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    582 results match your criteria Bailliere's Clinical Haematology[Journal]

    1 OF 12

    Biotechnology: alternatives to human plasma-derived therapeutic proteins.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):669-88
    Division of Hematology, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD, USA.
    Proteins derived from human plasma have become critically important therapeutic products since their introduction in the 1940s. In the last 20 years, the tools of molecular biology have provided alternatives to the administration of the natural products. Recombinant analogues of Factor VIII and Factor IX are commercially available, and recombinant forms of other plasma proteins are under development. Read More

    Red blood cell substitutes.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):651-67
    Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Soluble polymerized haemoglobin (polyhaemoglobin) is now in a phase III clinical trials. Patients have received up to 20 units (10 litres) in trauma surgery and other surgery. Polyhaemoglobin can be stored for more than 1 year. Read More

    The risks of transfusion-transmitted infection: direct estimation and mathematical modelling.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):631-49
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Direct measurement of the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) is practical and accurate only if the level of risk is high. Historically, studies that established frozen repositories of transfusion recipient and/or blood donor samples were important in establishing the risk of many TTI agents, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, given the current very low risk of TTI, mathematical modelling is necessary to estimate the magnitude of such a risk. Read More

    Will genome detection replace serology in blood screening for microbial agents?
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):615-29
    Division of Transfusion Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infection in developed countries is considered minimal or negligible. However, zero risk remains a strong political objective. Genomic screening for HCV, HIV and HBV represents a major advance, eliminating infectious blood donations collected during the pre-seroconversion window period, rare cases of immunosilent infections and, possibly, a large spectrum of viral variants. Read More

    Which agents threaten blood safety in the future?
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):601-14
    Department of Transfusion Microbiology, National Blood Service, Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5BG, UK.
    The safety of the blood supply is critical to many parts of modern medicine. In a time when prescriber's and the public's expectations are increasing, it is essential that transfusion services globally ensure the safety of the blood supply. There are, however, many threats to this safety, one being the appearance of new infectious agents. Read More

    From leukocyte reduction to leukocyte transfusion: the immunological effects of transfused leukocytes.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):585-600
    Blood and Plasma Branch, Division of Blood Applications, Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
    In transfusion medicine, mononuclear leukocytes have been studied more often as contaminants of red blood cells or platelets responsible for adverse transfusion outcomes than as therapeutic cells; leukocyte transfusion has been effective in augmenting recipient immunity only in limited clinical situations. Studies in leukocyte reduction and leukocyte transfusion have progressed separately as if the leukocytes' adverse and therapeutic effects result from different immunological mechanisms. With growing clinical experience, however, it is increasingly clear that some adverse immune effects may be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Read More

    Placental blood for bone marrow replacement: the New York Blood Center's program and clinical results.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):565-84
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, New York Blood Center, New York, USA.
    Background And Objectives: Placental/umbilical cord blood (PCB) has been used for allogeneic bone marrow replacement since 1988. The Placental Blood Program of the New York Blood Center has developed techniques for collecting, testing, freezing and searching units on behalf of unrelated patients in need of hematopoietic stem cell replacement since 1993 and provided analysis of the outcomes of these transplants identified variables associated with clinical outcomes. In this review, after considering practical and conceptual aspects of the technology, we update information on the clinical outcomes of these transplants. Read More

    New technologies for the inactivation of infectious pathogens in cellular blood components and the development of platelet substitutes.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):549-63
    Cerus Corporation and the Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA.
    Despite the increased safety of blood components, achieved through improved donor selection and testing, transfusion recipients remain at risk of transfusion-associated diseases. Transfusion of cellular blood components has been implicated in transmission of viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases. While it is commonly recognized that hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the human lymphotrophic viruses (HTLV), can be transmitted through cellular components, other pathogens are emerging as potentially significant transfusion-associated infectious agents. Read More

    Autologous transfusion and other approaches to reduce allogeneic blood exposure.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):533-47
    Blood Bank and Transfusion Service, New York University Medical Center.New York, USA.
    When used as the sole source of transfused blood, the principal advantage of autologous blood transfusion is the avoidance of transmission of infectious agents and the avoidance of the purported adverse immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic transfusion. In the 1990s, however, the risks of transfusion-transmitted diseases have been greatly reduced, and estimates of the cost-effectiveness of pre-operative autologous blood donations now vary between 2470 dollars and 3,400,000 dollars per quality-adjusted year of life saved, depending on assumptions about the existence and magnitude of any adverse immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic transfusion. There is a paucity of randomized controlled trials evaluating the clinical outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of autologous transfusion procedures, and this situation is unlikely to change in the near future because of the difficulties in conducting such trials. Read More

    The HLA system in blood transfusion.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):511-32
    Department of Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics, National Blood Service, North London Centre, London, NW9 5BG, UK.
    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, originally discovered as the result of a transfusion reaction, is now known to play a crucial role in many areas of clinical medicine. The main function of the HLA molecules is to present antigenic peptides to the immune system and in this way regulate the induction of immune responses. This is a highly regulated process which requires a close interaction between the HLA molecules, the antigenic peptide and the T cell receptor. Read More

    Blood groups and their function.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Dec;13(4):485-509
    New York Blood Center, 310 East 67th Street, New York, New York 10021, USA.
    The function(s) assigned to red blood cell membrane components is based on an observed effect in the red cells that lack the component, comparison of the protein sequence (predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the gene) to proteins of known function, and extrapolation of function of the component in other cells. The functions are varied and include membrane structure, transport, receptor, adhesion, enzyme activity, complement components, complement regulation and glycocalyx formation. Several components have more than one function. Read More

    Chronic childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):469-83
    Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, UK.
    Childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a largely trivial disorder from which over 95% of children sooner or later recover spontaneously, and for most of whom the risks of unnecessary or ineffective therapy are arguably greater than those of the untreated disease. There are, however, a few patients who continue to have very low platelet counts and remain symptomatic for many months or years. They are rare, and they present difficult management problems. Read More

    Inhibitors in young boys with haemophilia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):457-68
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit 48201, USA.
    The development of an inhibitor antibody to factor VIII (or factor IX) in a child with haemophilia presents a major challenge to the paediatric haematologist. This article provides an overview of the incidence of inhibitor development in early childhood (30-52% in boys with severe haemophilia A), genetic risk factors, detection, high titre, low titre and transient inhibitors, and management. Treatment of patients with inhibitors is time-consuming and expensive. Read More

    Management of infection in children with bone marrow failure.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):441-56
    Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital, London, UK.
    The development of new and often more successful regimens of treatment for childhood blood and malignant diseases has usually been associated with a parallel increase in infectious problems. This is because these successes have often, in the absence of new effective drugs, been achieved by increasing drug dose intensity to new limits. This chapter is not intended to deal with every possible infection, but rather to be a practical guide to the current management of infection. Read More

    The genetics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):427-39
    Department of Haematology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK.
    In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) a number of genetic changes have been identified which provide diagnostic and prognostic information with a direct impact on patient management. The most significant abnormalities include the translocation, t(12;21)(p13;q22), giving rise to the ETV6/AML1 gene fusion; BCR/ABL arising from t(9;22)(q34;q11); re-arrangements of the MLL gene; the E2A/PBX1 from the t(1;19)(q23;p13); re-arrangements of MYC with the immunoglobulin genes and re-arrangements of the T cell receptor genes. Chromosomal deletions, particularly those of the short arms of chromosomes 9 and 12 and the long arm of chromosome 6, have been postulated to be the sites of tumour suppressor genes (TSG). Read More

    The genetics of Fanconi's anaemia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):407-25
    Department of Haematology, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
    Fanconi's anaemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by considerable clinical and cellular heterogeneity. This has also been recently demonstrated at the genetic and molecular levels following cloning of four out of the seven FA genes. Although this now enables molecular diagnosis in the majority of patients, because of the considerable molecular heterogeneity, the diepoxybutane/mitomycin-C stress test based on the increased chromosomal instability seen in FA cells, compared to normal controls, remains the front-line diagnostic test. Read More

    Diamond-Blackfan anaemia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):391-406
    University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Canada.
    Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) has had an intellectual allure for decades for clinical and experimental haematologists. The syndrome has a haematological phenotype of early-onset red-cell aplasia but is coupled with a baffling array of pleiotropy. There is discordance with modes of inheritance, physical anomalies, erythropoietic response to corticosteroid therapy, spontaneous 'remissions', and evolution to malignant myeloid transformation and to cancer. Read More

    The management of alloimmune neonatal thrombocytopenia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):365-90
    University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, ON, Canada.
    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAITP), defined as thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/l) due to transplacentally acquired maternal platelet alloantibodies, occurs in approximately 1 per 1200 live births in a Caucasian population. In such a population, the majority (> 75 percent) of cases are due to fetomaternal incompatibility for the platelet specific alloantigen, HPA-1a (P1A1, Zwa). Incompatibility for the HPA-5b (Bra) alloantigen is the next most frequent cause of NAITP in Caucasians; much less common is NAITP due to incompatibility for HLA, blood group ABO or other platelet-specific antigens. Read More

    Stem cell transplantation for non-malignant disorders.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):343-63
    Bristol Royal Hospital for Sick Children, UK.
    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be used to cure or ameliorate a wide variety of non-malignant diseases. These range from inherent defects of haemopoietic cell production or function, through metabolic diseases (where blood cells are providing in vivo enzyme therapy to solid organs), to severe autoimmune diseases. However, although transplantation has revolutionized the treatment of many of the diseases discussed, severe toxicities remain. Read More

    The diagnosis and management of hereditary spherocytosis.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Sep;13(3):327-42
    Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is relatively common in Caucasian populations; most individuals have mild or only moderate disease. There is commonly a family history and a typical clinical and laboratory picture so that the diagnosis is usually easily made without additional laboratory tests. Atypical cases may require measurement of membrane proteins and molecular genetics to clarify the nature of the membrane disorder. Read More

    Peripheral Stem Cells in Bone Marrow Transplantation. Future prospects.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):307-18
    Hanson Center for Cancer Research, Institute of Medical & Veterinary Sciences, Adelaide SA, Australia.
    Mobilized peripheral blood cells are emerging to be the main haematopoietic progenitor cell sources in both autologous and allogeneic transplantation. The superior engraftment kinetics make high-dose therapy (HDT) safer and more cost-effective. Advances in mobilization protocols will enable an adequate, efficacious and predictable progenitor cell yield for most patients, and may even permit differential mobilization of normal and tumour cells. Read More

    Immunological recovery and tumour-specific immunotherapeutic approaches to post-autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):293-306
    University Hospital St Luc and Laboratory of Experimental Oncology and Haematology, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Haematological recovery following autologous peripheral blood stem cell treatment is very rapid. Immune recovery is a more prolonged process requiring a year or more for full reconstitution. Because high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell treatment results in (or is presumed to result in) minimal burden of residual malignant disease it provides a potentially ideal setting for immune-mediated anti-tumour therapy. Read More

    Peripheral stem cells in bone marrow transplantation. Cord blood stem cell transplantation.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):279-92
    Bone Marrow Transplant Department, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, France.
    Since it was shown that the number of haematopoietic stem cells contained in one sample of cord blood was sufficient for engrafting children and adults, cord blood banking has developed world wide. Cord blood banking has several advantages, including availability of this source of stem cells, low viral infection rate at birth, speed of the search and the possibility of collecting cord blood in ethnic groups under-represented in bone marrow donor registries. Other possible advantages which require further study, include a low risk of acute graft-versus-host disease, even with some degree of HLA mismatch. Read More

    Allogeneic transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):261-78
    Second Department of Medicine, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are increasingly being used instead of bone marrow for allogeneic transplantation. This chapter will briefly review important aspects of allogeneic PBSC transplantation including PBSC harvesting and donor safety, reconstitution of haematopoiesis and the immune system, graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukaemia effects and graft engineering. Read More

    Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for paediatric solid tumours.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):247-59
    Service de Pédiatrie, Institut Curie, Paris, France.
    High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous haematopoietic rescue is widely used in the treatment of patients with paediatric malignancies. It is now well established as a major component for the treatment of children with metastatic neuroblastoma over the age of one at diagnosis. Its place for other tumours, such as metastatic Ewing and rhabdomyosarcoma, needs to be better established. Read More

    Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for lung cancer.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):233-46
    University Hospital St Luc and Laboratory of Experimental Oncology and Hematology, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Lung carcinoma, the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in both men and women, remains a difficult therapeutic problem. Small-cell lung carcinoma, despite its high response rate to chemotherapy, is associated with a rapid recurrence and ultimately limited overall survival. In attempts to exploit tumour chemosensitivity, high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) combining several active drugs has been studied to improve outcome. Read More

    Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in breast cancer.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):219-32
    University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Denver 80262, USA.
    Over the past decade, peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) have replaced bone marrow as the major source of haematopoietic support. This transition from marrow to PBPCs is due to the fact that, for many clinical studies, a significantly faster rate of engraftment, particularly for platelets, has been demonstrated for patients who receive PBPC support when compared to similarly treated patients who are transplanted with bone marrow. The leukapheresis procedure itself, quality of PBPC graft, methods of PBPC mobilization, purging, and ex vivo expansion will be discussed in detail. Read More

    Autologous peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukaemia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):209-17
    Haematology and ABMT Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera e Cliniche, Universitarie Convenzionate, Ospedale San Martino, Genoa, Italy.
    In these last four decades there has been extraordinary progress in our understanding of the biology of, and therapeutic approach to, chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). During these decades new observations arising from studies of the biological behaviour of diploid and leukaemic stem cells and, recently, from clinical investigations have received the most attention. From a clinical point of view, allografting is still the only procedure which is able to cure CML. Read More

    Normal and leukaemic haematopoiesis in bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):199-208
    Dipartimento di Ematologia, Divisione Ematologia II, Ospedale San Martino, Genoa, Italy.
    In the majority of newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), the bone marrow contains consistent numbers of normal Ph-negative surrogate stem cells (LTC-IC) which seem to decline rapidly with time. This is confirmed by mobilization studies showing that early after diagnosis is the optimal time to collect Ph-negative progenitor to be utilized for restoring Ph-negative haematopoiesis. In the marrow of the majority of CML patients at diagnosis Ph-positive LTC-IC are found at a lower frequency than Ph-negative LTC-IC and, unexpectedly, they do not show a tendency to increase with time as long as patients remain in chronic phase. Read More

    Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for chronic myelocytic leukaemia, using unmanipulated grafts.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):193-8
    Service d'Hématologie, Hôpital du Haut Lévêque, Bordeaux, France.
    In chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be proposed to a minority of patients who are both less than 50 years of age and have an HLA-identical donor. Recombinant alpha-interferon induces cytogenetic responses (and prolongation of survival) in only 25-40% of patients. Thus, alternative treatments need to be proposed. Read More

    Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):171-91
    Service d'Hématologie, CHU Purpan, Place du Docteur Baylac, Toulouse, France.
    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is increasingly used in the treatment of cases of multiple myeloma (MM) where there has been no significant improvement in the patient's condition following conventional chemotherapy. Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) have replaced bone marrow as a source of stem cells and offer easier accessibility and availability, faster haematopoietic recovery and possibly lower tumour contamination. The IFM 90 randomized trial has shown that autologous bone marrow transplantation significantly improves response rate, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in younger patients with MM. Read More

    Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):151-69
    Service d'Hématologie--Université Lyon I, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Bénite, France.
    High-dose chemotherapy supported with autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation is now widely used in the treatment of lymphoma patients. The benefit of high-dose therapy has been clearly established after relapse in patients with an aggressive histological subtype who respond to salvage therapy. However, the use of such treatment also deserves further evaluation in the first line of therapy in patients with adverse prognostic factors. Read More

    Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acute leukaemias.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):139-50
    Haematology Service, University Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain.
    Initial interest in autologous blood stem cell transplants (ABSCT) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was based on the postulate that there might be less malignant contamination than with bone marrow transplants. Although this remains presently uncertain, other advantages of ABSCT, such as a rapid haematopoietic recovery, were immediately recognized. In pilot studies, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected after standard induction and consolidation courses of chemotherapy. Read More

    Peripheral stem cells in bone marrow transplantation. Peripheral blood stem cell and gene therapy.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):129-38
    ETS, INSERM U429 Hôpital Necker, Paris, France.
    Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells characterized by sustained re-populating ability could be optimal target cells for ex-vivo gene transfer. In spite of very attractive preliminary results obtained in the murine studies, therapeutically efficient gene transfer and expression in human targeted cells must be proven. In recent years, effort has been spent on the identification of factors limiting gene transfer efficiency of haematopoietic stem cells. Read More

    Clinical use for expanded peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):117-28
    Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology, University of Tübingen, Germany.
    The increasing use of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from the peripheral blood (PBPC) to restore haematopoiesis following high-dose chemotherapy has widely propagated the development of techniques for the ex vivo manipulation of haematopoietic cells. In particular, protocols for the ex vivo expansion of PBPC have been developed for different clinical purposes. Quantitative expansion of PBPC may provide a successful strategy for tumour cell purging of autologous grafts, or may generate sufficient cell numbers for sequential transplantation protocols. Read More

    Ex vivo expansion of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):99-115
    Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France.
    The scarcity of donors for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, the limited number of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)/progenitors in cord blood samples and the sometimes insufficient number of mobilized peripheral blood cells collected from heavily treated cancer patients may benefit from ex vivo expansion of these cells for clinical transplantation. Depending on the clinical application, expansion of different haematopoietic cell subsets is required. HSC transplantation requires expansion of all cellular subsets including precursors, progenitors and HSCs for the short and long-term engraftment of patients. Read More

    T-cell depletion of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):87-98
    Department of Internal Medicine I, Westpfalz Medical Centre, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    The high content of immunocompetent T-cells in apheresis products may expose recipients of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) to an elevated risk of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Thus, the use of an appropriate T-cell reduction or depletion technique might reduce this risk. The hazards of rejection and of a higher relapse rate should be avoided by maintaining a portion of the T-cells in the graft or by increasing the number of transplanted stem cells. Read More

    Positive selection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):71-86
    Inserm U76, Faculté de Médecine Saint Antoine, Paris, France.
    The development of monoclonal antibodies against differentiation antigens on human haematopoietic cells has led to a new concept in stem cell purification: the positive selection. In terms of autologous PBSC transplantation, the immature stem cells are identified by their expression of a specific antigen, the CD34. The CD34 antigen is expressed on early lymphohaematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, but not on mature blood cells or on tumour cells of several diseases. Read More

    Negative selection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):57-69
    Institute of Haematology and Medical Oncology, L & A Seràgnoli, University of Bologna, Italy.
    The use of chemotherapy and/or haematopoietic growth factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) has been shown to induce a more rapid haematopoietic recovery than the reinfusion of bone marrow (BM)-derived haematopoietic cells, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). PBSC collections were initially believed to have a lower incidence of tumour cells involvement than BM harvests. However, recent studies have shown that mobilized blood cell products of cancer patients eligible for autografting are frequently contaminated with tumour cells. Read More

    Collection of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):41-55
    Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston 77030, USA.
    Circulating stem cells from healthy donors are increasingly used for allogeneic transplantation in patients with malignant lymphohaematopoietic disorders and solid tumours. Stem cells are collected by single or multiple aphereses following cytokine treatment. In the following, the effects of rhG-CSF on peripheral blood CD34+ cell and subset concentrations are described, as well as rhG-CSF related side-effects observed in normal donors. Read More

    Mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells for autografting: chemotherapy and G-CSF or GM-CSF.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):27-39
    The Falck Division of Medical Oncology, Ospedale Niguarda, Cai Granda, Milan, Italy.
    The mobilization of haematopoietic progenitor cells is a multifactorial process, still poorly understood at the molecular level. Mobilized haematopoietic progenitors, as defined by the expression of CD34 cell surface molecule, comprise heterogeneous subpopulations of cells committed to different haematopoietic lineages. Haematopoietic progenitors may be mobilized by chemotherapy alone, haematopoietic growth factors alone, or by chemotherapy plus haematopoietic growth factors. Read More

    Collection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells in steady state.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):19-26
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha 68198-3330, USA.
    Cells normally present in the circulation are capable of providing sustained haematopoietic function in a manner similar to cells normally present in the bone marrow, when transplanted to an autologous or allogeneic recipient. The function of these circulating cells is not known, but they may serve as a reservoir of haematopoietic stem cells which can migrate via the blood stream to sites of need when called upon, thereby providing a protective role. In the past, these cells were collected from the blood during steady-state marrow function to serve as both autologous and allogeneic graft products for transplantation. Read More

    Properties of peripheral blood and cord blood stem cells.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999 Mar-Jun;12(1-2):1-17
    CRC Haemopoietic Cell and Gene Therapeutics, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Withington, Manchester, UK.
    Mobilized peripheral blood and cord blood are used for transplantation in adults and children. Currently methods which assess the engraftment potential of these cells rely on nucleated cell count, clonogenic colony assays (GM-CFC) and CD34+ cell enumeration. However, data have accumulated which indicate that the cells responsible for short-term and long-term engraftment are different and may be identified by a variety of techniques, including immunophenotyping, in vitro and in vivo assays. Read More

    Eosinophilia and helminthic infections.
    Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000 Jun;13(2):301-17
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Dana Building, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
    Among microbial agents, helminths are the most common cause of eosinophilia. An approach to the evaluation of a patient with eosinophilia is outlined, with particular emphasis on clues in the history, examination and routine laboratory data that can help with the diagnosis. Multiple helminthic infections have been associated with eosinophilia, and the characteristic modes of spread, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests and therapeutic considerations of these infections are discussed. Read More

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