363 results match your criteria Bag-Valve-Mask Ventilation


Tidal volume according to the 4-point sealing forces of a bag-valve-mask: an adult respiratory arrest simulator-based prospective, descriptive study.

BMC Emerg Med 2021 May 1;21(1):57. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Emergency Medical Technology, Kyungil University, 50, Gamasil-gil, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk, 38428, Republic of Korea.

Background: For adequate ventilation during bag-valve-mask ventilation, rescuers should ensure a proper mask seal using the one-handed or two-handed technique. Little is known about the magnitude of sealing forces of a bag-valve-mask needed for adequate ventilation. This study aimed to explore the effect of the 4-point sealing forces of a bag-valve-mask on tidal volume while using the one-handed technique, focusing on the moderating effect of C length (the distance from the thumb to the index finger in the C shape of the one-hand EC grip). Read More

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Oxygen delivery failure due to improper installation of carbon dioxide absorbent canister: a case report.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Jacksonville, United States.

The CLIC system in the Dräger Apollo anesthesia workstation allows a successful pre-use machine checkout without the presence of a carbon dioxide absorbent canister. It also allows the canister to be changed without interrupting controlled ventilation. However, this canister can be easily installed improperly with the CLIC adapter. Read More

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Development and Evaluation of an Automated Manual Resuscitator-Based Emergency Ventilator-Alternative.

Cureus 2021 Mar 1;13(3):e13642. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Emergency Medicine; Training and Educational Center for Healthcare Simulation (TECHS), Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, USA.

Mass casualty incidents such as those that are being experienced during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic can overwhelm local healthcare systems, where the number of casualties exceeds local resources and capabilities in a short period of time. The influx of patients with lung function deterioration as a result of COVID-19 has strained traditional ventilator supplies. To bridge the gap during ventilator shortages and to help clinicians triage patients, manual resuscitator devices can be used to deliver respirations to a patient requiring breathing support. Read More

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Neonatal Respiratory Distress and Airway Emergency: Report of Two Cases.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;8(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Pediatric Otolaryngology Head Neck Surgery, Children Hospital "ASST Spedali Civili", 25123 Brescia, Italy.

We discuss two cases of congenital airway malformations seen in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim is to report extremely rare events characterized by immediate respiratory distress after delivery and the impossibility to ventilate and intubate the airway. The first case is a male twin born at 34 weeks by emergency caesarean section. Read More

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Apnea with ketamine sedation in a patient with severe anorexia nervosa: A case report.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Pediatric Critical Care, Medical University of South Carolina, 125 Doughty Street MSC 917, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of literature around sedation and anesthesia in patients with severe anorexia nervosa. Chronically malnourished patients are known to have myopathy, neuropathy, and altered neurotransmitter signaling. Ketamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is an established general anesthetic and short-acting dissociative analgesic agent. Read More

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Newborn resuscitation devices: The known unknowns and the unknown unknowns.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 19;26(2):101233. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

The Westmead Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Australia; The University of Sydney, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Australia. Electronic address:

Infant resuscitation devices used at birth must be capable of delivering adequate and consistent ventilation in a controlled and predictable manner to a wide patient weight range, and combinations of transitional lung states. Manual inflation resuscitation devices delivering positive pressure lung inflation at birth can be classified broadly into two types: 1) flow generating, ie silicone self-inflating bags (SIB) also known as bag valve mask (BVM) and 2) flow dependent, ie anaesthetic flow inflating bag (FIB) and t-piece resuscitator (TPR) systems (eg: Neopuff, GE Panda and Draeger Resuscitaires). Globalization, lower production costs, and an expanding market need for devices, has led to a proliferation of brands (both reusable and single use) within a class type. Read More

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The rapid development of AmboVent: a simple yet sustainable ventilation solution for use in a pandemic.

Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 2021 Feb 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Magen David Adom, Tel Aviv-Jaffo, Israel.

Introduction: COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged at the end of 2019, generating a rapidly evolving pandemic, raising serious global health implications. Among them was the fear of a mechanical ventilator shortage due to COVID-19's high contagion rate and pathophysiology. Fears of a ventilator shortage unleashed a wave of innovations. Read More

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February 2021

Bag-Valve-Mask versus Laryngeal Mask Airway Ventilation in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with Continuous Compressions: A Simulation Study.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Apr 1;36(2):189-194. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Emergency Medicine Department, Necmettin Erbakan University Meram Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey.

Introduction: The 2017 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guideline recommends that Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers can perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with synchronous or asynchronous ventilation until an advanced airway has been placed. In the current literature, limited data on CPR performed with continuous compressions and asynchronous ventilation with bag-valve-mask (BVM) are available.

Study Objective: In this study, researchers aimed to compare the effectiveness of asynchronous BVM and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) ventilation during CPR with continuous chest compressions. Read More

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Simulation-Based Rapid Development and Implementation of a Novel Barrier Enclosure for Use in COVID-19 Patients: The SplashGuard CG.

Crit Care Res Pract 2020 17;2020:3842506. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 54,800,000 SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide with a mortality rate of around 2.5%. As observed in other airborne viral infections such as influenza and SARS-CoV-1, healthcare workers are at high risk for infection when performing aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP). Read More

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December 2020

The inefficiency of ventilation in basic resuscitation. Should we improve mouth-to-mouth ventilation training of nursing students?

Int Emerg Nurs 2021 Jan 9;54:100951. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Faculty of Nursing, Official Masters in Emergency and Special Care Nursing, Catholic University of Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyse the differences in the quality of the basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) between the algorithms of compressions with rescue ventilation (CPR [30:2]) and chest compressions only (CPR [C/O]). In addition, the specific objective was to study the effectiveness of the physical manoeuvre of mouth-to-mouth ventilations performed by nursing students after the completion of a simulation training program in Basic Life Support (BLS) standardized in the study plan approved for the Nursing Degree at a Spanish university.

Research Methodology: analytical, quasi-experimental, cross-sectional study with clinical simulation of 114 students enrolled in the third year of the Nursing Degree. Read More

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January 2021

Airway insertion first pass success and patient outcomes in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: The Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial.

Resuscitation 2021 01 2;158:151-156. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: While emphasized in clinical practice, the association between advanced airway insertion first-pass success (FPS) and patient outcomes is incompletely understood. We sought to determine the association of airway insertion FPS with adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes in the Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial (PART).

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of PART, a multicenter clinical trial comparing LT and ETI upon adult OHCA outcomes. Read More

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January 2021

Airway management protocol for conjoined twins delivery.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jan 4;140:110477. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

University of Florida Department of Otolaryngology, 1345 Center Dr, Box #100264, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Objective: Conjoined twin deliveries require collaborative preparation by multiple specialties for successful airway management. Literature regarding neonatal airway management after conjoined twin delivery is limited to case reports. We present a case series of conjoined twins and introduce an airway management protocol for conjoined twin delivery. Read More

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January 2021

A randomised trial of the effectiveness of instructor versus automated manikin feedback for training junior doctors in life support skills.

Perspect Med Educ 2021 Mar 26;10(2):95-100. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, WA, Australia.

Introduction: Australian Standards require that clinicians undergo regular training in skills required to respond to the acute deterioration of a patient. Training focuses on the ability to appropriately respond to cardiac arrest, including delivering cardiac compressions, ventilation and appropriate defibrillation. Providing such training comes at a significant cost to the organisation and impacts on clinician time in direct patient care. Read More

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Using gel for difficult mask ventilation on the bearded patients: a simulation-based study.

Intern Emerg Med 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Emergency Medical Services, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The beard is a well-known cause of difficult mask ventilation due to excessive air leaks. Various techniques have been proposed to overcome this difficulty, such as applying a gel on the mask edge. Our objective was to determine whether the gel technique will improve ventilation and to assess the comfort of the provider. Read More

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November 2020

A novel inline PEEP valve design for differential multi-ventilation.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 10 10;38(10):2045-2048. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States of America.

Background: Ventilator sharing is one option to emergently increase ventilator capacity during a crisis but has been criticized for its inability to adjust for individual patient needs. Newer ventilator sharing designs use valves and restrictors to control pressures for each patient. A key component of these designs is an inline Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) Valve but these are not readily available. Read More

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October 2020

Manual bag valve mask ventilation performance among respiratory therapists.

Heart Lung 2021 May-Jun;50(3):471-475. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Respiratory Therapy, Byrdine F. Lewis College of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: High peak pressures delivered via bag valve mask (BVM) can be dangerous for patients.

Objective: To examine manual ventilation performance among respiratory therapists (RTs) in a simulation model.

Methods: Respiratory therapists (n=98) were instructed to ventilate a manikin for 18 breaths. Read More

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Pediatric Airway Assessment Tool (PAAT): A Rating Tool to Assess Resident Proficiency in Simulated Pediatric Airway Skills Performance.

MedEdPORTAL 2020 10 19;16:10997. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Associate Professor, Departments of Emergency Medicine & Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital/Hasbro Children's Hospital; Director, Brown Emergency Medicine Medical Education Research Fellowship.

Introduction: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has identified the need for assessment of core skills for pediatric and emergency medicine residents, which includes pediatric airway management. Although there are standard courses for pediatric airway management, there is no validated tool to assess basic and advanced pediatric airway skills performance. Our objective was to develop a simulation-based tool for the formative assessment of resident pediatric airway skills performance that was concise, yet comprehensive, and to evaluate the evidence supporting the argument for the tool's validity. Read More

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October 2020

Use of supraglottic airway devices under capnography monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A systematic review.

Aust Crit Care 2021 May 15;34(3):287-295. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

University of Balearic Islands, Ctra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma (Islas Baleares), Spain.

Background: Bag-valve-mask ventilation is the most commonly applied method during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Globally, advanced airway management with blind insertion devices such as supraglottic airway devices has been implemented for years by different emergency services. The efficiency of ventilation via such devices could be measured by capnography. Read More

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Characteristics of adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the National Emergency Medical Services Information System.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2020 Aug 4;1(4):445-452. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Houston Texas USA.

Background: The national incidence and characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States is unclear. We sought to describe the national characteristics of adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest reported in the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS).

Methods: We used 2016 NEMSIS data, consisting of most emergency medical services (EMS) responses from 46 states and territories. Read More

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Optimal Airway Management in Cardiac Arrest.

Crit Care Clin 2020 Oct 12;36(4):705-714. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 64312 Fannin Street, JJL 434, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Airway management during cardiac arrest has undergone several advancements. Endotracheal intubation (ETI) often is considered the gold standard for airway management in cardiac arrest; however, other options exist. Recent prospective randomized trials have compared outcomes in bag-valve mask ventilation and supraglottic airways to ETI in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Read More

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October 2020

Gastric Perforation Secondary to Bag-Valve Mask Ventilation Following Opioid Overdose.

Am Surg 2020 Aug 31:3134820945197. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

12226 Department of Surgery, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO, USA.

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Partially RepRapable automated open source bag valve mask-based ventilator.

HardwareX 2020 Oct 11;8:e00131. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, USA.

This study describes the development of a simple and easy-to-build portable automated bag valve mask (BVM) compression system, which, during acute shortages and supply chain disruptions can serve as a temporary emergency ventilator. The resuscitation system is based on the Arduino controller with a real-time operating system installed on a largely RepRap 3-D printable parametric component-based structure. The cost of the materials for the system is under $170, which makes it affordable for replication by makers around the world. Read More

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October 2020

Automated Inflating Resuscitator (AIR): Design and Development of a 3D-Printed Ventilator Prototype and Corresponding Simulation Scenario Based on the Management of a Critical COVID-19 Patient.

Cureus 2020 Jul 11;12(7):e9134. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Health Sciences, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, CAN.

Recent surges in COVID-19 cases have generated an urgent global demand for ventilators. This demand has led to the development of numerous low-cost ventilation devices, but there has been less emphasis on training health professionals to use these new devices safely. The aim of this technical report is twofold: first, to describe the design and manufacturing process of the automated inflating resuscitator (AIR), a 3D-printed ventilator training device which operates on the principle of pushing a bag valve mask; second, to present a simulation scenario that can be used for training health professionals how to use this and similar, low-cost, 3D-printed ventilators in the context of ventilator shortages caused by COVID-19. Read More

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Comparison of the Effectiveness and Comfort Level of Two Commonly Used Mask Ventilation Techniques in a Model.

Respir Care 2021 Mar 11;66(3):460-465. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Emergency Medical Services, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Mask ventilation is an important rescue airway skill for providing oxygenation and ventilation. Maintaining a good face mask seal is a fundamental factor for successful ventilation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and comfortability of 2 commonly used mask ventilation techniques. Read More

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Oxygen Therapy and Risk of Infection for Health Care Workers Caring for Patients With Viral Severe Acute Respiratory Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ann Emerg Med 2021 01 10;77(1):19-31. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Emergency Medicine, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Nord-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Study Objective: To synthesize the evidence regarding the infection risk associated with different modalities of oxygen therapy used in treating patients with severe acute respiratory infection. Health care workers face significant risk of infection when treating patients with a viral severe acute respiratory infection. To ensure health care worker safety and limit nosocomial transmission of such infection, it is crucial to synthesize the evidence regarding the infection risk associated with different modalities of oxygen therapy used in treating patients with severe acute respiratory infection. Read More

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January 2021

Incidence and predictors of respiratory adverse events in children undergoing procedural sedation with intramuscular ketamine in a paediatric emergency department.

Singapore Med J 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.

Introduction: Although ketamine is one of the commonest medications used in procedural sedation of children, to our knowledge, there is currently no published report on predictors of respiratory adverse events during ketamine sedation in Asian children. We aimed to determine the incidence of and factors associated with respiratory adverse events in children undergoing procedural sedation with intramuscular (IM) ketamine in a paediatric emergency department (ED) in Singapore.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was done of all children who underwent procedural sedation with IM ketamine in the paediatric ED between 1 April 2013 and 31 October 2017. Read More

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The Effect of Numbered Jerseys on Directed Commands, Teamwork, and Clinical Performance During Simulated Emergencies.

J Healthc Qual 2021 Jan-Feb 01;43(1):24-31

Abstract: Communication and teamwork are essential during inpatient emergencies such as cardiac arrest and rapid response (RR) codes. We investigated whether wearing numbered jerseys affect directed commands, teamwork, and performance during simulated codes. Eight teams of 6 residents participated in 64 simulations. Read More

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It's In The Bag: Tidal Volumes in Adult and Pediatric Bag Valve Masks.

West J Emerg Med 2020 Apr 27;21(3):722-726. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Capital Health Hospital System, Department of Emergency Medical Services, Trenton, New Jersey.

Introduction: A bag valve mask (BVM) is a life saving device used by all levels of health care professionals during resuscitative care. We focus most of our time optimizing the patient's position, firmly securing the mask, and frequency of ventilations. However, despite our best efforts to control these factors, we may still be precipitating harm to the patient. Read More

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Relationship Between Self-efficacy and Performance of Simulated Neonatal Chest Compressions and Ventilation.

Simul Healthc 2020 Dec;15(6):377-381

From the Department of Pediatrics (L.T.D., M.A.U., K.R.H.), University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA.

Introduction: Because improved competence in caring for patients is difficult to measure, self-efficacy (the strength of one's belief in one's ability to complete a task) is often used as a surrogate measurement of clinical ability. However, studies in adults and children have shown at best only weak correlations between self-efficacy and performance. This correlation has not been well studied in neonatal resuscitation limiting the utility of self-efficacy as a measurement of the effectiveness of interventions in this population. Read More

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December 2020

Comparing the neurologic outcomes of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest according to prehospital advanced airway management method and transport time interval.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2020 Mar 31;7(1):21-29. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Objective: The incidences of prehospital advanced airway management by emergency medical technicians in South Korea are increasing; however, whether this procedure improves the survival outcomes of patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the association between prehospital advanced airway management and neurologic outcomes according to a transport time interval (TTI) using the Korean Cardiac Arrest Research Consortium database.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the favorable database entries that were prospectively collected between October 2015 and December 2016. Read More

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