distinguish physiologic phimosis from balanitis xerotica obliterans in children?

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Feb 23;180(2):591-595. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Pediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Padua General Hospital, Padua University, via Nicolò Giustiniani, 35121, Padua, Italy.

The diagnosis of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) in children may be challenging, since clinical examination only could lead to an underestimation of its incidence. The aim of this retrospective and single-centre study is to assess the diagnostic performance of clinical examination, together with clinical history, in identifying BXO. Ninety-seven children underwent circumcision for phimosis from 2015 to 2019. Read More

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February 2021

Medical Management of Penile and Urethral Lichen Sclerosus with Topical Clobetasol Improves Long-Term Voiding Symptoms and Quality of Life.

J Urol 2020 Dec 27;204(6):1290-1295. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Purpose: We evaluated the success of minimally invasive management of lichen sclerosus with topical and intraurethral clobetasol, as defined by improvement in patient reported outcome measures and nonprogression to surgery.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a review of our prospective ongoing quality improvement study to determine outcomes of our current standard practice for males with penile and urethral biopsy proven lichen sclerosus. Data were collected between 2011 and 2019, and included patient demographic information, medical and surgical histories, and location and extent of lichen sclerosus related pathology. Read More

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December 2020

Platelet-rich plasma for male genital lichen sclerosus resistant to conventional therapy: First prospective study.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 13;33(6):e14032. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Área de Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa, Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela", Montevideo, Uruguay.

Ultrapotent topical corticosteroids and circumcision are usually effective for male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc); however, refractory cases are often referred to our Male Genital Dermatology Unit. Treatment with autologous platelet-rich plasma (TPRP) has recently been advocated as a safe and effective treatment option, but there have been no prospective studies in men to date. The objective of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of TPRP for MGLSc resistant to conventional therapy. Read More

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November 2020

An epidemiologic overview of a tertiary referral practice for male paediatric lichen sclerosus.

Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jun 20;25(4):241-245. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

Within the paediatric population, changing patterns of circumcisions have confounded the epidemiology and presentation of lichen sclerosus (LS). We sought to evaluate the incidence, demographics, and clinical features of patients presenting to a single Albertan paediatric urologist with LS. This retrospective descriptive analysis evaluated all paediatric patients referred for phimosis to a single paediatric urologist in Edmonton, Alberta. Read More

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Recent advances in understanding and managing Lichen Sclerosus.

F1000Res 2020 15;9. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Lichen sclerosus (LS), or balanitis xerotica obliterans as it was previously known, is a chronic inflammatory lymphocyte-mediated scarring dermatosis that often affects the preputial skin and glans, leading to phimosis and urethral strictures if left untreated. We present a narrative review of the literature assessing its aetiology and pathogenesis and discuss its links to penile cancer and its medical and surgical management. Possible hypotheses for the development of LS include chronic exposure to trapped urine, leading to changes in the epithelial structure. Read More

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Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans Associated With Differentiated Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia and "Bramble-Bush" Elastic Fibers Accumulation: A Finding Not Specific for Penicillamine Intake.

Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Nov;42(11):885-888

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, Spain.

We describe the association of balanitis xerotica obliterans and differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) with dermal elastosis and "bramble-bush" elastic fibers in a diabetic patient with no history of penicillamine intake. An 84-year-old man presented with urethral obstruction syndrome that required postectomy, meatotomy, and foreskin excision. Histopathological examination revealed changes of lichen sclerosus and differentiated PeIN. Read More

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November 2020

Primary Urethral Tuberculosis With Urethrocutaneous Fistula in Association With Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans.

Urology 2020 Jul 20;141:e20-e21. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Urology, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

We present an unusual case of isolated urethral tuberculosis. The patient had a history of urethral strictures and persistent discharge from two peno-scrotal fistulas which was confirmed on urethrogram. He was treated with antitubercular treatment and a two stage urethroplasty. Read More

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Treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans in pediatric patients.

Cir Pediatr 2020 Apr 1;33(2):79-83. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Sección de Urología Pediátrica. Servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica. Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron. Barcelona.

Objectives: Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a little known incidence in pediatric population. The objective of this work was to describe our experience in the treatment of BXO.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective study carried out in 419 patients undergoing circumcision surgery between January 2014 and January 2017. Read More

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Tissue engineered indigenous pericardial patch urethroplasty: A promising solution to a nagging problem.

Asian J Urol 2020 Jan 6;7(1):56-60. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Urology, Nilratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, India.

Objective: Urethral stricture is a highly prevalent disease and has a continued rising incidence. The global burden of disease keeps rising as there are significant rates of recurrence with the existing management options with the need for additional repeat procedures. Moreover, the existing treatment options are associated with significant morbidity in the patient. Read More

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January 2020

Topographical Evaluation of Penile Lichen Sclerosus Reveals a Lymphocytic Depleted Variant, Preferentially Associated With Neoplasia: A Report of 200 Cases.

Int J Surg Pathol 2020 Aug 22;28(5):468-476. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Instituto de Patología e Investigación, Asunción, Paraguay.

Since the seminal study of Hart and Helwig in 1975, there are few detailed pathological studies of lichen sclerosus (LS). The aims of this study were to provide a detailed histopathological description of penile LS, as well as to explore its relationship with penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) or invasive carcinoma. We evaluated 200 patients and designed a topographical approach for the histological evaluation focusing in alterations of the following anatomical layers: squamous epithelium, lamina propria, dartos, and corpus spongiosum. Read More

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Balanitis xerotica obliterans: an update for clinicians.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Jan 23;179(1):9-16. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Douglas Cohen Department of Paediatric Surgery, The University of Sydney School of Medicine, The Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, The Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a severe, chronic, dermatosis characterised by inflammatory, sclerotic, pruritic lesions that causes significant morbidity in patients of all genders and ages. In boys, the lesions typically affect the foreskin and glans (termed balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO)), leading to phimosis and potentially meatal stenosis. The incidence of the disease is not well reported but the average age of affected boys is 8 years (range 1-16). Read More

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January 2020

Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment of Lichen Sclerosus: A Systematic Review.

Urology 2020 Jan 9;135:11-19. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To elucidate current understanding on the pathophysiological mechanism of genital lichen sclerosus (LS), urologic manifestations, and treatment options.

Materials And Methods: The Medline/PubMed and Embase databases were systematically reviewed for publications pertaining to LS. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, references were assessed for relevance to the pathophysiology, presentation, and treatment of LS by title and abstract review by 2 independent reviewers, yielding 186 articles for assessment. Read More

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January 2020

Save the foreskin: Outcomes of preputioplasty in the treatment of childhood phimosis.

Surgeon 2020 Jun 21;18(3):150-153. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

The Great North Children's Hospital Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Symptomatic phimosis is a common childhood urology complaint. Circumcision was traditionally the treatment of choice, but its popularity in cases of non-scarred phimosis has been superseded by more conservative methods like preputioplasty. We sought to examine outcomes of preputioplasty for the treatment of non-scarred pathological phimosis in two UK paediatric surgery tertiary centres. Read More

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Ultrasound evidence of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in boys (balanitis xerotica obliterans).

J Pediatr Surg 2020 Apr 13;55(4):721-725. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Surgery, Alder Hey Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, East Prescott Road, Liverpool, L14 5AB, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Lichen sclerosus (LS), (balanitis xerotica obliterans), causes pathological phimosis. Many boys present with obstructive symptoms, the cause is usually obvious on examination so ultrasound scans (USS) of the urinary tract are not routinely indicated. We review a series of abnormal USS in boys with LS. Read More

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